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How the US Federal Government is Using XML


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How the US Federal Government is Using XML

  1. 1. How the US Federal Government is Using XML: An Overview of Selected US Federal Agency Efforts XML 2003 , Philadelphia, PA December 11, 2003 Ken Sall , KSall@
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Motivators for XML </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Enterprise Architecture and OMB 300 </li></ul><ul><li>Working Groups and Federal XML Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>E-Government Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Registry, Repositories and Web Services </li></ul><ul><li>Selected Specialized Applications </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction.1 <ul><li>SGML efforts circa 1988-89 (DoD, IRS, US Patent and Trade Office) </li></ul><ul><li>General Accounting Office (GAO) reports, April and August, 2002: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify, integrate, and process information that is widely dispersed among systems and agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct transactions based on exchanging and processing such information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage agencies to indicate how XML will become part of their enterprise architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build registries and repositories to promote interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FEA, OMB, legislative motivators </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction.2 – Sample Agencies <ul><li>DOC (Department of Commerce) </li></ul><ul><li>DoD (Department of Defense) </li></ul><ul><li>DOI (Department of the Interior) </li></ul><ul><li>DOJ (Department of Justice) </li></ul><ul><li>DON (Department of Navy) </li></ul><ul><li>EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) </li></ul><ul><li>GSA (General Services Administration) </li></ul><ul><li>IRS (Internal Revenue Service) </li></ul><ul><li>NARA (National Archives and Records Administration) </li></ul><ul><li>NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) </li></ul><ul><li>SBA (Small Business Administration) </li></ul>NOTE: This list is not meant to include all US agencies with mature XML efforts. It is merely a representative subset of the author's selection.
  5. 5. Legislative Motivators <ul><li>Clinger-Cohen Act </li></ul><ul><li>Government Paperwork Elimination Act </li></ul><ul><li>Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act </li></ul><ul><li>H.R. 2458, The E-Government Act of 2002 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Legislative Motivators.1 <ul><li>Clinger-Cohen Act (1996) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Streamline IT acquisitions and emphasize life cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages business process reengineering and COTS </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Legislative Motivators.2 <ul><li>Government Paperwork Elimination Act (GPEA, 10/1998  10/2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants full validity to electronic forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages electronic signature alternatives, including digital signatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed transmission of data and reduce transaction costs </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Legislative Motivators.3 <ul><li>Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility; requires agencies to make IT accessible to people with disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XForms, SVG, XHTML, Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Legislative Motivators.4 <ul><li>H.R. 2458, The E-Government Act of 2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established Office of Electronic Government to direct E-Gov Initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes innovative uses of IT, particularly initiatives involving multi-agency collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established Chief Information Officers Council (CIOC) to develop recommendations and best practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicitly mentions “Extensible Markup Language” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Federal Enterprise Architecture and the OMB 300 <ul><li>FEA Reference Models </li></ul><ul><li>OMB 300 as XML Schema </li></ul><ul><li>InfoPath Implementation of an OMB 300 E-Form </li></ul>
  11. 11. Where’s the XML?.1 <ul><li>June 2000: Mark Forman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became first head of federal IT, essentially the CIO for entire US Federal Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led effort to define and implement the Presidential E-Government Initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2002: XML enables us to collect data once and use it many times; allows us to do electronic transactions as opposed to filling out paper forms </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Where’s the XML?.2 <ul><li>October 2003: Dept. of Energy CIO Karen Evans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced Forman as OMB's Associate Director for IT and E-Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxonomy for government; same language to describe the same concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop standards for XML data definitions so information can be shared and accessed easily regardless of its origins </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Federal Enterprise Architecture Reference Models.1 <ul><li>FEA is Business-Driven </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages collaboration and resource sharing across agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify opportunities to leverage technology and alleviate redundancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT investments must be aligned against each Reference Model </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Federal Enterprise Architecture Reference Models.2 <ul><li>FEA Reference Models ( ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PRM: Performance Reference Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BRM: Business Reference Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRM: Service Component Reference Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRM: Data and Information Reference Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRM: Technical Reference Model </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. InfoPath Implementation of OMB 300 E-Form.1 <ul><li>Office of Mgmnt and Budget Exhibit 300 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes policy for planning, budgeting, acquisition and management of Federal capital assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed instructions on budget justification and reporting requirements for major IT investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft and other companies have been working with OMB to develop an XML Schema to be used in fiscal year 2005 budget submissions </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. InfoPath Implementation of OMB 300 E-Form.2 <ul><li>InfoPath 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid tool that combines word processor editing with data-capture capabilities of forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a custom-defined XML Schema (OMB300v2.92.xsd, in this case) to constrain and guide editing the form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumes and produces XML Schemas and XSLT stylesheets, and is integrated with XML Web services standards such as SOAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data can be submitted in XML format via SOAP or by means of the more conventional HTTP POST method </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. InfoPath: OMB 300 E-Form.3 Copyright © 2003 Microsoft Corporation
  18. 18. Working Groups and Federal XML Guidance <ul><li>XML Working Group </li></ul><ul><li>Web Services Working Group </li></ul><ul><li>E-Forms for E-Gov Pilot </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Navy XML Work Group </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Protection Agency XML Design Rules </li></ul>
  19. 19. Working Groups.1 <ul><li>XML Working Group (Sept. 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML Developer's Guide (April 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended XML Namespace for Government Organizations (Mar/Aug 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous technical presentations from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software vendors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware vendors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standards groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listserv </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly meetings in Washington, DC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community of Practice </li></ul></ul>Owen Ambur and Lee Ellis, co-chairs (formerly Marion Royal)
  20. 20. Working Groups.2 <ul><li>Web Services Working Group (Dec. 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the Emerging Technology Subcommittee of the CIO Council's Architecture and Infrastructure Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce incubator pilot projects in support of E-Gov Initiatives that use XML Web Services to demonstrate increased accessibility and interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listserv and monthly meetings in DC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Government Semantic XML Web Services Community of Practice” (Oct. 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also </li></ul></ul>Brand Niemann, Chair
  21. 21. E-Forms for E-Gov Pilot.1 <ul><li>OMB Requested Cross-Agency E-Forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 120 business cases for FY2003 called for E-Forms; 170 for FY2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SBA report: 10% decrease would yield $32 billion in savings (citizens and businesses) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. E-Forms for E-Gov Pilot.2 <ul><li>E-Forms Pilot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand Neimann selected Rick Rogers, CEO of Fenestra (March to July 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 subteams to explore various facets of E-Forms: Accessibility, Business Case, Client Specifications, Fixed Content and Behavior, Form Selection, Presentation, Records-Keeping, Schema, Security, and Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected 5 prominent forms for XSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drafted security guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report on </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Federal XML Guidance.1 <ul><li>Topics usually covered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting XML Standards for Project Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of International Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating ISO 11179 Names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating XML Element Names from Business Terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Conventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage of Acronyms and Abbreviations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding Comments and Metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When to Use XML Schema vs. DTDs [cont…] </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Federal XML Guidance.2 <ul><li>Topics usually covered [continued] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schema Development Methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When to Use Attributes vs. Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global vs. Local Elements and Attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enumeration of Data Values (Code Lists) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constraining Data Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML Namespaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Services Best Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XSLT Best Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unresolved Issues </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Federal XML Guidance.3 <ul><li>Department of Navy XML Work Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Exploit XML as an enabling technology to achieve interoperability in support of maritime information superiority” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DON encourages adherence to international standards such as ISO 11179, UBL, and ebXML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DON XML Developer's Guide has very detailed DTD and XML Schema guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schema Development Checklist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V1.1: May 2002 and V2.0: Dec. 2003?? [TBD] </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Federal XML Guidance.4 <ul><li>EPA XML Design Rules (Oct. 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML Design Rules and Conventions for the Environmental Exchange Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially like a tutorial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed Pros and Cons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules and Guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justifications </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. E-Government Initiatives <ul><li>Integrated Acquisition Environment: GSA </li></ul><ul><li>E-Travel: GSA </li></ul><ul><li>Business Gateway: SBA </li></ul><ul><li>E-Records Management: NARA </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation One-Stop: DOI </li></ul>
  28. 28. E-Government Initiatives.1 <ul><li>Presidential Management Agenda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October 2001: President's Management Council approves 24 Presidential Priority E-Government initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>February 2002: President Bush outlined an E-Government strategy to make it easier for citizens and businesses to interact with the government, eliminate redundant systems, save taxpayer dollars, and streamline citizen-to-government communications </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. E-Government Initiatives.2 <ul><li>Four Portfolios + One Cross-cutting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government to Citizen (G2C) - on-line access to information and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government to Business (G2B) - access to information and enable digital communication using the language of e-business (XML). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government to Government (G2G) - enable federal, state and local governments to more easily work together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Efficiency and Effectiveness (IEE) - modernize internal processes to reduce costs for federal government agency administration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Authentication - reduce number of credentials </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. E-Government Initiatives.3 <ul><li>Integrated Acquisition Environment (IAE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$250B on acquisition of goods and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common acquisition functions, such as maintenance of information about suppliers (e.g., capabilities, past performance histories) will be managed as a shared service </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. E-Government Initiatives.4 <ul><li>Integrated Acquisition Environment (IAE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard eTransactions vocabulary to facilitate exchange of data between and within agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 254,000 registered suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20+ Shared Systems, different Data Dictionaries, different agencies. Example systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Business Opportunities (FedBizOpps) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Past Performance Information Retrieval System </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Procurement Data System - NG </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central Contractor Registration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business Partners Network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. E-Government Initiatives.5 <ul><li>IAE Standard eTransactions Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FEA DRM: data modeling using UML, ISO/IEC 11179 data element naming, UBL, and UN/CEFACT Core Component principals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML Schema development to define the precise structure of Information Exchange payloads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data normalization results in Business Information Entities (BIEs), data elements with a business context </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. E-Government Initiatives.6 <ul><li>IAE Standard eTransactions Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of related pieces of business information are Aggregate Business Information Entity (ABIE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ABIE becomes a complex type (e.g., ContactInformationDetails ) in XSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modular transactional and validation XML Schema will result from combining the ABIEs into Information Exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back office systems can map using XSLT stylesheets </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Registry, Repositories and Web Services <ul><li>GSA-NIST Proof-of-Concept XML Registry/Repository </li></ul><ul><li>GSA Consolidated Component Repository </li></ul><ul><li>EPA's Environmental Data Registry </li></ul><ul><li>DoD XML Registry </li></ul><ul><li>DISA Registry Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Web Services and Registries Pilot </li></ul>
  35. 35. Registry, Repositories.1 <ul><li>GSA Consolidated Component Repository </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government-wide Registry and Repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will evolve into collaborative environment for creation and sharing of reusable FEA components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Government Initiatives, data models, XML artifacts (e.g., XML Schema and XSLT stylesheets), COTS configuration files, executables, source code, scripts, and supporting documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awarded Oct. 2003 to SAIC, CollabNet and Sun </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Registry, Repositories.2 <ul><li>DoD XML and Metadata Registries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of Common Operating Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run by DISA (Defense Information Systems Agency) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidance in generation and use of XML among DoD Community of Interest (COI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritative source for registered XML data and metadata components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Resource: XML element, attribute, simple type, complex type, DTD, XSD, XSLT stylesheet, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Registry, Repositories.3
  38. 38. Registry, Repositories.4 <ul><li>DoD XML and Metadata Registries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Register for automatic email notification when resource is updated or removed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Namespace represents a collection of data constructs that share a common context within a Community of Interest (COI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registering Information Resources requires a submission package (ZIP file) containing documents, elements, schema, etc. to be registered </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Selected Specialized Applications <ul><li>IRS Publications, Instructions, and Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>House of Representatives XML and Legislative Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Justice XML Data Dictionary and Registry </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized Instrument Design System (GIDS): Census Bureau </li></ul><ul><li>EPA Emergency Response VoiceXML Application for DHS </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web </li></ul>
  40. 40. Specialized Applications.1 <ul><li>Justice XML Data Dictionary (JXDD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office of Justice Programs (OJP) and Global Justice Information Network Advisory Committee (Global) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards based (XSD, RDF, ISO 11179, UN / CEFACT ebXML Core Components Technical Spec, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16,000 data elements from 35 different Justice and Public Safety sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By removing redundancies, the set was reduced to 2,000 unique data elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>300 core data object types (reusable components) defined </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Specialized Applications.2 <ul><ul><li>Person can be described in terms of physical characteristics, biometric data, or sociocultural descriptors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a person is considered in the context of another object, such as a vehicle, a variety of relationships can be expressed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Justice XML Registry/Repository (JXRR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Dictionary, various XML artifacts (e.g., XML Schemas, DTDs, XML Instance Documents, stylesheets), metadata, related business processes, and other supporting components. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Ken Sall Consulting 301-725-2859 eee One World… One Web… Many Solutions.