Hendryx Hendryx


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Hendryx Hendryx

  1. 1. Progress report of the Business Rules Working Group Stan Hendryx Arlington, Virginia November 19, 2002                                                               
  2. 2. Since meeting in Orlando June 24, 2002 the BRWG have … <ul><li>Issued a RFI for Business Rules in Models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ad/2002-09-13 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Met as a group at the Business Rules Forum in New Orleans, November 7- 8, 2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentations of three Early Responses to the RFI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hendryx & Associates, North Face Learning, and ILOG </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Held a joint session with the Business Rules Group to discuss their Business Rule Motivation model and their joint response to the RFI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Included a Q&A session with John Zachman, author of the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed a conceptual outline of business rules RFP’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group included end users, tool vendors, consultants, academia from the US and Europe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BRWG is an open group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OMG and non-OMG members alike are contributing </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Business Rules in Models RFI <ul><li>Responses due January 10, 2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to be presented at the January TM in Burlingame, California </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seeks input from industry, end users, tool vendors, consultants, academia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practices, lessons learned, solution approaches to business rules in models </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OMG member companies are invited to submit responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Download from the OMG Web site, ad/2002-09-13 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Early Responses to the RFI <ul><li>Hendryx & Associates </li></ul><ul><li>North Face Learning </li></ul><ul><li>ILOG </li></ul>
  5. 5. RFI Response from Hendryx & Associates <ul><li>Response focuses on a model framework to organize and standardize models that collectively specify a business information system </li></ul><ul><li>Frameworks provide a standard partitioning of a system specification and formalize the relationships of its parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially the business part, which contains the business rules, and its relationship to the technical parts of the system specification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows viewpoint models to be standardized, substituted, reused </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The model framework structures the problem of transforming models – including business rules – to achieve correct correspondence, automation, and reuse </li></ul><ul><li>We view the model framework as an essential part of business rules in models </li></ul>
  6. 6. Frameworks and business rules <ul><li>The model framework provides a context for business rules and their derivative implementations </li></ul><ul><li>Business terms, facts, and rules add business meaning to all framework models and to the system </li></ul><ul><li>Business rules govern business processes </li></ul><ul><li>Business rules originate with business people, in their own language, in the framework’s Enterprise viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Technical system specifications contain manifestations of business rules, which must all be consistent </li></ul><ul><li>The business rules provide the basis for validation of the system design specified in other framework models </li></ul>
  7. 7. Model Frameworks are of Interest to Users <ul><li>Tool vendors and OMG have not been particularly interested in model frameworks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OMG modeling specifications and tools based on them are designed for maximum flexibility in modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model frameworks are about separating concerns, restricting the content of models to an intended viewpoint, to achieve quality, automation, and reuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users who have large, complex systems or a lot of models like to use model frameworks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching UML is teaching grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching model frameworks teaches writing </li></ul><ul><li>Use of a standard framework will take modeling to the next level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With MDA, OMG is beginning to look at model frameworks </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. There is a problem for MDA <ul><li>MDA will fall short of its goals unless the business model is formally connected to the technical models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too many requirements errors without a formal link </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business model must be in business language, not technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models are not maintained unless they are connected to the code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This includes the business model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MDA says the PIM must not violate the business model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But MDA neither defines the business model nor formally relates it to the PIM or PSM </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What to do about it? – Use a Model Framework <ul><li>An obvious solution to this problem is to formally specify the business model and link it to the technical models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business models in the language of business people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business models built on an underlying metamodel formalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link business models to the technical models using a model framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To validate the system design and provide test requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce system support and maintenance cost when rules change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realize the business model repository as a most valued asset of the enterprise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to systems through the model framework </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Framework has Models for Everyone… Program code API’s Programmers System Integrators Technology Distribution model Systems Architects System Administrators Engineering Object model Object interaction model Software Architects Computational Information model Information processing model System Analysts Information Business model System requirements Business Owners, Planners, Employees, Customers Enterprise Content Discipline Viewpoint
  11. 11. A Framework Primitive to aid Standardization <ul><li>Defining the metamodels in terms of the Viewpoints permits standardization of modeling languages for use with different architecture frameworks – existing or new </li></ul><ul><li>Map concepts from the modified RM-ODP to use standard modeling languages and tools with other architecture frameworks </li></ul>Technology System Operational Operational Operational DoD … Row 5 PSM Technology … Row 4 PIM or PSM Engineering … Row 3 PIM Computational … Row 3 PIM Information … Rows 1, 2 CIM Enterprise ? Zachman MDA Viewpoint
  12. 12. RFI Response from North Face Learning <ul><li>Start-up university focused on training software developers www.northfacelearning.com </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to be a leading source of top-tier entry level developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive, total immersion, model-based curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students can major in latest IBM or Microsoft technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will receive BS in Computer Science in 28 months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To open fall 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RFI response presented by Dr. Terry Halpin, VP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Object Role Modeling to Model Static Rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORM has a thirty-year history </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Using ORM to Model Static Rules <ul><li>A conceptual approach to modeling any domain in terms of objects that play roles </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute-free – all facts are expressed as relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouping facts into structures is an implementation issue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideal for specifying static business rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constraints and derivation rules that apply to each state of the information system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specify and define terms along with facts and rules </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to be extended to include dynamic rules </li></ul><ul><li>Use primarily for Enterprise viewpoint modeling </li></ul>
  14. 14. Features of ORM <ul><li>Understandable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express facts and rules in any natural language or intuitive graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Validate using natural language and sample populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal foundation of first order predicate logic, modal logic, and set theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribute-free semantics minimizes the impact of changes to models and queries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Executable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map the formal model to relational schema, XML, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learnable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplicity, uniformity, orthogonality </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Sample ORM Model
  16. 16. Sample ORM Model + Sample Fact Populations
  17. 17. Textual Version of ORM Model Reference schemes: Movie(Nr); Person(Name); Sex(code) Base fact types: Movie is banned Movie was directed by / directed Person Movie was reviewed by / reviewed Person Person is of Sex
  18. 18. Constraints: it is possible that the same Movie is based on more than one Movie and that more than one Movie is based on the same Movie no Movie is based on itself each Movie was directed by at most one Person it is possible that the same Movie was reviewed by more than one Person and that the same Person reviewed more than one Movie Textual Version of ORM Model, cont’d
  19. 19. Constraints (cont.): each Movie that was reviewed by a Person also was directed by a Person no Person directed and reviewed the same Movie each Person directed a Movie or reviewed a Movie each Person is of at most one Sex each Person is of at least one Sex SexCode has possible values: ‘M’, ‘F’ Textual Version of ORM Model, cont’d
  20. 20. ORM Verbalization Features <ul><li>Allows free expression by the domain expert </li></ul><ul><li>Caters for many kinds of constraints and derivation rules </li></ul><ul><li>Caters naturally for fact instances, not just fact types </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids any need for pluralization </li></ul><ul><li>Mixfix notation caters for n-ary predicates </li></ul><ul><li>Mixfix notation caters for foreign languages </li></ul>Subject-Verb-Object (infix) Subject-Object-Verb (postfix) Verb-Subject-Object (prefix) … English Japanese Tongan … Typical binary association pattern Language
  21. 21. Mixfix allows Sentences in ANY Language Ref.: Jugyo in (jugyo in bango); Ka (namae) Fact: Jugyo in ‘37’ wa ‘Eigyo’ Ka ni shozoku suru English Ref. : Employee (empNr); Department (name) Fact: Employee ‘37’ works for Department ‘Sales’ 37 EmpNr Sales Dept 37 Jugyo in Eigyo Ka
  22. 22. Ternary and longer associations require mixfix predicates for natural verbalization
  23. 23. MOF model of ORM is underway <ul><li>Initial MOF model presented by David Cuyler of Sandia National Laboratories at the Orlando meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Team of David, Terry and others are refining, completing the ORM metamodel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In ORM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In MOF </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. RFI Response of ILOG <ul><li>Describe Business Rules Management System </li></ul><ul><li>Provide context for development of the RFP </li></ul><ul><li>Put state-of-the-art requirements on record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write business rules in a structured-English natural syntax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create business-user-friendly rule editors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use business terms in business rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a business action language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store business rules and related data in a business rules repository </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide standard interchange format to implementation environment </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. BRWG RFP’s to Focus on Business Modeling <ul><li>The RFP’s should focus on the Enterprise viewpoint, i.e., the viewpoint of business owners, managers, employees, and customers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the modeling and communication needs of this group are considered foremost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise viewpoint models, including business rules, must be easy for this audience to use </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Why the emphasis on the business model? <ul><li>Because of inadequate consideration of the business requirements – </li></ul><ul><li>80% of software development projects fail or fall well short of their goals, or significantly overrun their budgets or schedules </li></ul><ul><li>$200 billion/year cost! </li></ul>
  27. 27. BRWG Business Rules RFP Concepts <ul><li>There should be two RFP’s, one dealing with business rule expression, and another dealing with business rule management. </li></ul><ul><li>Business rules must be expressible in natural language. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Proposed Focus Business Rule Expression RFP <ul><li>All aspects of the Enterprise viewpoint must be included in this RFP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What? How? Where? Who? When? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business model to including business terms, facts, rules, policies, processes, organization, locations, events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The business process aspect should draw on selected emerging business process modeling standards, and link these to our rule expression models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Enterprise viewpoint may contain multiple levels of abstraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise requirements are to be stated in the form of contracts between the business and the system, including Quality of Service requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both static and dynamic rules to be addressed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static includes definition and interrelationships of terms, facts, and static rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic includes policies affecting state changes in the business, and business processes </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Proposed Focus of Business Rule Management RFP <ul><li>Address rule classification, interrelationships, ownership, change control, effectivity, and versioning </li></ul><ul><li>Specify how this information about rules is to be formally linked to the rule expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Specify how business rules are linked to the implementations – two way </li></ul>
  30. 30. Other Proposed Requirements in theBusiness Rule RFPs <ul><li>Semantics should be specified separately from syntax, and alternative syntactical representations should be allowed </li></ul><ul><li>The RFP’s should not specify pragmatics, including methodologies for capture, verification, or validation of rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are important, but are not an appropriate part of the specifications that are the subject of these RFP’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The RFP’s should require an integrated MOF model of the semantics of rule expressions and rule management </li></ul><ul><li>The RFP’s should require that a model interchange format be specified, suitable for use by downstream modeling, validation, and implementation tools to incorporate the enterprise viewpoint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interchange formats should include separate interchange formats for semantic information and for syntactic information, or diagrams </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Other Business <ul><li>BRWG  BRSIG The BRWG will seek to become chartered as a Business Rules Platform Special Interest Group within OMG at the January 2003 meeting </li></ul><ul><li>The next meeting of the BRWG will be at the OMG Technical Meeting in Burlingame, California, during the week of January 27-31 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This will probably be two or three days, to review the RFI responses and work on the initial RFP drafts, depending on the number of responses received </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Join the businessrules mailing list by sending your request to request@ omg .org </li></ul><ul><li>Please send your comments, corrections, or suggestions to stan @ hendryxassoc .com </li></ul>