Enterprise Architecture Planning


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Enterprise Architecture Planning

  1. 1. Enterprise Architecture Planning Why do it? - Key Concepts & Overview of Approach - Tony Baker, MBA, CMC [email_address] 250.727.1715
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>IT Organizational Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>The Response </li></ul><ul><li>EA = Four Architectures </li></ul><ul><li>EAP Essentials </li></ul><ul><li>Possible EAP Pitfalls </li></ul>
  3. 3. IT Organizational Challenges
  4. 4. Conflicting Demands <ul><li>Focused on the immediate needs of users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>while keeping an eye on the business vision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responding to a shifting technology landscape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>while under pressure for “better, faster, cheaper” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. IT Management Issues <ul><li>Aligning IT and corporate goals </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing and using information </li></ul><ul><li>Building cross-functional information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Using IT for competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalizing on advances in IT </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting to customers </li></ul><ul><li>Updating obsolete systems </li></ul><ul><li>Creating an information architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing business reengineering </li></ul>Source: Computer Sciences Corp.
  6. 6. IT Management Drivers <ul><li>Deliver business value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tightly align IT to business objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squeeze every ounce of leverage from existing and future IT investments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sense and respond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve the cross-functional capabilities of the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E xtend those capabilities outside the organization to reach clients and stakeholders more effectively </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Response The Enterprise Architecture (EA) A logical plan of activities and projects that guide s the progression of an organization's information systems and infrastructure from its current state to a desired future state
  8. 8. Why an Enterprise Architecture? <ul><li>Cohesion and harmony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoids “silo” thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discipline and accountability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportable, informed decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cheaper in the long run </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoids costly “cul-de-sac” directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases integration </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Enterprise Architecture Planning <ul><li>Address business needs </li></ul><ul><li>Develop technical solutions that make </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simple things easy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hard things possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptable to evolution of business and technology </li></ul>
  10. 10. The City Planning Model <ul><li>Cities… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have parks, offices, roads, amenities, hospitals, stores, libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are designed to meet varied, disparate needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Same with IT architectures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-size-fits-all doesn’t work! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must design for flexibility, growth, emerging needs </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The City Planning Process <ul><li>Understand needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognise that you do not have full control! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forecast future requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Build infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roads, utilities, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impose standards, guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning rules, by-laws, etc </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. EA = Four Architectures
  13. 13. Business Architecture <ul><li>High-level goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Products and services of the business </li></ul><ul><li>Business processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions and cross-functional activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational structures </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction of all these elements </li></ul>
  14. 14. Application Architecture <ul><li>The automated services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>t hat support the processes presented in the business architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interaction and interdependencies (interfaces) of the application s </li></ul><ul><li>P riorities for developing new applications and revising old applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based directly on the business architecture </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Information Architecture <ul><li>Corporate information model </li></ul><ul><li>Data management policies </li></ul><ul><li>P atterns of information use and production in the organization </li></ul>
  16. 16. Technology Architecture <ul><li>Desktop and server hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Networ ks </li></ul><ul><li>Peripherals </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul>
  17. 17. Standards <ul><li>Project management </li></ul><ul><li>Software development lifecycle </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Database management </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Data administration </li></ul><ul><li>Others… </li></ul>
  18. 18. EAP Essentials
  19. 19. A Myth <ul><li>You can create a detailed enterprise architecture using a single, large collective effort </li></ul><ul><li>Not true! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no one “answer” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The process is evolutionary </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. A Better Way <ul><li>Define a goal based on business priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Define a series of steps to get there </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver quick wins early </li></ul><ul><li>Review often and iterate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals change over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The process is a dynamic, moving window </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Align Business and IT <ul><li>Business group responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include and inform IT group early and often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrate on the business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t be seduced by flashy technologies! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IT group responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think business first, then technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t invent technology solutions to non-existent business problems </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Key Elements…1 <ul><li>Integrated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs of business stakeholders, the architecture team, and individual project teams are balanced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iterative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built through a succession of versioned releases </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Key Elements…2 <ul><li>Actionable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interim releases can be implemented while advancing the architecture to the overall desired future state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides opportunity for feedback and course correction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prioritized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus effort in areas that provide the most value to the business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain support to critical business processes </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Versioned Releases <ul><li>Keep versions tightly focused </li></ul><ul><li>A version may address just one part of the architecture </li></ul><ul><li>“ Get it out there, get it validated, don’t make it up!” </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller is better than larger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understood is better than unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress is better than promises </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Tie Projects to the Architecture <ul><li>Develop an architecture framework </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on critical areas and core processes </li></ul><ul><li>Define projects with clear, measurable goals tied to the framework </li></ul><ul><li>Execute projects & measure success </li></ul><ul><li>Plan while building; build while planning </li></ul>
  26. 26. Managed Action <ul><li>An enterprise architecture must produce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a clear vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>actionable deliverables in versioned releases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t expect to have all the answers </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on small, achievable goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>but goals that are part of a larger vision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t lose sight of the vision! </li></ul>
  27. 27. Possible EAP Pitfalls &quot;Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?&quot; ask ed Alice. &quot;That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,&quot; said the Cheshire Cat. &quot;I don't much care where,&quot; said Alice. &quot;Then, it doesn't matter which way you go,&quot; said the Cat.
  28. 28. Red Flags <ul><li>Not tied to business objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>approach lacks relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of clear direction & goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rudderless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No focus on implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>results take too long </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No course correction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>results don’t meet needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too big & complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>risky, costly, unwieldy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stand-alone solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>perpetuate “silos” </li></ul></ul>