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Enabling Program and Service Transformation


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Enabling Program and Service Transformation

  1. 1. Enabling Program and Service Transformation Stan Mathewson, Head Architect, Land and Resources Cluster Oct, 28, 2004 “ Getting it Right Forum” Ottawa Ministries of: Natural Resources, Environment, Agriculture and Food, Northern Development and Mines
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Many Governments are encouraging collaboration across boundaries as a key enabler of improved customer service and reduced cost to the common tax payer. Additionally: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program Review has re-emerged as a tool for managers in both public and private sectors to examine business and program effectiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Leadership and Management to support business integration and transformation is also receiving a lot of management and academic attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results Delivery is seen as critical in achieving and proving government success. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We can count on change… but can we lead and manage it? </li></ul><ul><li>What understanding, methods and tools do we have to help? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we know we have achieved the results we want? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Some Basics <ul><li>Everyone talks about Integration. This requires that the Strategic Plan be integrated </li></ul><ul><li>An integrated Strategic Plan requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Representations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>leading to a common understanding of both business and supporting technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit Outcomes that define the transformations intended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Terms, Descriptions, Representations and Outcomes are results of the Business Architecture </li></ul>
  4. 4. Enterprise Business Architecture <ul><li>EBA is a tool, which when used through a facilitated process with business owners and experts, can assist business programs to explicitly define: </li></ul><ul><li>Vision, Mandate, Outcomes, Services, Outputs, </li></ul><ul><li>Service delivery strategies, Business rules (policies), </li></ul><ul><li>Performance measures, </li></ul><ul><li>Accountabilities – to clients, governors and partners </li></ul><ul><li>Information and work flow … </li></ul><ul><li>and to Identify opportunities: </li></ul><ul><li>For integration within programs and across jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><li>Where automation can deliver services cheaper, faster and better </li></ul><ul><li>EBA forms a basis for strategic planning, transformation, results management and evaluation </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Public Sector Collaborative Vision <ul><li>Imagine government official and leaders across this country, at all levels, defining government programs and services using the same terminology and representations </li></ul><ul><li>This is an outcome for governments of achieving the broader architecture vision where: </li></ul><ul><li>This would have major implications for the briefing book industry! </li></ul><ul><li>This is what a business architected approach to defining government business could achieve </li></ul>Having an Enterprise Architecture results in an organization where there is clarity of vision, mission and outcomes. Future strategies are known, risks are mitigated and common values and terminology allow for easy communication. Clients and the services that meet their needs are explicitly defined. Information technology is tightly aligned and seamlessly integrated with both current and future business design
  6. 6. The “Architecture” of Planning & EA processes acting on automation
  7. 7. Case Study <ul><li>Case Study Context </li></ul><ul><li>The Land and Resources Cluster is one of 7 I&IT Clusters in Ontario </li></ul><ul><li>Reference models developed for the LRC can be generically applied to the other 6 I&IT Clusters in Ontario </li></ul>
  8. 8. Background <ul><li>The Land and Resources I&IT Cluster was formed in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>It was formed from the I&IT organizations of the four parent/client ministries – essentially a merger </li></ul><ul><li>The design was largely based on MNR but with no attempt to merge the other three – rather the notion of a “federated” organization took hold – this meant “business as usual” for most managers and staff. </li></ul><ul><li>By early 2004 several drivers of change, including mounting client confusion about what the “cluster” is, had gathered sufficient momentum to create the necessary urgency for change. </li></ul><ul><li>A Transition Planning Session was held in late April and the Strategic Business Planning initiative was launched in June 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>The project has three phases: </li></ul>
  9. 9. LRC Strategic Business Plan Phases <ul><li>Define the Vision, Values, Outcomes and what that will mean for clients, partners, managers, staff and suppliers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A “non-threatening” phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational barriers were identified and discussed – set out the scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>June 30 by the Change Management Team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define Services at Branch and then at the LRC Level, assess current level of client satisfaction, determine allocated resources, define issues and program/service Improvements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity mounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid Nov – Change Management Team and Core Team of Managers with input from Branch team workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial discussion with clients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Transformation Begins – Business case for making the necessary changes to: policy, services, processes, organization; phased action plan and timetable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The real change is defined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Leadership Team and Core Team reporting to Governors </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Approach <ul><li>Defining the Business for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LRC Executive readily agreed to use EBA (program/service) based on successful application of the EBA methodology in previous assignments for external clients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Values and Readiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first step was a LRC Visioning and Change Readiness was conducted – Values, Vision and Mission were developed and a Change Readiness Assessment administered. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The values and readiness work is fundamental – without common values, there can be no common vision, mission or readiness to change. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Developing the Vision <ul><li>A vision is about imagining a future world – It should be viewed from several perspectives – from your clients and from your organization in terms of how you will provide value, how you will function and communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Your vision must reflect your values e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ By 2008 the LRC is responsive to evolving business needs by being accountable for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using demonstrated knowledge and understanding of client ministries’ business to contribute to program strategies and plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborating with our client ministries to identify opportunities and provide advice on I&IT solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delivering timely, cost effective and secure I&IT solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying and managing business risks associated with I&IT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alignment and integration with OPS I&IT strategies, directions, standards” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Defining Outcomes <ul><li>How does your vision translate into Outcomes? </li></ul><ul><li>Express Outcomes from your Clients and Governors perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>For Clients - e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Comprehensive, seamless and responsive I&IT support for clients including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling cost-effective I&IT investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalyst for Knowledge Management – through designs and models of their business; management of explicit knowledge; providing infrastructure to foster KM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure and timely access to electronic information & business systems (by those who are authorized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I&IT solutions meet protection of privacy requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients are assured that their I&IT solutions are secure and protected (backup and recovery)”… </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Defining Outcomes <ul><li>For Clients (Continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Transformation and integration benefits across the BPS are leveraged for LRC clients through: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enablement of horizontal collaboration across program areas, ministries, levels of government, and with external non-government service providers, clients, stakeholders and partners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a framework for common understanding of business functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>For Governors: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Deputy Ministers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the context of the programs they deliver: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate that risks associated with I&IT investment and operational dependence on I&IT are well-managed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate that value for money is received from I&IT investment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I&IT supports government strategies (e.g. horizontal alignment, program integration) and is responsive to government direction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>OCCIO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assurances as above, plus: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of OPS I&IT strategy within the LRC client ministries” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Mandate and Mission <ul><li>Your Mandate should be clear and unique </li></ul><ul><li>– if there are other related programs you need to understand them and how they are similar and different – this can lead to horizontal opportunities for cooperation, program redefinition and redirection </li></ul><ul><li>– a basis for evaluation and perhaps transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Your mission must reflect your vision, mandate and your values </li></ul><ul><li>This should reflect the transformed organization and the approach and emphasis that the organization will have in achieving its mandate </li></ul>
  15. 15. Profiling your Services <ul><li>To achieve the stated outcomes you are going to have to do something – Services deliver the outputs that collectively achieve outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding and Defining services is key. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service definition involves understanding the fundamentals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>who are the clients? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what are their needs? what services will meet those needs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the outputs and what do they deliver to reduce the need on the part of the client? how are the services delivered? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>who is responsible for delivering the services to clients? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there more than one provider of the service? If so is it by design or default? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is there a single point of service contact? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How satisfied are clients with the current service levels and delivery strategies </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Profiling your Services (cont’d) <ul><ul><li>what does the service delivery manager need from elsewhere in the organization i.e. what does the service value chain look like? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the value added with each link? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are accountabilities clear – Do you need a Service Integration and Accountability model to help you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What resources do you have to support service design, management and delivery? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you don’t have the necessary resources how do you solve the problem – increase the resources, deliver with less or reduce the service commitment? Is a RAEW analysis helpful? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Profiling your Services (cont’d) <ul><ul><li>what are the common processes? Are there integration opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are processes effective and efficient? Do you need to look at workflow? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you measure performance? How do you ensure results delivery? Go back to your outputs and deliverables and make sure they are achieving what your clients need. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what improvements can and should be made? A basis for service transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop your service catalogue and discuss with your clients. </li></ul><ul><li>A service reference model can be helpful in defining client facing services and developing SLAs </li></ul>
  18. 18. Land and Resources Cluster Service Reference Model V2.9 – Sept 23, 04
  19. 19. Policy <ul><li>Policies are the rules for the business and is not just the specialty of “policy wonks” </li></ul><ul><li>Policies should enable the outcomes and be consistent with the values, vision and mission </li></ul><ul><li>A policy review is therefore necessary and management should be driving it. </li></ul><ul><li>Column 6 “WHY” is key – this is where the business rules live </li></ul>
  20. 20. Organizational Perspectives <ul><li>Often how the business is organized is not a major obstacle. </li></ul><ul><li>But are you sure – In some cases, especially programs that did not do a lot of design prior to implementation, organization can be a structural barrier to effective, efficient service delivery and program outcomes e.g. if the SIAM shows unclear accountabilities then O.D. may be the order of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>If it is a barrier, this is a major transformational hurdle </li></ul><ul><li>It is best to identify this as early as possible – the culture of an organization might be ready for new and improved service delivery model but changes in organization may require a very different readiness </li></ul>
  21. 21. Additional Analyses <ul><li>Fully detailing your business requires the application of other EBA tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Workflow, Business Scenario and business Use Case modelling is necessary to define processes and identify process improvement opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Business Network models can reveal geographic and locational barriers or opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Performance metrics oriented around outcomes, service outputs and processes are important to benchmark the existing organization and demonstrate improvements. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Mapping EBA to Transformation and Change Elements of the Plan | EBA enabled analysis <ul><li>A shared vision for the future </li></ul><ul><li>2. A transformation/integration agenda and the mandate to carry it out. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Statements that describe outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>4. Key business and cultural elements that enable or constrain the vision </li></ul><ul><li>5. Identification of initiatives necessary to lever the key elements to deliver the stated outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>6. Identification of what policies are needed to support the vision and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>7. Statements of priorities and schedules </li></ul><ul><li>8. Statements that show how we will know the outcomes have been achieved and the vision respected </li></ul><ul><li>Defines Mandate, Jurisdiction, changes drivers, related programs, “as is” and “could be” models. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps define the agenda, clarifies mandate, identifies related program and horizontal opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates outcome definition </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies “hard” enablers or constraints such as org design or location, broken service value chains, unclear service outputs, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Services and Process profiles include service delivery options and drivers and strategies for change </li></ul><ul><li>Business Rule book explicitly defines policies, policy analysis identifies gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Business events and workflow models assist. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Metrics for outcomes and outputs </li></ul>
  23. 23. Public Sector EA Collaboration Initiatives <ul><li>Ontario is reviewing, validating and aligning GSRM with service instances to produce an Ontario version </li></ul><ul><li>We have offered EAPM for similar alignment with BTEP and use by Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Ontario has approved an architecture centre of excellence initiative to develop an Executive Leadership Program in Enterprise Architecture – Canada, Nova Scotia and Alberta have expressed interest in partnering </li></ul><ul><li>Ontario has agreed to lead a EA Community of Practice to standardize EA methods and EA program management policies and practices </li></ul><ul><li>We’re on to something revolutionary - Where else can we benefit from collaboration? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Advantages of A Business Architecture Approach
  25. 25. Advantages of Business Architecture for Government Programs <ul><li>Captures Staff Business Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Architecture is a resource for all employees to help them understand how the program operates, thereby reducing induction times - this is a general knowledge management provided by Business Architecture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create Standard Enterprise Views and Artifacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The method ensures a standardized way of portraying government programs and services. The representations and reports are maintained in an electronic document management system (the repository) and controlled access is assured., </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Advantages of Business Architecture for Government Programs <ul><li>Enables Effective Change Management and Re-engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Architecture Models help align program business strategies and are therefore enables business to respond more quickly to change. EBA models are explicit and standardized. Hence they are structured with clean, well-understood interfaces, are predictive and are amendable to change and re-engineering with known impact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by business for technical function analysis, design, build, decision support, monitoring and assessment, risk management, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reuse for Business Automation Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since building a business architecture involves modeling the program business processes, this provides the opportunity to reuse those processes or improve them if need be. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Advantages of Business Architecture for Government Programs <ul><li>Improves Collaboration and Decision Making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EBA facilitates the examination of how programs and services are alike as much as how they differ. This leads to horizontal integration and collaboration opportunities. Models provide better understanding and better communication of business, improve understanding means and business decisions can now be made formally. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improves Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EBA enables performance measure to be developed with relate to program outcomes and service outputs and the measure are as explicit as the outcome and output definitions leading to relevant, understandable, comparable, consistent and reliable results measures that can be compiled, reported and audited in a timely fashion </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Advantages of Business Architecture for Government Programs <ul><li>Enterprise Business Knowledge Retention: A Framework for Knowledge Management. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to the “Culture of Change” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds a knowledge-sharing culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents the loss of technical and business knowledge about programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retains valuable design knowledge as employees move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces “time-to-competency” for new hires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captures program lesson learned for re-use </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. 1. Architecture Services 2.Glossary of Terms 3. LRC Corporate Values Appendices
  30. 30. The Architecture Top “10” “ EA Services that deliver program outcomes”
  31. 31. EA Service Catalogue <ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture Project Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Architecture Development </li></ul><ul><li>Change Initiative Architecture Development </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture Integration Service </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture Reference Models </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture Review Service </li></ul><ul><li>EA Repository Management </li></ul><ul><li>EA Education </li></ul><ul><li>EA Policy and Standards </li></ul><ul><li>EA Support for Business and I&IT planning </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>An Architectural Project Plan </li></ul><ul><li>A new Target Enterprise Architecture version </li></ul><ul><li>A new Change Initiative Architecture Version </li></ul><ul><li>A new Target LRC Enterprise Architecture version </li></ul><ul><li>A new version of a reference model </li></ul><ul><li>An approved architecture tool </li></ul><ul><li>A compliance assessment </li></ul><ul><li>An (classified and automated) artifact version </li></ul><ul><li>An EA Educational Encounter </li></ul><ul><li>A period of access to an EA policy, standard/ an interpretation session </li></ul><ul><li>The translation of business needs into EA content in ministry business plans and. in the LRC I&IT Plan </li></ul>
  32. 32. Building Reference Models <ul><li>A reference model is a generic design for an enterprise component, of which the enterprise is targeted to have multiple instances. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Land and Resources Cluster Service Reference Model V2.9 – Sept 23, 04
  34. 34. Building Target Architectures <ul><li>Develops a Target Enterprise Architecture Version that reflects the intended future state of the enterprise. This future state represents the intentions of the Enterprise Governors. This service helps enterprise planning functions by describing fundamental organization, components, and principles of design and evolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The result is a complex document comprised of text and graphics that will reveal to the reader the future state in explicit detail </li></ul>
  35. 35. Architecture Project Planning <ul><li>Produces architectural project plans. This service assists Change Initiatives in planning for architecture related activities. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a saying that we need “just enough architecture just in time”. Architecture project planning assists project owners and managers with achieving just enough just in time. This helps ensure that the resources devoted to the architecture will be applied in the most cost-effective manner to save both time and money but still deliver the necessary rigour to the project. Checkpoint zero is part of this service </li></ul>
  36. 36. Building Change Initiative Architectures <ul><li>Develops a new Change Initiative architecture version. This service will comply with applicable policies and standards, and will align the architecture with the target Enterprise Architecture. This architecture alignment will ensure the new Change Initiative architecture is aligned with the intentions of the Enterprise Governors. </li></ul><ul><li>This service provide architecture for projects that either individually or collectively will effect the changes that are defined as necessary to get from the current state to the target state. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Providing Architecture Policy and Standards <ul><li>Provide access to policies, standards, guidelines, recommended practices and procedures and provides interpretation and support of their use. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture is required by Management Board of Cabinet under the I&IT Key Directive. This is the highest level of policy direction. Within that context there is a need to define a hierarchy of policies, guidelines, recommended practices and procedures to support the architecture program and the practice of architecture development in the OPS </li></ul>
  38. 38. Integrating Architectures <ul><li>The architecture integration service develops an integrated LRC enterprise architecture from each of the domain architectures </li></ul><ul><li>Complex business automation projects will invariably result in the various “domains” of system architecture (information, application, technology, security) developing specialized segments of the overall target architecture. These need to be integrated in such as way as to uncover misalignments between the domains and to ensure that they are linked, aligned and appropriately constrained by the enterprise business architecture that defines the business </li></ul>
  39. 39. Ensuring Governance <ul><li>Provides an assessment of an architecture for compliance with the intentions of the governors as well as the applicable policies and standards. Ensures alignment of I&IT plans, designs and constructed components with I&IT governors strategies and standards, and with business strategies and standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture review can have several forms. It can be informal, as in a meeting to discuss progress or direction on a project or it can be a formal sign-off by the business owner, head architect or CIO. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Stewarding the Information <ul><li>Provides artifacts related to previous architecture and design efforts regarding component designs for business and I&IT within an electronic document management system. This involves collection, storage, stewardship, and access to design artifacts. </li></ul><ul><li>The OPS is currently using a variety of different tools to support this service. There is an index to the various artifacts (reports, graphics, tables etc that define the business and technologies) and the artifacts themselves are held in some document management system. We will move to a common tool but the service to be stewards of the artifacts is fundamental to the architectural principles of access for reuse of the models </li></ul>
  41. 41. Training and Educating <ul><li>Provides architecture related education and training. This may include providing information, educational materials and/or training sessions. Some of these services are provided by OPS staff and in other cases Service Delivery is through private sector training specialist firms. Curriculum is usually jointly developed to ensure that OPS needs are met. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture is a new discipline. It is evolving and maturing quickly and there are not enough skilled architects either in or outside the OPS. Hence there is a need to ensure that the opportunities to learn the principles and methods are available. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Developing and Managing EA Tools <ul><li>Provides automated architectural tools such as a CASE tool to support architecture change initiatives. This service will help to reduce cost and time associated with developing architectures. </li></ul><ul><li>Since architecture is a new discipline and is not yet fully standardized world wide, there are a dearth of standards and tools to support the standardized way of developing models of the business and technology. As tools become available, costs and time to undertake architecture will be reduced. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Glossary of Terms <ul><li>Accountability: the demonstration of responsibility through formal reporting of performance to a governing authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Activity: a work step, performed within a process, which consumes resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Agent: an external person or organization that is contracted to deliver services to the enterprise’s clients, or that acts as a representative of the enterprise, in exchange for a fee. An agent is responsible for delivering the outputs of a service, but is not responsible for the outcomes of programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficial Client : a member of a Target Group that is expected to benefit from a Program. </li></ul><ul><li>Client: a member of a Client Group that is the intended direct recipient of a service. </li></ul><ul><li>Client Group : A population of individuals, companies or not-for-profit groups that is the intended recipient or user of a service. </li></ul><ul><li>Core Business: a collection of programs sharing a common affinity (e.g. road user safety) or domain (e.g. trade) for management purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: a measure of the value or benefit of a program or service, expressed as the actual change in the specified outcome achieved by delivery of the program or service. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency: a measure of productivity based on dividing the quantity of output (measured in units of deliverables) by the quantity of resources input (usually measured in person hours or dollars). </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise: one or more organizational entities that collaborate to fulfil a mission established by its governing authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Function : a collection of processes or activities that involve common skills or professional disciplines, such as the accounting or legal functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Governor: a person or institution to which an enterprise is accountable for its performance. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Glossary of Terms <ul><li>Impact: a change in the condition of an individual client, the aggregate condition of a target group, or the condition of a resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Service : provision of specific results (deliverables) that support the needs of clients internal to the OPS. </li></ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction: the territory within which a Program has authority and responsibility for meeting the defined needs of the Target Group. </li></ul><ul><li>Mandate: the set of services for which an enterprise is accountable. </li></ul><ul><li>Mission: the goal(s) assigned to an enterprise by its governors. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization: a managed group of people, with allocated resources, that acts as a unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome: a measurable change in the level of need of an individual client or the aggregate need of a target group, directly attributable to the delivery of a service or a program. </li></ul><ul><li>Partner: an autonomous enterprise or organization that enters into an agreement to share accountability (and risk) for a program and its outcomes. An organization that is a partner can also act as an agent for service delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>Process: a linked sequence of activities that delivers a service, manages a resource, or operates an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Program: a mission assigned to an enterprise by its governors to address the specific needs of a target group, and implemented through a collection of services that contribute to the achievement of the program’s goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Beneficiary : the target population that benefits from achievement of a program’s public goals. Sometimes referred to as the “Beneficial Client”. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Service : provision of specific results (deliverables) that satisfy the needs of clients outside the OPS and contribute to the achievement of public goals, and does not depend on the existence of another public service for its existence, i.e. all public services are independent of other public services. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Glossary of Terms <ul><li>Quality: a measure of the “goodness” of a product or a service deliverable in terms of client satisfaction, comparison with a pre-defined standard, or the level of returns/re-work required. </li></ul><ul><li>Resource: a tangible or intangible asset used to perform activities (e.g. people, money, facilities, materials, information, tools, knowledge, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility: a clearly identified obligation for the authorized conduct of a specified program activity, where performance is evaluated through the application of established criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Service : provision of specific results (deliverables) that satisfy the needs of clients and contribute to the achievement of Program goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Service Outcome: the contribution of a service toward achievement of a public goal or the desired impact on the Target Group associated with a Program. </li></ul><ul><li>Service Output: the result of a service delivered to a client, measured by quantitative “units of service delivery”. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier: a person or organization, external to the enterprise, that provides it with products or services. </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder : a person or organization with a vested interest in a program, service, resource or issue (may include clients, governors, suppliers, partners and agents). </li></ul><ul><li>Target Group: the population or segment of the population that is the intended beneficiary of a Program or the intended recipient of a Service. Where a Target Group is large and has varying needs, it may be subdivided into “Target Group Segments”, with different need profiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Transaction: a business concept that represents an exchange of value between two parties, usually, but not always, a buyer and a seller, or a client and a provider. </li></ul><ul><li>Value Chain : - an end-to-end view of the service cycle showing the stages that add value, the participants involved, and the business transactions that link them. </li></ul>
  46. 46. LRC Corporate Values <ul><li>Accountable Leadership – being responsible for and accountable to people, projects or systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Integrity – conduct business in an ethical manner, honest and sincere in managing employer-employee relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for Individual Choices - choice in balancing personal life and work life </li></ul><ul><li>Logical - Rational, Organized and Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork – working as a team in a spirit of co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing Achievements – recognition of goals being met </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing Competencies – effective use of employee skills, abilities and know-how </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to Develop – encourages learning, education and participation </li></ul><ul><li>Responsive to Customer Needs – focusing on the needs of customers, honourable </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation and Creativity – encourage and reward innovation and creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Controllership, Value For Money and Financial Accountability </li></ul>