E-government: Using IT To Transform ...


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  • At the end of the day, when you think about whether government is working better, it’s about speed, it’s about quality of decisions, it’s about responsiveness, it’s about cost. These are simple performance metrics. But, they all come down to how well government uses the information to make decisions, everything from forecasting economic, weather or homeland security problems to make a quick and proper decision on a grant or veterans benefit. Agility is when an organization can act quickly, and act correctly when its customers need it to do so. IT is a requirement for government to be agile because government needs to be able to process information for good decision-making and to rapidly communicate its decisions.
  • Program Performance Value : IT bought for agency operations —not citizens' interface needs. Systems evaluated wrongly (e.g., % time they are working, rather effect on the programs they support). Technology Leverage : Technology does not replace good management, but good government management requires technology Government traditionally uses IT to automate existing processes, rather than to create more effective business practices. Islands of Automation : 22,000 Websites: citizens have to deal with multiple agencies to get service, 5,600 GPEA Transactions: businesses have to fill-out multiple forms that ask for the same information, and Agencies cannot easily collaborate for key missions like Homeland Security. Resistance to Change : Budget processes and agency cultures perpetuate silos. Budgeting processes support silos. Agency cultures and fear of reorganization create resistance to integrating workload or sharing systems across several agencies.
  • Government performance is dependent on how well resources are managed, and that better management requires that government continues to need to leverage e-business advances: --An integrated view of the resources --Tools that enable rapid allocation of resources to where they best deliver results --Ability to quickly adopt new business processes and/or adapt current process
  • Compute resources typically are under utilized (studies show big server utilization in the 30-40% range); computing capacity needs to be managed as a utility not a sunk cost for each application What are the options of leveraging best practices as a standard? What are the real binding constraint on agility: Do we know and have the essential information needed to make a good decision or Is most of the effort adjudicating inconsistencies in data across agencies What decision making and communications process should be changed to reflect collaboration and knowledge management tools Redundant purchases of applications gives poor leverage from enterprise apps investments, increasing spending beyond need while limiting agility and organization effectiveness Rapid growth in data and storage management are forcing myriad complicating layers of investment, while employees are both overwhelmed with data and missing key information when needed (e.g., does spending on data sharing and mining tools exceed process integration or consolidation; does the organization collect many, use many or know its essential elements of information; are we adjudicating inconsistencies in data or improving speed and quality of decisions)
  • EXECUTIVE INSIGHTS Hinge Techn o logies f o r t he Dynamic Enter pr ise Frank Gens Mark Melenovsky Sandra Rogers Vernon Turner IDC OPI NION May 2004 The next generation of IT . what IDC calls "dynamic IT" . is about creating a high- performance IT capability that can support the rapid pace of the business change. In this Executive Insights , we look at the key building blocks, the "hinge" technologies, for evolving from a rigid to a dynamic IT environment. Our key conclusions are as follows: Organizations are pursuing dynamic IT transformation on two major (and complementary) paths: more rapid business strategy enablement and increased IT operational efficiency. There are 12 hinge technology areas for developing dynamic IT capability . six focused on business strategy enablement and six focused on IT operational efficiency. IT organizations and the suppliers who serve them should put particular investment focus on these areas. For each of these hinge areas, suppliers and their offerings should be assessed on how well they support six critical principles that underpin almost all dynamic IT capabilities: end-to-end view, service-oriented architecture (SOA), leverage of standard components, virtualized resource model, flexible sourcing model, and flexible funding model. Redundant, customized applications drive spending beyond need, while limiting agility and ability to collaborate. Data and storage management are increasingly complicated and expensive, yet employees are awash in data, unable to share, and missing key information when needed. Compute resources are bought for each major application and are under-utilized.
  • Strategic Imperative: The RTE requires an agile process and strategy integration between the business, the computing infrastructure (real-time infrastructure) and the application architecture (service-oriented architecture). Client Issue: What are the IT requirements to deliver on a real-time enterprise? While computing technologies have advanced rapidly, the relationship between the business and computing technologies has not improved. The requirements and fulfillment process is manual, slow and fraught with misunderstandings. Likewise, the relationship between infrastructure administrators and application developers is arms-length. Operational requirements and application topography are usually communicated "thrown over the wall" to the people who need to manage them and are rarely documented. Today, complex applications require high-priced experts who learned through experience how applications behave and how to manage and tune them effectively. That needs to change. An RTE requires the relationships among the business, applications and infrastructure to be automated to be truly real-time. A service-oriented architecture is an applications architecture that componentizes functionality and uses standard interfaces for ease in integration or "assembly." Operationally aware applications have had their operational requirements captured during development by the developers. SLAs between the business and IT are managed through automated policies that affect the underlying infrastructure. A real-time enterprise has broken down the inefficient communication barriers between the business, applications and infrastructure.
  • E-government: Using IT To Transform ...

    1. 1. E-government: Using IT To Transform The Effectiveness And Efficiency Of Government June 15, 2005 Hon. Mark A. Forman Former U.S. Administrator, E-Government & Information Technology [email_address] 202-533-4003
    2. 2. 2001: The President’s Management Agenda Initiated As A New Approach to Fixing Federal Government Management Few gains are possible without today’s IT <ul><li>An integrated approach to improving organization effectiveness (HR, FM, Sourcing, E-Government, Performance Metrics Used in Resource Decisions) </li></ul><ul><li>The focus was making government more responsive to its customers – U.S. citizens </li></ul>
    3. 3. When Does IT Matter? Leaders Realize that Policy without Execution is meaningless Strategic Opportunity Road mapping e-Government/ e-Business Architecture Business Planning & Design High Quality Development & Deployment Practices (IT & Management of Change) Management Approach (Policy & Structure) <ul><li>Compelling Need for Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of IT Recognized by Leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executives Steer Change </li></ul></ul></ul>Governance Model
    4. 4. The Expanding E-Government Strategy <ul><li>The Vision: an order of magnitude improvement in the federal government’s value to the citizen; with decisions in minutes or hours, not weeks or months. E-Government Definition : the use of digital technologies to transform government operations in order to improve effectiveness, efficiency, and service delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>The Principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen-Centered, Results-Oriented, Market-based </li></ul><ul><li>Integral component of President’s Management Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify and Unify </li></ul>
    5. 5. Key Elements Of The IT Agenda During My Tenure <ul><li>Driving results & productivity growth: IT and management reform investments that create an order of magnitude improvement in value to the citizen, especially homeland security info sharing and knowledge flow </li></ul><ul><li>IT Cost Controls: Consolidation of redundant and overlapping investments, Enterprise Licensing, Fixing cost overruns, Competing away excess IT Services charges </li></ul><ul><li>E-Gov Act implementation: Government wide architecture governance, including web-based strategies for improving access to high quality information and services </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber Security: Desktop, data, applications, networks, threat and vulnerability focused, business continuity, privacy protection </li></ul><ul><li>IT workforce: Conduct training and recruitment to obtain project management skills, strategic CIO staff, and architects that have a Passion for Solutions </li></ul>
    6. 6. Key Results <ul><li>Customer Focus for the government </li></ul><ul><li>Smarter Use of IT, and alignment to organization performance </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of redundant and overlapping investments </li></ul><ul><li>Better management of IT acquisitions (Enterprise Licensing, Fixing cost overruns, Competing away excess IT Services charges) </li></ul><ul><li>Governance Structure and Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber Security </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Governance Process Leads to the Top: Agency Progress Is Graded Quarterly <ul><li>Agency E-government Progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernization Blueprint -- Enterprise Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Cases -- Capital Planning and Investment Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT Program Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT Security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agency is a Solution Partner in Multi-agency E-Government Initiatives (3 of 4 Citizen-centered groups) </li></ul>www.egov.gov and www.results.gov
    8. 8. IT Reform Is About Modernization -- How Technology Is Used To Improve Government <ul><li>Primary issue is how fast it takes government to respond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To operate effectively and efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To change with events, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just like companies facing market pressures except people die when government moves too slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROIs should rarely be monetary for government, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect policy objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions: IRS, administration, erroneous payments, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No commercial organization has accomplished performance-based IT on magnitude of government (PART, CPIC and FEA) </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Chronic Problems of the 1990s: What We Found When We Took Office <ul><li>Paving Cow paths: Agencies automated management problems, instead of leveraging e-business to fix them </li></ul><ul><li>Redundant Buying: Multiple agencies bought the same item, instead driving economies of scale or creating one-stop points of service </li></ul><ul><li>Program Management: Few delivered on time, on budget </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Modernization Blueprints: Few agencies had a business-driven enterprise architecture, a roadmap that showed what IT investments will be used to better improve performance </li></ul><ul><li>Islands of Automation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens had to deal with multiple agencies (22,000 websites) to get service, instead of a single point of service website or call center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies could not easily collaborate for key missions like Homeland Security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poor Cyber Security: IT security was seen as an IT or funding issue, instead of agency management issue </li></ul>
    10. 10. Lesson Learned: E-Government Strategy Must Focus on Unifying and Simplifying Government for Citizens <ul><li>Individuals: easy to find one-stop-shops for citizens -- creating single points of easy entry to access high quality government services. </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses: reduce burden on businesses through use of Internet protocols, un-complicating interactions, and consolidating myriad redundant reporting requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Intergovernmental: make it easier for states and localities to meet reporting requirements, while enabling better performance measurement and results, especially for grants. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal efficiency and effectiveness: reduce costs for federal government administration by using best practices in areas such as supply chain management, financial management, and knowledge management. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Lesson Learned: Citizen-centered Initiatives can work, but No Magic Formula Exists Government to Citizen Government to Government Internal Effectiveness and Efficiency 1. USA Service 2. Free File 3. Online Access for Loans 4. Recreation One Stop 5. GovBenefits 1. e-Vital 2. e-Grants 3. Disaster Management 4. Geospatial Information One Stop 5. Project SAFECOM 1. e-Training 2. Recruitment One Stop 3. Enterprise HR Integration (includes e-Clearance) 4. e-Travel 5. Integrated Acquisition 6. e-Records Management 7. Payroll Processing Managing Partner OPM OPM OPM GSA GSA NARA OPM Managing Partner SSA HHS FEMA DOI FEMA Managing Partner GSA TREAS DoEd DOI Labor Government to Business 1. Federal Asset Sales 2. Online Rulemaking Management 3. Expanded Electronic Tax Products 4. Consolidated Health Informatics 5. Business Compliance One Stop 6. International Trade Process Streamlining Managing Partner GSA EPA Treas HHS SBA DOC E-Authentication
    12. 12. Lesson Learned: A business-focused framework is Required for Cross-agency Improvements <ul><li>The Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) provided OMB and Federal agencies with a new way of describing, analyzing, and improving the Federal Government and its ability to serve the citizen </li></ul><ul><li>The FEA enabled a means of developing options across the organizational obstacles that have historically hindered improvement without forcing reorganization </li></ul><ul><li>The FEA is a business-focused approach and is not just for IT </li></ul><ul><li>The FEA provided a common framework for improving a variety of key areas </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Federal Enterprise Architecture Provides the Framework for Transformation www.feapmo.gov Business Reference Model (BRM) <ul><li>Lines of Business </li></ul><ul><li>Agencies, Customers, Partners </li></ul>Service Component Reference Model (SRM) <ul><li>Capabilities and Functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Services and Access Channels </li></ul>Technical Reference Model (TRM) <ul><li>IT Services </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul>Data Reference Model (DRM) <ul><li>Business-focused data standardization </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Agency Information exchanges </li></ul>Business-Driven Approach Performance Reference Model (PRM) <ul><li>Government-wide Performance Measures & Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Line of Business-Specific Performance Measures & Outcomes </li></ul>Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) Component-Based Architecture
    14. 14. Business Cases Drive Performance Improvement Agency’s IT Budget Submission Business Cases Clear Performance Gap IT will address? Should the Federal Government perform this function? Support the PMA and is it collaborative? Part of the Modernization Blueprint? Clear performance goals and measures tied to the business? 3 Viable Alternatives for closing the performance gap? Performance Based Acquisition and Contracts? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Strong Risk Management Plan? Project Management Plan with milestones? Addresses Security and Privacy? Life-Cycle Costs are well planned and appropriate? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes $
    15. 15. The FEA and IT Capital Planning processes are tools for leveraging opportunities <ul><li>Through the Federal Enterprise Architecture, agencies characterize each of their IT investments by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The business line the investment supports, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The performance the agency seeks to achieve, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The components and supporting technology that comprise the investment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OMB, Federal CIO Council, and agencies work together through the budget process to analyze the Federal IT portfolio to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve mission achievement and customer service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce costs through elimination of redundant IT investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create IT Portfolios around Lines of Business and customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share and re-use business and service components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify data sharing opportunities across agency-boundaries </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 2004 President’s Budget Federal IT Investment Portfolio (dollars in billions) $4.7 (IT Security is included in the Mission Area and Office Auto/Infrastructure) $37 $21 $1 Mission Area Projects Office Automation /Infrastructure Enterprise Architecture IT Security <ul><li>500+ projects have good business cases; over 750 projects ($21 Bn) “At-risk” requiring business case enhancements </li></ul><ul><li>Better project management </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with the Modernization Blueprint </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy the security criterion </li></ul><ul><li>Link the investment to agency strategic goals and provide performance objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Adequately address the risks </li></ul>
    17. 17. Progress As Of Late Summer 2003 <ul><li>Government wide </li></ul><ul><li>23 of 24 projects deployed key components; 6 new LOB Consolidation projects initiated </li></ul><ul><li>#4 for G2B websites in January, #6 G2C </li></ul><ul><li>IT governance: FEA, business case and A-11 </li></ul><ul><li>Firstgov: 3 clicks to service, Harvard Innovation in Government Award; one of Yahoo’s 50 Most Incredibly Useful Websites; over 500% increase 37M users </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Citizen Services </li></ul><ul><li>Free Tax Filing for at least 60%, made easy with trust; 2.7 M filers </li></ul><ul><li>Govbenefits.gov: (USA Today Hot Site) uncomplicates the welfare bureaucracy; find services in minutes versus days </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations.gov: GAO says easy to find, read and comment on proposed regs vs. redundant agency sites(over 600,000 visits in first week) </li></ul><ul><li>Golearn.gov: provides training for pennies per student to about 45,000 feds in first six months, over 45 M visitors </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation.gov: v2 with clickable map </li></ul><ul><li>E-Payroll: Consolidation to two winning teams from 22 providers </li></ul><ul><li>E-Gov Act Signed; Administrator and Office fully operational </li></ul><ul><li>Geodata.gov web accessible GIS & tool enables sharing and broad re-use of multi-billion investments in map tools and data </li></ul><ul><li>Within Agencies </li></ul><ul><li>VA, Energy, Education advanced to yellow in status; NSF to green </li></ul><ul><li>All but 7 agencies making significant progress in addressing chronic problems and joining in citizen-centered E-gov Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Some Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Navy e-business Office </li></ul><ul><li>Energy, VA, and Justice have elevated CIO role, to drive change and results </li></ul><ul><li>VA-DOD integrated patient medical records to provide seamless service to veterans </li></ul><ul><li>Education performance based data management initiative to streamline data collection burdens and eliminate redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Department terminates BMIS and creates I-MANAGE to integrate disparate HR, FM, procurement, facilities management, and budgeting systems </li></ul><ul><li>GISRA baselines and Plans of Action and Milestones are used to define and track security improvements </li></ul><ul><li>50%-100% improvement in key areas of IT security; but considerable work remains </li></ul>
    18. 18. What Benefits Are we Seeing From E-Government <ul><li>Responsiveness and Service Orientation In Government to Citizen and Government to Business Interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proof Point: The Internet is the predominant way Americans interact with their government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proof Point: Decision making times reducing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Widespread politician understanding of business process integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proof Point: common use of concepts such as simplifying government, performance measures, information sharing, government on-line, IT security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proof Point: Increasing use of electronics in democratic institutions (esp. elections, policy and rule making, campaigns) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. How And Why We Got Traction <ul><li>1. Focus on results that matter to the customer, not technology </li></ul><ul><li>-- E-Gov is about the business of government, not websites </li></ul><ul><li>-- IT is enabler, but also a barrier to reform if not brought under control and focused from citizen (vs. agency perspective) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Management reform must go beyond IT, to address organization and resource management effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>-- Presidential Focus/Cabinet accountable for progress, graded by scorecard </li></ul><ul><li>-- E-government reflects IT’s role in modernization, especially use of knowledgeable teams that replace outdated organization structures (incompetent hierarchies and islands of automation) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Key Elements of IT Management are world class </li></ul><ul><li>-- Business cases and portfolios for treating IT as an investment </li></ul><ul><li>-- Performance focused, business driven architecture that links IT components to results </li></ul><ul><li>-- IT security </li></ul>
    20. 20. Example: One-Stop Portal
    21. 21. Example: Re-working the Delivery Channel
    22. 22. A Vision Of The Future: The Emerging Government Workers Will Rely on Resource Management Tools File Shares Tracking DB Document Library Team Web Site Partner Web Site 3 rd Party Web Sites Enterprise Data Integration Online Toolkit Portal Software with access to email, Workflow tools, Security/Access/PKI, and Advanced KM tools Legacy LOB Apps Enterprise Apps (ERP, etc) Don’t worry. I have everything I need to help you. Help! I’m lost in a maze.
    23. 23. Today’s IT-related Challenges <ul><li>Redundant, customized applications drive spending beyond need, while limiting agility and ability to collaborate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data and storage management are increasingly complicated and expensive, yet employees are awash in data, unable to share, and missing key information when needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compute resources are bought for each major application and are under-utilized. </li></ul></ul></ul>What is the real binding constraint on agility? Do infrastructure and other IT investments lock-out the ability to integrate information and business processes across businesses?
    24. 24. New Opportunities Arising for Collaboration, Cost Reduction, and Acceleration of Deployment Commoditization of hardware (esp. Intel servers) Commoditization of business applications (App servers, ERP, SCM) Commoditization of OS and Runtime Components <ul><ul><li>Service oriented architecture and </li></ul></ul><ul><li>widespread adoption of integrating standards (XML, SOAP, etc.) </li></ul>Breadth of connectivity options
    25. 25. Business, Applications and Infrastructure The Walls Are Coming Down Business Applications Infrastructure Fact: A survey of nearly 1,000 CIOs shows that developing and managing a flexible and efficient infrastructure are their top technology priorities. Gartner: IT Infrastructure Matters: A real-time infrastructure and service-oriented application architecture are necessary for a business to remain competitive in the future. Operationally aware applications Virtualization, automation SODA Policy-based management
    26. 26. Implications for Private-Public Cooperation <ul><li>Government adoption and promotion of commercially used standards for data exchange, telecommunications, web services (government cant fall behind business or force business to lag) </li></ul><ul><li>Sourcing Aligns with Speed to Deployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large internal development organizations are no longer sustainable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications are increasingly available as components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT is becoming a service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government workforce skills shift to IT Strategy, Architecture, and project/change management </li></ul>
    27. 27. So, What are the Implications for Developing Countries <ul><li>Focus On The Business Of Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy-related Measures Of Success, Plus Cycle Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive (Process, Organization Structure, Skills And Capabilities, Management Of Change, And Technology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest Opportunities May Be Inside The Bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders Are Required: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Agents, Proponents, And Champions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIO Who Knows How To Position Initiatives And Coach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure Aligned To Users: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction On Customers Terms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consolidation Or Creation Choices Should Be Made On Basis Of Enterprise Architecture Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Governance In The Digital Age Is About Transparency And Service </li></ul>