"EA is a tool to find potential savings hidden in organizations"


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"EA is a tool to find potential savings hidden in organizations"

  1. 1. Architecture 200 Architecture in Detail
  2. 2. Course Topics <ul><li>EA—Hidden Gold </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts of Business Value </li></ul><ul><li>How EA Finds Pay Dirt </li></ul><ul><li>DEAR: Picking Up Gold Nuggets </li></ul><ul><li>Future Projects: Setting Up Mining Camp </li></ul><ul><li>Other Gold Strikes: EA Inside and Outside the Interior </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. EA—Hidden Gold <ul><li>Course Topic 1 </li></ul><ul><li>EA is a tool to find potential savings hidden in organizations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. EA—Hidden Gold <ul><li>Enterprise Architecture (EA) Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Your business; whatever it is you’re doing. Can be an organization (for instance, DOI or MMS) or it can be one line of business (fighting wildfires) that cuts across several organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture The structure or structural description of your business </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise architecture (EA) The structural description of your business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be in the form of models, diagrams, or text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes how the enterprise operates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How business processes and rules relate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How information flows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where work happens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who the users are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What hardware, software, data, and security is used for the business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First step is to evaluate the existing EA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second step is to decide what EA the business needs for the future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modernization blueprint Plan for a future EA </li></ul>
  5. 5. EA—Hidden Gold <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>EA has been around since the 1980’s Zachman framework defined several views of (ways to look at) an organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How it works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What it needs to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where it works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who works it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When it works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why it works </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Together, these views are a model of the organization, which </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows how parts of the organization are related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be experimented with more safely and cheaply than the real thing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EA in the federal government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some parts (NIST) started using EA in the late 1980s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main push in 1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996 requires department CIOs to reform technology investment with EA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology buys should be driven by business needs, not the other way around </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. EA—Hidden Gold <ul><li>Recent developments </li></ul><ul><li>GAO Report to Congressional Committees, February 2002 http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d026.pdf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal government EA is immature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At risk of investing in more incompatible, redundant IT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departments should lead in EA; lower levels will follow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five levels of maturity: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating EA awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building the EA management foundation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing architecture products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completing architecture products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leveraging the EA for managing change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>OMB has tied funding to EA progress </li></ul><ul><li>2002 Presidential initiatives closely related to EA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2002/mgmt.pdf </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. EA—Hidden Gold Before EA Architecture information in lots of isolated systems. Most are used only within one community of interest.
  8. 8. EA—Hidden Gold After EA (Short-term. Long-term will be more change in the same direction) <ul><li>Fewer systems, more connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Related systems are combined. </li></ul><ul><li>All lines of business use DEAR (DOI Enterprise Architecture Repository) </li></ul><ul><li>Some systems remain because they really do have a unique purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even of these, many have at least one-way communication with DEAR </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>Course Topic 2 </li></ul><ul><li>There are several foundational concepts that will help you understand EA. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>“ When we mean to build, </li></ul><ul><li>We first survey the plot, then draw the model, </li></ul><ul><li>And when we see the figure of the house, </li></ul><ul><li>Then must we rate the cost of the erection, </li></ul><ul><li>Which if we find outweighs ability, </li></ul><ul><li>What do we then but draw anew the model </li></ul><ul><li>In fewer offices, or at least desist </li></ul><ul><li>To build at all?” </li></ul><ul><li>— William Shakespeare (Henry IV, Part 2, act 1, sc. 2, l. 41-8.) </li></ul>The proposed target architecture may be efficient, may save money, and may be a good idea, but the manager still has to decide whether there is money available to get to the point of return on the investment
  11. 11. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>Component-Based Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Component: A self-contained piece that can replace or be replaced by another component with the same function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A tire is a component of a car </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A 2”x2” piece of metal on a car bumper is not a component; it cannot easily be replaced without replacing the whole bumper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using components in architecture means defining components by the functions they do </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A component can be replaced by any other component with the same function, whatever it looks like or whatever other functions it has </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can replace a tire with any other tire of the same type, regardless of what color it is or what car it came from </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>Component-Based Architecture (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of component-based architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One piece of a system can become obsolete and be replaced without replacing the whole system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A component developed or bought for one system can be re-used in other systems for a fraction of the price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less dependence on any one technology vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cost more than a system sold as a unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But the long-term cost of replacing one part is much less than the cost of replacing the system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less efficient than a system where every part is optimized for one specialized function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But it’s no comparison to the inefficiency when the whole system isn’t working and can’t be quickly fixed with a component </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>Lines of Business </li></ul><ul><li>A line of business is a task or related set of tasks, such as fighting wildfires. It may be contained in one organization, but EA is especially concerned with the ones that cross organizations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NPS and BLM both have a major firefighting business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So does the USDA’s Forest Service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>EA looks at all the organizations involved in a line of business, and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks for best practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks for efficiency and effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines the best way to do business in those organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommends that all involved organizations standardize to the best way of doing the business </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>Lines of Business (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Ways in which it’s more efficient to concentrate on lines of business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best methods can be developed once, used by everybody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs saved from duplicated efforts make up for methods which may not perfectly fit every organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone looks at the business in the same way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better communication; cuts down on organizational jargon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to transfer data, people, etc. between organizations when everyone works the same way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 20 lines of business have been defined in the Interior. The EA team is now working on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law (law enforcement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire (fighting wildfires) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation (managing recreation on government lands; see the progress already made at http:// www.recreation.gov ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial management (paycheck and other financial business common to Interior organizations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust (Indian Trust work) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>Business drives everything </li></ul><ul><li>It’s better to work slowly at your mission than to work fast at something that isn’t your job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If your job is mining, spending one dollar on even the fastest cow-milking technology is a bad investment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To know a good investment, you first have to know your business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EA forces you to relate everything you have and do to your business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temptation is to buy whatever is new and flashy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EA forces you to show a business need for every new investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EA guards against equipment that quickly becomes obsolete </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>FEA Reference Models </li></ul><ul><li>Federal templates for architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management tool for focusing on business needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required by OMB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See www.feapmo.gov </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Five models, for five different views of the architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Reference Model (PRM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Reference Model (BRM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Component Reference Model (SRM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Reference Model (TRM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Reference Model (DRM) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>FEA Reference Models (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Models depend on each other; PRM and BRM drive the others </li></ul><ul><li>“ [T]hese models will enable better alignment of IT and the business of government. OMB and agency officials will use them to improve agency performance, increase intergovernmental collaboration and reduce costs for the taxpayer, furthering the goals of the President's Management Agenda and making government services more citizen-centered.&quot; —Mark Forman, OMB Administrator for E-government and IT </li></ul>
  18. 18. Concepts of Business Value FEA Reference Models (continued) Common use of data Data standards and definitions DRM Data Investments Technology that does the tasks TRM Technical TRM, DRM Capabilities to accomplish business SRM Service Component SRM What the business is BRM Business BRM Goals, metrics PRM Performance Drives Describes Abbrev Model
  19. 19. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>EA and the investment cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Three phases of investment cycle: select, control, evaluate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sooner in the investment cycle that EA is considered, the better </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Select </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EA recommends what to select and reject based on value and compatibility with other systems and organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EA recommends how to set up relationships between systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EA recommends which systems to phase out, which to expand, and which to keep for now but not add to </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>EA System Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>You can graph the maturity of different aspects of a system’s architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The quadrant a system falls in suggests the most cost-effective future for the system </li></ul>
  21. 21. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>EA and Activity-Based Costing (ABC) </li></ul><ul><li>ABC is a way of tracking money spent by specific activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows where time is spent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases accountability for cost management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ABC work is related to EA, but it was one more stove-piped set of information </li></ul><ul><li>EA now has a relationship with the ABC work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABC tracking of time and money is closely related to process and business architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting ABC work activities with the BRM shows whether time is being spent on the mission or something else </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting system relationships with the BRM and ABC work activities shows whether systems are being used for the mission </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Concepts of Business Value <ul><li>EA and the DOI Strategic Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Plan, like ABC, is related to EA, but it was also stove-piped. </li></ul><ul><li>EA now has a relationship with the strategic planners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Plan answers the questions of what we do and why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relating Strategic Plan to EA clarifies relationships between Strategic Plan and business, IT investments, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Course Topic 3 </li></ul><ul><li>How EA works. </li></ul>
  24. 24. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>“ Unobstructed access to facts can produce unlimited good only if it is matched by the desire and ability to find out what they mean and where they lead.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The computer can provide a correct number, but it may be an irrelevant number until judgment is pronounced.” </li></ul><ul><li>--Norman Cousins </li></ul>Having artifacts, a methodology, or even a blueprint, is not enough. There has to be a connection to the customer. However, EA only makes recommendations. It is the manager’s decision whether to act on the recommendations.
  25. 25. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>“ What is the structure of government that will best guard against the precipitate counsels and factious combinations for unjust purposes, without a sacrifice of the fundamental principle of republicanism?” </li></ul><ul><li>--James Madison </li></ul>EA helps managers build an architecture for the Interior based on the mission, not on politics, funding, legislation, or organization.
  26. 26. How EA Finds Pay Dirt EA’s “Take-Action” Product The ultimate result of the EA team’s work is analysis and recommendations for the customer to take action on <ul><li>EA Team </li></ul><ul><li>Assess it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are systems too old or costly to maintain? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could systems be tied together better? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer </li></ul><ul><li>Decide whether to take action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let’s consolidate those systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding is short, let’s not improve data integrity right now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let’s propose these investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let’s plan out a strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are business process issues being ignored? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can information be more centralized? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could information be easier to get to? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommend action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You should consolidate these systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You should improve security and data integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You should propose these investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You should plan a strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Envision it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is what it does, and this is what it could do </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>The four phases of EA </li></ul><ul><li>All of the phases use DEAR, either adding to DEAR’s data or analyzing what’s in it </li></ul>
  28. 28. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Phase 1 Envision the future architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Take these ingredients… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FEA reference models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry best practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… And build a vision out of them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual target architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conceptual target architecture is not the “final” target architecture. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a sketch we use to make a blueprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make the blueprint, we’ll have to take a lot of measurements (collect data) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then we need to make a detailed drawing of the planned additions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The conceptual target architecture gives us something to measure against </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can now develop assessment criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You measure against the criteria to find how close the current architecture is to the target architecture. </li></ul></ul>Conceptual target architecture Target architecture
  29. 29. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Phase 2 Determine scope, collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Decide which systems are within scope (which ones to collect data on) </li></ul><ul><li>Interview the system experts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use data collection templates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Templates standardize data collecting and recording </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Study related documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze findings; put them into system models in DEAR </li></ul>The data collection template: the spreadsheet that is the BRM
  30. 30. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Phase 2 (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews cover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who and why (business) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What and how (technology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where and when (both) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At least one interview is done for every major application in Interior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major effort; 2-4 hour interview for each of 200 applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data quality is reviewed to see that data collection standards are followed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis and planning are useless if data is flawed </li></ul></ul>Interviews are the EA team’s data mine
  31. 31. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Phase 3 Align Interior architecture with federal architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Compare Interior EA with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PRM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BRM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classify accordingly </li></ul>
  32. 32. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Phase 3 (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Sample questions </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the business architecture (BRM/PRM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the system support business functions? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the system support Interior strategies, goals, and objectives? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there other systems that do what this system does? (Is there functional overlap?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compare the service component architecture (SRM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there documented system design requirements? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are system interfaces defined and documented? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are high-level design or operational concepts defined? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Phase 3 (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Sample questions </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the technology architecture (TRM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the technology authorized for continuing use by the TRM? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are infrastructure components and services shared? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do the technology products and practices employed match the TRM standards and best practices? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compare the data architecture (DRM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there documented data standards and protocols? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How mature is the data storage? Data access? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can other systems access and modify the same data entities? (Do other systems overlap in the area of data?) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Phase 3 (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Model the systems and their relationships in DEAR </li></ul><ul><li>Templates to use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Portfolio Analysis Template </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Portfolio Analysis Template (Criteria) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Portfolio Analysis Template (Scoring) </li></ul></ul>System Portfolio Analysis Template (Criteria) System Portfolio Analysis Template (Scoring) Application Portfolio Analysis Template
  35. 35. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Phase 3 (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>Classify the architecture accordingly: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legacy architecture: phase out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low data maturity systems: consolidate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low applications / technology maturity: reengineer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target: use as shining example! </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Phase 4 Modernization blueprints </li></ul><ul><li>There are two modernization blueprints, produced and managed in parallel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactical = short-term; what we can get a return on right now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic = long-term; a broader view on saving and improving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tactical modernization blueprint supports these decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O&M expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic modernization blueprint supports these decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment proposals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business cases </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. How EA Finds Pay Dirt Phase 4
  38. 38. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Phase 4 </li></ul><ul><li>How to use a Tactical Modernization Blueprint </li></ul><ul><li>The blueprint shows managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best candidates for tactical improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated time/money involved for each </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models of architecture: as it now is, and as it should be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers can then </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define and manage a baseline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set improvement targets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify, select, and propose improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EA analysts create a Tactical Modernization Blueprint Sequencing Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows start and finish dates of events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows which events depend on others </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Phase 4 </li></ul><ul><li>How to use a Strategic Modernization Blueprint </li></ul><ul><li>Supports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactical plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What phase of investment each system is in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems that overlap (candidates for cost savings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships between systems and initiatives (such as e-government) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal guidance on architecture and e-government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations for a more cost-effective architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EA analysts derive a Strategic Modernization Blueprint Sequencing Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Road map to a more cost-effective architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for retiring and re-engineering systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows which investment proposals are most urgently needed for the future architecture </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>Phase 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Value of modernization blueprints </li></ul><ul><li>Tactical recommendations give managers something to use now, with today’s dollars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down effect: High-level managers can watch how results affect overall mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up effect: Practical tool for middle managers’ wise spending </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic recommendations give managers an overall business direction for their technology and line of business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down effect: Practical tool for high-level managers to use in major decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up effect: Big-picture view for middle managers, showing where business is headed </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. How EA Finds Pay Dirt <ul><li>High-Level EA </li></ul><ul><li>EA is at the 50,000-foot level this year (see following slide) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrating on modeling what already exists at Interior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping Interior lines of business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DOI has more complex lines of business than any other government department except DOD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rolling out DEAR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In FY05 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernization blueprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get EA involved in the first step of the investment cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defining business need should be a fundamental part of a business case </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Future efforts will include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Process Reengineering (BPR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target Application Architecture (TAA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data efforts </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. How EA Finds Pay Dirt OMB DOI Group of DOI systems Related systems Individual systems At this level, we look at related systems At this level, we look at groups of systems At this level, we look at entire DOI At this level, we relate DOI to OMB Data collection is below this level
  43. 43. DEAR: Picking Up Gold Nuggets <ul><li>Course Topic 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Like picking gold nuggets off the ground, DEAR is the Interior’s first search for value, and a preparation for future EA projects. </li></ul>
  44. 44. DEAR: Picking Up Gold Nuggets <ul><li>The problems and the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Many sources of EA information across Interior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to communicate between Interior and bureaus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to communicate within Interior across lines of business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem OMB wants to track Interior information related to FEA models </li></ul><ul><li>Solution DEAR—a repository that is the one source of record for Interior-tracked systems that cross bureaus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 800 systems so far </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not include state-level systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEAR is set up to fit with FEA templates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DEAR is the EA team’s first major project; it is the foundation for future projects </li></ul>Fewer data sources, more connections, with DEAR
  45. 45. DEAR: Picking Up Gold Nuggets <ul><li>What is DEAR? </li></ul><ul><li>Data warehouse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaus are like stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get their data from the warehouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most users don’t see the warehouse; they do their business directly with the store </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Central to EA: stores all architecture-related models, data, and artifacts, produces reports for EA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes data in many formats and sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines and compares related data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reporting tool: gives decision-makers critical information for analyzing architecture </li></ul>DEAR organizes information so patterns become clear
  46. 46. DEAR: Picking Up Gold Nuggets <ul><li>What goes into DEAR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the related data that used to be isolated in unconnected databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New data, that’s being collected right now </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What comes out of DEAR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports on Interior’s assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use the series of standard reports, or create the report you need </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Models </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who uses DEAR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who collect and input architecture data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who analyze architecture data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who use this information for IT decisions </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Future Projects: Setting Up Mining Camp <ul><li>Course Topic 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Like setting up a mining camp, future projects will establish EA as a way of thinking about investment value. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Future Projects: Setting Up Mining Camp <ul><li>Target Application Architecture (TAA) </li></ul><ul><li>Successful project at bureau level; to be adapted for Interior </li></ul><ul><li>Explains concepts and best practices for doing more with less </li></ul><ul><li>Describes architectural issues with the Interior’s application portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Discusses costs and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Predicts impacts of various choices </li></ul>
  49. 49. Future Projects: Setting Up Mining Camp <ul><li>BPR (Business Process Re-engineering) </li></ul><ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful bureau project, adaptable to Interior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-time revolutionary redesign, not continuous improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OMB requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circular A-11 and Exhibit 300/Business Case </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces redundancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streamlines workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streamlines information requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps employees understand business rules and expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BPR principles include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize around outcomes, not specific tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate valueless processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where possible, do things electronically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle information only once </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Push decision-making out to where the work is done </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Future Projects: Setting Up Mining Camp <ul><li>BPR (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>BPR Lab is a center to teach organizations how to do BPR, and help them through it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also helps create a BPR Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BPR Plan is a map for re-engineering a project; answers these questions and more: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the goal of this team? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the drivers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can any part be automated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When will the reengineering be evaluated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What technology is needed? </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Other Gold Strikes: EA Inside and Outside the Interior <ul><li>Course Topic 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Interior can learn from other organizations’ EA efforts. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Other Gold Strikes: EA Inside and Outside the Interior <ul><li>Some bureaus (MMS, BLM, USGS) already have EA efforts started </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaus act as pilot efforts for Interior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureau lessons learned help Interior avoid pitfalls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some departments and agencies are further along in EA work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everything is applicable, but Interior can learn a lot by watching what works for other agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some states and industries also have EA efforts worth imitating </li></ul>
  53. 53. Other Gold Strikes: EA Inside and Outside the Interior <ul><li>Inside the Interior: MMS </li></ul><ul><li>“ The MMS also initiated an electronic government initiative within our OMM program, e-Government Transformation. During FY 2002, OMM completed the preparation phase of this effort, including the establishment of a Project Management Office. Work completed during FY 2002 included development of … Enterprise Architecture. OMM is working to ensure that its resulting Enterprise Architecture is scalable and fully integrated with DOI’s Enterprise Architecture. These materials form the foundation for future efforts—a structured, modular approach will include formal re-engineering of OMM’s business processes.” </li></ul><ul><li>— MMS Annual Financial Report, FY 2002 </li></ul>
  54. 54. Other Gold Strikes: EA Inside and Outside the Interior <ul><li>Inside the Interior: BLM </li></ul><ul><li>BLM’s goals for the FEA models in FY03 and FY04 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full BLM alignment with OMB FEA models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full integration of FEA into BLM investment cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empower line-of-business managers with architecture information for BPR and IT investments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See also http://www.blm.gov/ba </li></ul>
  55. 55. Other Gold Strikes: EA Inside and Outside the Interior <ul><li>Inside the Interior: USGS </li></ul><ul><li>“ USGS is an active participant in the accelerated effort to develop the DOI enterprise information architecture. The USGS has also established an integrated bureau-level team that has begun development of the USGS information architecture. The USGS enterprise architecture will build on and support the Department-wide architecture, while also accommodating the unique, bureau-specific business requirements of the USGS.” </li></ul><ul><li>— USGS FY2003 Annual Performance Plan </li></ul><ul><li>See also http://gateway.usgs.gov/partners/p_become.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://gateway.usgs.gov/projects/project4.html </li></ul>
  56. 56. Other Gold Strikes: EA Inside and Outside the Interior <ul><li>Outside the Interior </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Government </li></ul><ul><li>Government Computer News on EA http:// www.gcn.com /enterprise-architecture/ </li></ul><ul><li>DOT EA http://cio.ost.dot.gov/architecture/ </li></ul><ul><li>DOD EA http://www.defenselink.mil/comptroller/bmmp/pages/arch_home.html </li></ul><ul><li>FAA’s National Airspace System modernization: http://www2.faa.gov/nasarchitecture/blueprnt/2002Update/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>State Government </li></ul><ul><li>Arizona EA http:// gita.state.az.us/enterprise_architecture / </li></ul><ul><li>Kentucky EA http://enterpriseit.ky.gov/ </li></ul><ul><li>North Dakota EA http://www.state.nd.us/ea/ </li></ul><ul><li>Ohio EA http://www.oh.gov/das/DCS/OPP/EAHome.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia EA http://www.cots.state.va.us/EA/eaabout.htm </li></ul>
  57. 57. Other Gold Strikes: EA Inside and Outside the Interior <ul><li>Outside the Interior </li></ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford University EA http:// www.stanford.edu /group/APS/arch/ </li></ul><ul><li>University of Iowa enterprise security architecture http://www.its.uiowa.edu/cio/itsecurity/resources/esa.htm </li></ul><ul><li>University of Illinois EA http://www-s11.admin.uillinois.edu/aits/live/Site.xml?document=Architecture-Planning.xml&focus=N11 </li></ul><ul><li>Forums and References </li></ul><ul><li>Zachman framework http:// www.zifa.com / </li></ul><ul><li>EA Community http:// www.eacommunity.com / </li></ul><ul><li>Institute for Enterprise Architecture Developments http://www.enterprise-architecture.info / </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Enterprise Architecture Certification http:// www.feacinstitute.org / </li></ul><ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><li>European EA project http://www.eurice.de/infocitizen/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>International EA research http://users.iafrica.com/o/om/omisditd/denniss/text/entparch.html </li></ul>
  58. 58. Conclusion <ul><li>Course Topic 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and references. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Conclusion <ul><li>Why EA </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t waste the millions we’ve spent on data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like buying a computer but refusing to plug it in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of data, EA creates information you can act on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep OMB funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Save money while meeting OMB requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to communicate with other agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FEA templates mean all government agencies are shooting for the same goal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stop uncontrolled IT growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get investments in line with our mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Whiz-bang”—wrong reason to invest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term cost-effectiveness—right reason to invest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speed up good business cases, stop bad ones in early stages </li></ul><ul><li>Support other initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asset management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration management </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. For More Information: Contacts and References <ul><li>Colleen Coggins—Interior Chief Architect, (202)208-5911, [email_address] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jim Johnson—Interior Business Architecture (IBA) Contract Team Lead, (202)452-7733, [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jim Barrett—IBA Contract Technical Lead, (303)236-5353, [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More OMB information: </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.whitehouse.gov/omb / </li></ul><ul><li>www.whitehouse.gov/omb/legislative/testimony/forman100102.html (OMB Associate IT Director Mark Forman’s statement on homeland security and IT investment) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.opengroup.org/public/member/q302/proceedings/presentations/mondayplenary.htm#forman Mark Forman on “The Need for Web Services In the Federal Government” </li></ul>
  61. 61. Document Abstract Revision History S:DearIBAWIPCommunicationsArchitecture Curriculum finals (sent to Colleen)Architecture 200 Made Colleen’s changes from draft Karen Tallentire 11/07/03 WIP Filename/lineage Description of edit Author/Editor Rev. Date Doc Status Key Words: Architecture, curriculum, EA 200 Part of the Architecture Curriculum for the Communications task Contract #: NBD020221 Task Number: 8 M 1230 FEAF Area: Subject Function Code: