Design and Implementation of a
Service-oriented Information System
Architecture Based on a Case Study



            15 No...
Contents

Abbreviations                                                                                                   ...
nition of SOA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                         .   .   .   .   .   23
  3.2 I...
Contents


   4.1 Fundamentals of Enterprise Service-Oriented Architecture . . . . .            30
       4.1.1 Basic Conc...
nition of Enterprise SOA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         34
   4.2 Technology Environment of Enterprise Servic...
cation of the Business System using SOM Methodology                53
      5.1.3 Speci
cation of the Business Application System using SOM
             Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
cation of the Business System . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   67
      6.2.2 Speci
cation of the Business Application System . . . . . .          .   71
      6.2.3 Technical Design for Implementation with...
guration . . . . . . . . . . . . .           .   97
      6.3.8 Process Initiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
Contents


   6.4 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              ...
nitions                                                                                                                   ...
Abbreviations
ABAP      Advanced Business Application Programming
ARIS      Architecture of Integrated Information Systems...
Abbreviations


EP       Enterprise Portal
ERP      Enterprise Resource Planning
ES       Enterprise Service
ESA      Ente...
er
HTTP     Hypertext Transfer Protocol
IDE      Integrated Development Environment
IS       Information System
ISV      I...
Abbreviations


SDN    SAP Developer Network
SLD    System Landscape Directory
SOA    Service-Oriented Architecture
SOAP  ...
nition
WSDL   Web Service Description Language
WSI    Web Service Interface
WSIL   Web Service Inspection Language
WWW    ...
List of Figures

 1.1 Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies, [FeLi05] . . . . . . . . . . .            1
 1.2 Structure of ...
cation, [Alo+ 04, p. 157/167]         27
 3.8    Web Service Interaction Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ...
List of Figures


4.11 Enterprise Services Request and Review De
nition Groups . . . . .            49

5.1 Enterprise Architecture of SOM [FeSi98, p. 341] . . . . . . . . . . .         5...
nition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         88
6.19 iViews of ProjectAssignmentsCreationProcess . . . . . . . . . ....
List of Figures


6.22   Mapping for Event in iView Select Employees . . . . . . . . . . . .                          91
6...
List of Figures


C.24 Universal Worklist (Peter Pro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
C.25 Finalize Rental O...
Listings
 C.1   Operation
ndEmployeeAssignmentListForProject . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   124
 C.2   Operation createEmployeeAssignme...
Bibliography
[Alo+ 04]   Alonso,   G.;   Casati,     F.;   Kuno,    H.;    V.: Web Services :
                            ...
rst published
            October 2006
[Bie+ 06]   Bieberstein,     N.;   Bose,      S.;   Fiammante,   M.;   Jones,   K.;...
Bibliography


[Bon+ 06]   Bonati,       B.;   Regutzki,       J.;   M.: Enterprise Services Ar-
                         ...
Bibliography


[Erl06d]    Erl,   T.:   The principles of service-orientation part 4 of 6: Ser-
            vice discovera...
cation of Distributed Business Application Sys-
            tems : An Object-Oriented Approach. Bamberger Beitrge zura
  ...
Bibliography


            Framework. Bamberger Beitrge zur Wirtschaftsinformatik Nr. 43
                                ...
Bibliography


[Kra+ 05]   Krafzig,  D.; Banke, K.; Slama, D.: Enterprise SOA : Service Ori-
            ented Architectur...
Bibliography


[SAPa]      SAP:           Enterprise Services Architecture - An Introduction.
            http://www.sap.c...
Bibliography


[SAPL06e]   SAPLibrary:          Developing Message Interfaces.              http:
            //help.sap.c...
nition      Wizard.         http:
            //help.sap.com/saphelp_nw2004s/helpdata/en/e9/
            ae1b9a5d2cef4ea4b...
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Design and Implementation of a Service-oriented Information ...

  1. 1. Design and Implementation of a Service-oriented Information System Architecture Based on a Case Study 15 November 2006
  2. 2. Contents Abbreviations IV List of Figures VII Listings XI 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Motivation and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Structure of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 General Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.4 Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Basic Principles 5 2.1 Principles of Information and Application Systems . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.1 Information Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.2 Level of Tasks and Level of Task Bearers . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.3 The Concept of a Business Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1.4 Application Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1.5 Distributed Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Architectures of Information and Application Systems . . . . . . . . 11 2.2.1 Information System Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2.2 Application System Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3 Service-Oriented Architecture 14 3.1 Fundamentals of Service-Oriented Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.1.1 The SOA Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.1.2 Principles of Service-Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.1.3 Meta-Model for Service-Oriented Architecture . . . . . . . . 21 3.1.4 Reference Model for Service-Oriented Architecture . . . . . . 23 3.1.5 De
  3. 3. nition of SOA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.2 Implementation of Service Oriented Architectures . . . . . . . . . . 26 4 SAP's Enterprise Service-Oriented Architecture 30 I
  4. 4. Contents 4.1 Fundamentals of Enterprise Service-Oriented Architecture . . . . . 30 4.1.1 Basic Concepts of Enterprise SOA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4.1.2 De
  5. 5. nition of Enterprise SOA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4.2 Technology Environment of Enterprise Service-Oriented Architecture 35 4.2.1 NetWeaver Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.2.2 Composite Application Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4.2.3 Visual Composer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 4.3 Ecosystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 5 Approach to Design and Implementation of an SOA 50 5.1 Design of an SOA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5.1.1 The Semantic Object Model (SOM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5.1.2 Speci
  6. 6. cation of the Business System using SOM Methodology 53 5.1.3 Speci
  7. 7. cation of the Business Application System using SOM Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5.1.4 Technical Design for Implementation with SAP NetWeaver . 57 5.2 Implementation of an SOA using SAP NetWeaver Technology . . . 60 5.2.1 Creation of Processes with CAF Guided Procedures . . . . . 60 5.2.2 Implementation of Back End Web Services in ABAP or Java 61 5.2.3 Implementation of Composite Services with CAF Core . . . 62 5.2.4 Implementation of User Interfaces with Visual Composer . . 63 6 Design and Implementation of the Case Study Architecture 64 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 6.1.1 Technical Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 6.1.2 Scenario of the Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 6.2 Design of the Case Study Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 6.2.1 Speci
  8. 8. cation of the Business System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 6.2.2 Speci
  9. 9. cation of the Business Application System . . . . . . . 71 6.2.3 Technical Design for Implementation with SAP NetWeaver . 73 6.3 Implementation of the Case Study Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . 76 6.3.1 Process, Blocks and Actions in CAF GP . . . . . . . . . . . 76 6.3.2 Back End Web Services based on J2EE Development . . . . 77 6.3.3 Composite Services and Web Services in CAF Core . . . . . 79 6.3.4 Visual Composer iViews with Web Service Calls . . . . . . . 85 6.3.5 Users in the Enterprise Portal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 6.3.6 Callable Objects and Process Flow in CAF GP . . . . . . . 94 6.3.7 Universal Work List Con
  10. 10. guration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 6.3.8 Process Initiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 II
  11. 11. Contents 6.4 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 6.4.1 Design Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 6.4.2 Implementation Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 7 Summary 103 Bibliography 105 Appendix 115 A SOA De
  12. 12. nitions 116 B Case Study Design 120 C Case Study Implementation 124 C.1 CAF Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 C.2 Visual Composer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 C.3 CAF GP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 C.4 Demo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Erklrung a 150 III
  13. 13. Abbreviations ABAP Advanced Business Application Programming ARIS Architecture of Integrated Information Systems AS Application Server AS Application System BAPI Business Application Programming Interface BI Business Intelligence BO Business Object BPEL Business Process Execution Language BPM Business Process Management BPP Business Process Platform BPX Business Process Expert CA Composite Application CAF Composite Application Framework CAS Composite Application Services ccBPM Cross-Component Business Process Management CO Callable Object CRM Customer Relationship Management CRUD Create, Read, Update, Delete DBMS Database Management System DC Development Component DOM Document Object Model DSAG Deutschsprachige SAP Anwender Gruppe EDA Event Driven Architecture EJB Enterprise JavaBean EMG Event Management Group (Case Study Only) IV
  14. 14. Abbreviations EP Enterprise Portal ERP Enterprise Resource Planning ES Enterprise Service ESA Enterprise Services Architecture ESOA Enterprise Service-Oriented Architecture ESR Enterprise Services Repository GP Guided Procedures GML Generalized Modeling Language GUID Globally Unique Identi
  15. 15. er HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol IDE Integrated Development Environment IS Information System ISV Independent Software Vendor IT Information Technology J2EE Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition JEE Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Since J2EE 1.5) KM Knowledge Management MDA Model Driven Architecture MDM Master Data Management NW NetWeaver OASIS Organization for the Advancement of Structured Infor- mation Standards OMG Object Management Group PCD Portal Content Directory PLM Product Lifecycle Management PROMET Process Method RFC Remote Function Call RPC Remote Procedure Call SAP SAP AG - Systeme, Anwendungen und Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung SCM Supply Chain Management V
  16. 16. Abbreviations SDN SAP Developer Network SLD System Landscape Directory SOA Service-Oriented Architecture SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol SOM Semantic Object Model SQL Structured Query Language SRM Supplier Relationship Management UDDI Universal Description, Discovery and Integration UI User Interface UME User Management Engine URL Uniform Resource Locator VC Visual Composer VI Virtual Interface W3C World Wide Web Consortium WD Web Dynpro WS Web Service WSD Web Service De
  17. 17. nition WSDL Web Service Description Language WSI Web Service Interface WSIL Web Service Inspection Language WWW World Wide Web xApp Packaged Composite Application XI Exchange Infrastructure XML Extensible Markup Language VI
  18. 18. List of Figures 1.1 Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies, [FeLi05] . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Structure of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1 Information System, cp. [FeSi06, p. 4/444] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2 Structure of a Task, cp. [FeSi06, p. 92] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.3 Structure of a Procedure, cp. [FeSi06, p. 98] . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.4 Loosely Coupled and Tightly Coupled Components, [FeSi94, p. 3] . 10 2.5 Conceptual Framework for Distributed Systems, [FeSi94, p. 4] . . . 10 2.6 Generic Architectural Framework, [Sinz02, p. 1056] . . . . . . . . . 12 2.7 Information System Architecture, Application System Architecture and Software Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.1 Basic Concept of SOA, [Amm+ 05, p. 1507] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.2 Dierent Levels of Tight and Loose Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.3 SOA Layers of Abstraction, [Bie+ 06, p. 87] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.4 Stateless and Stateful, [Erl05, p. 308] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.5 Meta-model for Service-Oriented Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.6 Reference Model for Service-Oriented Architectures . . . . . . . . . 23 3.7 SOAP Message and a WSDL service speci
  19. 19. cation, [Alo+ 04, p. 157/167] 27 3.8 Web Service Interaction Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3.9 WS-* Standards, [Mult06] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.1 Enterprise Service Example 'Cancel Order', [SAPT06e, SOA200] . . 32 4.2 SAP's Enterprise Service-Oriented Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4.3 From Infrastructure to Applistructure, [SAPT06c] . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.4 Enterprise SOA with SAP NetWeaver, Own Illustration . . . . . . . 36 4.5 Anatomy of a Composite Application, [SAPT06a] . . . . . . . . . . 42 4.6 Types of Composites, [SAPNb, p. 40] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.7 GP Process Context as a Shared Data Storage, [SAPNa, p. 30] . . . 44 4.8 Meta-Model of Guided Procedures Design Time, Own Illustration . 45 4.9 Options for Adding Callable Objects to Actions, Own Graphic . . . 46 4.10 Architecture of Visual Composer, [SAPT06e] . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 VII
  20. 20. List of Figures 4.11 Enterprise Services Request and Review De
  21. 21. nition Groups . . . . . 49 5.1 Enterprise Architecture of SOM [FeSi98, p. 341] . . . . . . . . . . . 52 5.2 Object-Oriented Concept of Business Objects, [FeSi97, p. 12] . . . . 53 5.3 Transaction-Oriented Concept of Coordinating Loosely Coupled Business Objects, [FeSi97, p. 13] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 5.4 SOM Meta-Model of Business Process Model [FeSi98, p. 344] . . . . 55 5.5 SOM Meta-Model of Business Application Systems [FeSi98, p. 353] 56 5.6 Relationship Meta-Model for the SOM business application system and Guided Procedures Design Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 5.7 Creation of Callable Objects in GP, [SAPT06b] . . . . . . . . . . . 60 5.8 Creation of Actions in GP, [SAPT06b] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 5.9 Creation of Blocks in GP, [SAPT06b] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 5.10 Creation of Processes in GP, [SAPT06b] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5.11 Inside-Out and Outside-In Web Services, [SAPT06d] . . . . . . . . 62 5.12 Visual Composer Modeling Work ow, [SAPT06e] . . . . . . . . . . 63 6.1 Interaction Schema (left) and Task-Event Schema (right) of Business Process Distribution (First Level) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 6.2 Interaction Schema of Business Process Distribution (Final Level) . 69 6.3 Schema of Task Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 6.4 Guided Procedures Process Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 6.5 Service-Oriented Architecture of Event Management Group . . . . . 75 6.6 Guided Procedures Gallery Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 6.7 Created Actions in Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 6.8 Tree Structure of GP Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 6.9 Service Enablement of EDMFoundationBean . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 6.10 Backend Web Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 6.11 CAF Core Development Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 6.12 External Service EMGProjectWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 6.13 Attributes of Entity Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 6.14 Entity Service with Remote Persistency Mapping . . . . . . . . . . 83 6.15 Operations of Application Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 6.16 Creation of Portal Content Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 6.17 Visual Composer Compiler Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 6.18 Visual Composer System De
  22. 22. nition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 6.19 iViews of ProjectAssignmentsCreationProcess . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 6.20 Model for iView Send Rental Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 6.21 Layout for iView Send Rental Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 VIII
  23. 23. List of Figures 6.22 Mapping for Event in iView Select Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 6.23 ResultStates in iView Accept Rental Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 6.24 Action in iView Select Employee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 6.25 Assigned Employees Table Field in iView Select Employee . . . . . 92 6.26 Layers in iView Select Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 6.27 Adding iViews to EP Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 6.28 Creation of Portal Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 6.29 ResultStates of Action Accept Order in GP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 6.30 Parameter Mapping Groups of Block Project Determination Phase . 96 6.31 Roles in Process Project Assignments Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 B.1 Task-Event Schema of Business Process Distribution (Final Level) I 120 B.2 Task-Event Schema of Business Process Distribution (Final Level) II 121 B.3 Task-Event Schema of Business Process Distribution (Final Level) III122 B.4 Schema of Conceptual Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 C.1 GML Source for iView Send Rental Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 C.2 Model for iView Accept Rental Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 C.3 Model for iView Select Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 C.4 Model for iView Approve Employee List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 C.5 Model for iView Select Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 C.6 Model for iView Approve Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 C.7 Model for iView Send Rental Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 C.8 Available Callable Object Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 C.9 Process Initiation (Emil Eve) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 C.10 Universal Worklist (Peter Pro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 C.11 Send Rental Order (Peter Pro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 C.12 Universal Worklist (Richard Rent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 C.13 Accept Rental Order (Richard Rent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 C.14 Universal Worklist (Eric Empl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 C.15 Select Employees (Eric Empl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 C.16 Universal Worklist (Marcus Mat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 C.17 Select Material - Assign Material (Marcus Mat) . . . . . . . . . . . 145 C.18 Select Material - HTML Website (Marcus Mat) . . . . . . . . . . . 145 C.19 Select Material - Google Web Service (Marcus Mat) . . . . . . . . . 146 C.20 Select Material - Send (Marcus Mat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 C.21 Universal Worklist (Richard Rent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 C.22 Approve Employee List (Richard Rent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 C.23 Approve Material List (Richard Rent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 IX
  24. 24. List of Figures C.24 Universal Worklist (Peter Pro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 C.25 Finalize Rental Order (Peter Pro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 C.26 Process Review (Emil Eve) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 X
  25. 25. Listings C.1 Operation
  26. 26. ndEmployeeAssignmentListForProject . . . . . . . . . . 124 C.2 Operation createEmployeeAssignmentListForProject . . . . . . . . . 124 C.3 Operation queryEmployees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 C.4 Operation queryProjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 C.5 Operation queryProjects (External Service Access) . . . . . . . . . 126 C.6 Entity Service Employee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 C.7 Application Service ManageEmployee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 XI
  27. 27. Bibliography [Alo+ 04] Alonso, G.; Casati, F.; Kuno, H.; V.: Web Services : Mchiarju, Concepts, Architectures and Applications. Heidelberg: Springer, 2004 [Amm+ 05] Ammon, R. v.; Pausch, W.; Schimmer, M.: Realization of Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA) Using Enterprise Portal Platforms Taking the Example of Multi-Channel Sales in Banking Domains. In: Ferstl, O. K. (Hrsg.); Sinz, E. J. (Hrsg.); Eckert, S. (Hrsg.); Isselhorst, T. (Hrsg.): Wirtschaftsinformatik 2005: eEconomy, eGovernment, eS- ociety, 7. Internationale Tagung Wirtschaftsinformatik 2005, Bamberg, 23.2.2005 - 25.2.2005, Physica-Verlag, 2005. { ISBN 3{7908{1574{8 [Bakk05] Bakker, L.: The SOA Elevator Pitch. lhttp://loekb.blogspot. com/2005/10/soa-elevator-pitch.html - accessed 14 Oktober 2006, October 2005 [BHe07] o Bonnen,  C.; Herger, M.: SAP NetWeaver Visual Composer. First Edition, Bonn: Galileo Press, 2007. { German Edition
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  38. 38. Bibliography [SAPT06d] SAPTeched: SAP TechEd '06 Conference Las Vegas: Handout Ses- sion SOA106 - Introduction to the Core of the Enterprise SOA So- lution - the Enterprise Services Repository. http://www.sapteched. com/usa/ - accessed 11 October 2006, 12-15 September 2006 [SAPT06e] SAPTeched: SAP TechEd '06 Conference Las Vegas: Hand- out Session SOA109 - SAP NetWeaver Model-Driven Development. http://www.sapteched.com/usa/ - accessed 11 October 2006, 12-15 September 2006 [Sch+ 06] Schemm, J. W.; Heutschi, R.; Vogel, T.; Wende, K.; Legner, C.: Serviceorientierte Architekturen: Einordnung im Business Engineering. Universitt St. Gallen, January 2006 a [ScNa96] Schulte, R. W.; Natis, Y. V.: Service Oriented Architectures, Part 1. Gartner Research. ID Number: SPA-401-068, April 1996 [Sinz02] Sinz, E. J.: Architektur von Informationssystemen. In: Rechenberg, P. (Hrsg.); Pomberger, G. (Hrsg.): Informatik-Handbuch. Third Edi- tion. Mnchen: Hanser, 2002, S. 1055{1068 u [SpWi04] Sprott, D.; Wilkes, L.: Understanding Service-Oriented Archi- tecture. http://msdn.microsoft.com/architecture/soa/default. aspx?pull=/library/en-us/dnmaj/html/aj1soa.asp - accessed 14 October 2006. January 2004. { CBDI Forum [Stev] Stevens, M.: Multi-Grained Services. http://www.developer.com/ design/article.php/10925_1142661_1 - accessed 14 October 2006 [Stie03] Stierand, B.: Drum prfe, wer sich ewig bindet... : u Die Web Service Inspection Language (WSIL). XML Web Services Magazin. http://xml-magazin.de/itr/online_artikel/ psecom,id,376,nodeid,69.html - accessed 24 October 2006, April 2003 [The 06] The Open Group: De
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  41. 41. Appendix
  42. 42. A SOA De
  43. 43. nitions In short, an SOA is a strategic framework of technology that allows all interesting systems, inside and outside of an organization, to expose and access well de
  44. 44. ned services, that may be furthermore abstracted to orchestration layers and composite applications [Lint04]. In this context, we de
  45. 45. ne SOA as a way of designing and implementing enter- prise applications that deals with the intercommunication of loosely coupled, coarse grained (business level), reusable artifacts (services) [Oasi06b]. SOA is the architectural style that supports loosely coupled services to enable business exibility in an interoperable, technology-agnostic manner. SOA consists of a composite set of business-aligned services that support a exible and dynami- cally re-con
  46. 46. gurable end-to-end business processes realization using interface-based service descriptions [Bor+ 04]. SOA is about architecting, designing and integrating applications, systems and processes through collections of shared business services. These business services are basically modular pieces of software that perform a discrete, well-de
  47. 47. ned busi- ness function. The underlying complexity of the technology has been abstracted from the business processes for maximum agility, and the software services collab- orate by using universal standards. SOA moves the primary focus from technology toward process de
  48. 48. nition and transparency. An example of an SOA in action is the Internet: DNS, HTTP, SMTP and other standard internet parts work for dierent business functions, for users with dierent operating systems. SOA is all this taken to the next level [Bakk05]. Simply put, SOA is a broad, standards-based framework in which services are built, deployed, managed, and orchestrated in pursuit of new and much more agile IT infrastructures that respond swiftly to shifting business demands [KnRi05]. The policies, practices, frameworks that enable application functionality to be provided and consumed as sets of services published at a granularity relevant to the service consumer. Services can be invoked, published and discovered, and are abstracted away from the implementation using a single, standards-based form of interface [SpWi04]. A Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a software architecture that is based on the key concepts of an application frontend, service, service repository, and service 116
  49. 49. A SOA De
  50. 50. nitions bus. A service consists of a contract, one or more interfaces, and an implementa- tion [Kra+ 05]. SOA is a conceptual business architecture where business functionality, or ap- plication logic, is made available to SOA users, or consumers, as shared, reusable services on an IT network. 'Services' in an SOA are modules of business or applica- tion functionality with exposed interfaces, and are invoked by messages [MaBe06]. A set of components which can be invoked, and whose interface descriptions can be published and discovered [W3C04]. SOA is not a technology per se, but rather a set of principles and methodologies for designing and developing software 'services' that can be deployed and managed across an enterprise network. These 'services' are, in essence, software components- discrete pieces of code and/or data structures-that can be reused for dierent pur- poses. Reuse is possible because the components are packaged as self-contained, loosely coupled units, which enable developers to work with them without aecting other components. Because of their independent, modular nature, software com- ponents can be used like building blocks to develop a variety of new applications. They can also be made available externally to partners and suppliers for use in their applications [Biss05]. SOA is an architectural style whose goal is to achieve loose coupling among in- teracting software agents. A service is a unit of work done by a service provider to achieve desired end results for a service consumer. Both provider and consumer are roles played by software agents on behalf of their owners [He03]. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an architectural style that supports service orientation. Service orientation is a way of thinking in terms of services and service- based development and the outcomes of services. (...) An architectural style is the combination of distinctive features in which architecture is performed or expressed. (...) [The 06] At its most basic, an SOA is a collection of services on a network that communicate with one another. The services are loosely coupled (meaning that an application doesn't have to know the technical details of another application in order to talk to it), have well-de
  51. 51. ned, platform-independent interfaces, and are reusable. SOA is a higher level of application development (also referred to as coarse granularity) that, by focusing on business processes and using standard interfaces, helps mask the underlying technical complexity of the IT environment [Datz04]. Service Oriented Architecture is a paradigm for organizing and utilizing dis- tributed capabilities that may be under the control of dierent ownership domains. 117
  52. 52. A SOA De
  53. 53. nitions It provides a uniform means to oer, discover, interact with and use capabilities to produce desired eects consistent with measurable preconditions and expectations [Oasi06a, p. 29]. With an enterprise architecture grounded in Service Orientation, we're looking for a broad set of rules and practices that govern the design and evolution of organizations that leverage business resources as Services. We call that set of rules and practices Service-Oriented Architecture(SOA) [BlSc06]. SOA is an architectural style for building software applications that use services available in a network such as the web. It promotes loose coupling between software components so that they can be reused. Applications in SOA are built based on services. A service is an implementation of a well-de
  54. 54. ned business functionality, and such services can then be consumed by clients in dierent applications or business processes [Mahm05]. Eine dienstorientierte Architektur (service oriented architecture) liegt vor, wenn die Funktionalitten in Form von Diensten gekapselt sind, die uber standardisierte, a  publizierte Schnittstellen verfgen. Weiterhin mssen die so gekapselten Funktio- u u nalitten lose gekoppelt und atomar sein [WiSc06, p. 231]. a A service-oriented architecture is a framework for integrating business processes and supporting IT infrastructure as secure, standardized components - services - that can be reused and combined to address changing business priorities [Bie+ 06]. Eine service-orientierte Architektur is eine Form einer verteilten Informations- architektur, deren Fokus auf der Ankndigung, dem Aunden und dem dynami- u schen Aufrufen von hoch stehenden, anwendungsnahen und in sich abgeschlossenen Diensten liegt [HaNe05, p. 782]. Contemporary SOA represents an open, agile, extensible, federated, composable architecture comprised of autonomous, QoS-capable, vendor diverse, interoperable, discoverable, and potentially reusable services, implemented as Web services. SOA can establish an abstraction of business logic and technology, resulting in a loose coupling between these domains. SOA is an evolution of past platforms, preserving successful characteristics of traditional architectures, and bringing with it distinct principles that foster service-orientation in support of a service-oriented enterprise. SOA is ideally standardized throughout an enterprise, but achieving this state requires a planned transition and the support of a still evolving technology set [Erl05, p. 54]. A service-oriented architecture is a style of design that guides all aspects of cre- ating and using business services throughout their lifecycle (from conception to 118
  55. 55. A SOA De
  56. 56. nitions retirement). An SOA is also a way to de
  57. 57. ne and provision an IT infrastructure to allow dierent applications to exchange data and participate in business pro- cesses, regardless of the operation system or programming languages underlying those applications [NeLo05, p. 13]. 119
  58. 58. C Case Study Implementation C.4 Demo Figure C.9: Process Initiation (Emil Eve) Figure C.10: Universal Worklist (Peter Pro) 141
  59. 59. C Case Study Implementation Figure C.11: Send Rental Order (Peter Pro) Figure C.12: Universal Worklist (Richard Rent) 142
  60. 60. C Case Study Implementation Figure C.13: Accept Rental Order (Richard Rent) Figure C.14: Universal Worklist (Eric Empl) 143
  61. 61. C Case Study Implementation Figure C.15: Select Employees (Eric Empl) Figure C.16: Universal Worklist (Marcus Mat) 144
  62. 62. C Case Study Implementation Figure C.17: Select Material - Assign Material (Marcus Mat) Figure C.18: Select Material - HTML Website (Marcus Mat) 145
  63. 63. C Case Study Implementation Figure C.19: Select Material - Google Web Service (Marcus Mat) Figure C.20: Select Material - Send (Marcus Mat) 146
  64. 64. C Case Study Implementation Figure C.21: Universal Worklist (Richard Rent) Figure C.22: Approve Employee List (Richard Rent) 147
  65. 65. C Case Study Implementation Figure C.23: Approve Material List (Richard Rent) Figure C.24: Universal Worklist (Peter Pro) 148
  66. 66. C Case Study Implementation Figure C.25: Finalize Rental Order (Peter Pro) Figure C.26: Process Review (Emil Eve) 149

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