Business -Centric Methodology For Enterprise Agility & Interoperability Mike Lubash DFAS XML Team Lead DOD Finance and Acc...
Agenda Agenda Past Future Understanding the Challenge Today’s Approach 1 Momentum Doctrine for Agility  and Interoperabili...
Environment: Understanding the Challenge 1-3. Semantics 4. Frameworks are complex 5. Take back the steering wheel 6. One S...
Environment: Today’s Approach   Leading Methodologies Standards with modularity EDI  - recent added 'slotting' concept wit...
Environment: Today’s Approach   Traditional View of Interoperability Physical Data Link Network  Transport Session Present...
Environment:  Momentum
Getting to the Future - Obtaining our Objectives Business Lines Transformation Federal Enterprise Architecture DoD Archite...
Doctrine for Agility and Interoperability           <ul><li>Business First </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting power to the use...
Paradigm Shift  Handle an Ever Changing Enterprise Information Architecture* Navigation Products / Services  Enabling Tech...
Paradigm Shift  Handle an Ever Changing Enterprise Information Architecture* Navigation Products / Services  Enabling Tech...
Supporting Information Architecture Information Architecture Navigation Products / Services  Enabling Technologies Interfa...
BCM Model Applying Constraints in Layers Where Appropriate Source: BusinessCentricMethodology.com Methodology Strategic Ta...
BCM Templates Business Drivers: Model / Process / Constraints Contract –  Collaboration Partner Specific Constraints <ul><...
BCM Templates Business Drivers: Model / Process / Constraints Contract –  Collaboration Partner Specific Constraints <ul><...
Operational View -  Interoperability Artifacts in Motion Implementation Templates  Template-driven
Operational View -  Interoperability Artifacts in Motion Implementation Templates  Template-driven
Operational View -  Interoperability Artifacts in Motion Communication Templates
Opportunities:  Afforded to an Agile Enterprise Doing Business Differently 1.  Pragmatic as well as Semantic Interoperabil...
Opportunities:  Afforded to an Agile Enterprise  1. Pragmatic & Semantic Interoperability Abstraction Meta- Metadata Metad...
Opportunities:  Afforded to an Agile Enterprise  2. Metrics for Interoperability             Poor Integration Traditional ...
Opportunities:  Afforded to an Agile Enterprise  3.  Providing Options for Interoperability Mapping  (Option 1)   Trans St...
Opportunities:  Afforded to an Agile Enterprise    4. Trend Toward Service-Oriented Architectures SHIFT SHIFT Hub n’ Spoke...
Opportunities:  Afforded to an Agile Enterprise    5.  Supporting Communities of Interest - CoI Using History-of-Use Filte...
Opportunities:  Afforded to an Agile Enterprise Doing Business Differently 1.  Pragmatic as well as Semantic Interoperabil...
Moving the Enterprise Forward - Tactics Build with existing infrastructure and have 1, 2, 5, 10 year plan   <ul><li>Apply ...
Infrastructure to Move the Enterprise Forward Major Supporting Services / Components Rules/Mapping Engine Workflow Ontolog...
Personal Development -  Information Architect Tasks Infrastructure <ul><li>Skills for   Meeting a Demand of an Emerging Pr...
Scope: Setting the Tone EAI Phase 2: XML Definitions Phase 3:   Vendor Implementations Phase 1: Methodology --  Specificat...
Summary           <ul><li>Present an methodology for agility & interoperability that … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>addresses the...
Thank you http://www.dfas.info Mike Lubash DFAS XML Team Lead DOD Finance and Accounting XML Community Manger Emerging Tec...
Our Story, and we are sticking to it
BCM Overview
BCM Infrastructure Conops
Search for the Solution When asked what single event was most helpful in developing the theory of relativity, Albert Einst...
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Business-Centric Methodology For Enterprise Agility ...

  1. 1. Business -Centric Methodology For Enterprise Agility & Interoperability Mike Lubash DFAS XML Team Lead DOD Finance and Accounting XML Community Manger Emerging Technologies [email_address]
  2. 2. Agenda Agenda Past Future Understanding the Challenge Today’s Approach 1 Momentum Doctrine for Agility and Interoperability Environment Agility Model Information Architecture 2 Operational View Opportunities Paradigm Shift
  3. 3. Environment: Understanding the Challenge 1-3. Semantics 4. Frameworks are complex 5. Take back the steering wheel 6. One Size doesn’t fit all 7. Information is Power 8. Brain Drain paralysis Symptoms Ineffective communication of requirements Non-reliable information - Integrity/Quality Extending individual efforts to common is painful Convoluted processes Inability to upgrade system Don’t have the information Customer dissatisfaction due to not meeting needs Unable to measure effectiveness of the Enterprise Unable to go from vision to implementation Scope-creep Delay in system implementation Cost overruns for a project Root Causes
  4. 4. Environment: Today’s Approach Leading Methodologies Standards with modularity EDI - recent added 'slotting' concept with XML http://www.disa.org ANSI Electronic Data Interchange X12 Language, patterns, ERP perspective, ebXML support Content for business software interoperability via BODS http://www.OpenApplications.org Open Applications Interoperability Specification OAGIS Addresses linguistics for designing and implementing integration bridges between currently incompatible systems. http://www.ecimf.org/ E-Commerce Integration Meta-Framework ECIMF graphical representations of various systems sixteen methods, from IDEF0 to IDEF14 (and including IDEF1X), are each designed to capture a particular type of information through modeling processes. IDEF methods are used to analyze the model, create a model of a desired version of the system, and to aid in the transition from one to the other. http://www.idef.com/ Integrated Definition IDEF Proven in many developments, graphical ..engineering processes that provide you with guidance to streamline your team's development activities http://www.rational.com/products/rup Rational Unified Process™ RUP Seperates business from technology, graphical built on the solid foundation of well-established OMG standards, including: Unified Modeling Language™ (UML™) http://www.omg.org/mda/ Model Driven Architecture MDA Continues with modeling, development of language for communication, Registry based on configuring the Unified Process methodology developed by the Rational Corporation (UML) to meet UN/CEFACT needs for modelling business processes in addition to objects. http://www.gefeg.com/tmwg/n090r10.htm UN/CEFACT Modeling Methodology * ebXML adopted UMM Provides for architecture alignment via products, Includes narratives, demonstrated success in DoD agencies, aligns closely with previous Federal approach · Establish common architecture terms and definitions · Implement a common approach for architectures · Strengthen architecture policy and guidance · Define and use levels of interoperability · Build architecture relationships with other DoD processes · Manage DoD architectures http://www.c3i.osd.mil/org/cio/i3/AWG_Digital_Library/ Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance C4ISR - DoD Strong Points Initiative Brief Initiative
  5. 5. Environment: Today’s Approach Traditional View of Interoperability Physical Data Link Network Transport Session Presentation Application Source: Open System Interconnection OSI Model Provides different services to the applications Converts the information Handles problems which are not communication issues Provides end to end communication control Routes the information in the network Provides error control between adjacent nodes Connects the entity to the transmission media Interconnection
  6. 6. Environment: Momentum
  7. 7. Getting to the Future - Obtaining our Objectives Business Lines Transformation Federal Enterprise Architecture DoD Architecture Framework NASCIO Adaptive Enterprise Architecture Agile Enterprise Implementation Netcentricity Architecture Doctrine for Agility & Interoperability Roadmap for going forward and provide traceability from vision to implementation
  8. 8. Doctrine for Agility and Interoperability           <ul><li>Business First </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting power to the users; customer and business experts, e.g. self-service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide traceability from business vision to implementation (and status) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing information assets to ensure: visibility, accessibility, interoperability, and understandability through metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic-driven; technology neutral context supported by classifications, ontology and patterns for semantic alignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving the semantics from applications to the infrastructure layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective: not standard language - but instead standard reusable mechanisms to better negotiate differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture rationale for pragmatic interoperability; Templates and models to define ‘what’ not ‘how’; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its not just technology; people are key asset </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-Faceted Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function-centric; not system or entity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice: Web (human), data, process, services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modular and layered to address complexity; leverage open initiatives such as XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service-oriented; loosely coupled interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap legacy systems with services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide structure for business patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defer physicalization as long as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong Business Case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear defined goals with success metrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by proof of principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1, 2, 5 and 10 year migration strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t wait for a perfect solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous integration process </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Paradigm Shift Handle an Ever Changing Enterprise Information Architecture* Navigation Products / Services Enabling Technologies Interfaces Vocabularies Content High Low Stability Agility Model High Low * includes a Thesaurus to align vocabularies with business concepts Physical Data Link Network Transport Session Presentation Application OSI Model Interconnection Volatility
  10. 10. Paradigm Shift Handle an Ever Changing Enterprise Information Architecture* Navigation Products / Services Enabling Technologies Interfaces Vocabularies Content High Low Stability Agility Model High Low * includes a Thesaurus to align vocabularies with business concepts Volatility Need to build on solid base, manage and communicate well, if not, above layers become unstable; our critical foundation which to architect - and our costliest to change ! Some of our artifacts are more stable than others... … a layered model helps in costing, understanding, and leveraging unique qualities of various information architecture components
  11. 11. Supporting Information Architecture Information Architecture Navigation Products / Services Enabling Technologies Interfaces Vocabularies Content High Low Stability Agility Model Source: Lubash Pyramid Information Architecture Enables the management of critical Enterprise information artifacts
  12. 12. BCM Model Applying Constraints in Layers Where Appropriate Source: BusinessCentricMethodology.com Methodology Strategic Tactical Information Architecture Enables the management of critical Enterprise information artifacts
  13. 13. BCM Templates Business Drivers: Model / Process / Constraints Contract – Collaboration Partner Specific Constraints <ul><li>Business Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Frameworks & Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative Sources </li></ul>Templates <ul><ul><li>Templates provide context for declaration of constraints and choices </li></ul></ul>Methodology
  14. 14. BCM Templates Business Drivers: Model / Process / Constraints Contract – Collaboration Partner Specific Constraints <ul><li>Business Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Frameworks & Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative Sources </li></ul>Templates <ul><ul><li>Templates provide context for declaration of constraints and choices </li></ul></ul>In form ation form The difference between data and information is context. Therefore, data must be put in form for context to be learned. System of linked ‘ forms ’ & simple graphics ie. wizards
  15. 15. Operational View - Interoperability Artifacts in Motion Implementation Templates Template-driven
  16. 16. Operational View - Interoperability Artifacts in Motion Implementation Templates Template-driven
  17. 17. Operational View - Interoperability Artifacts in Motion Communication Templates
  18. 18. Opportunities: Afforded to an Agile Enterprise Doing Business Differently 1. Pragmatic as well as Semantic Interoperability via Templates 2. Collaborative Business - via Templates and aligned ontologies 3. New and simpler mapping methods for interoperability 4. New ways of doing business; i.e. Web Services 5. Supporting Communities of Interest (CoI) Enterprise & You <ul><li>Moving the Enterprise Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure to Move the Enterprise Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Development - Information Architect </li></ul><ul><li>OASIS BCM TC </li></ul>
  19. 19. Opportunities: Afforded to an Agile Enterprise 1. Pragmatic & Semantic Interoperability Abstraction Meta- Metadata Metadata Data In addition to rationale, the Templates house the concepts, context, and constraints <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns </li></ul>Wisdom Knowledge Information Data Add Structure Add Experience Synthesize Knowledge Templates Concept Context Instance Constraint Human Intelligence Semantic Interoperability Pragmatic Interoperability
  20. 20. Opportunities: Afforded to an Agile Enterprise 2. Metrics for Interoperability             Poor Integration Traditional Contract Good Integration Aligned Ontology Semantics, Semantics, Semantics Collaboration Partner #1 Collaboration Partner #2 Source: Lubash Pyramid Separate Ontologies Contract driving Templates
  21. 21. Opportunities: Afforded to an Agile Enterprise 3. Providing Options for Interoperability Mapping (Option 1) Trans Std Trans App App Instance IC Map Map Across Domain Domain Specific Trans App Instance App Template (Option 2) Registry Target IC Baseline Specification Populated Templates What is harder? Sending or Receiving?
  22. 22. Opportunities: Afforded to an Agile Enterprise 4. Trend Toward Service-Oriented Architectures SHIFT SHIFT Hub n’ Spoke S ervice O riented (SOA) Centralized data processing only Virtual Pt.-to-Pt. Physical Artifacts Broker-based Metadata Strategy Reuse: High Central End-to-End Tracking: Yes, Central Integration at Broker Lookup Info: Must publish to Broker Mapping: Two or more Bandwidth Required: Highest Computing: Central; Big Iron Impact of Changes: High Pt.-to-Pt. Real-time: No Technology Solution Central & Distributed data processing Common Pt.-to-Pt. Mechanism Logical & Physical Artifacts Enterprise Metadata Strategy Reuse: Much Opportunity End-to-End Tracking: Services Integration at Point of Use Lookup Info: Kept at Domain Mapping: Once Bandwidth Required: Lowest Computing: Distributed Load Impact of Changes: Low Pt.-to-Pt. Real-time: Yes Business Solution Ad Hoc Distributed data processing Simple Pt.-to-Pt. Physical Artifacts No Metadata Strategy Reuse: Little Opportunity End-to-End Tracking: Low Integration at Point of Use Lookup Info: Kept at Domain Mapping: Only Once Bandwidth Required: Lowest Computing: Distributed Load Impact of Changes: Low Pt.-to-Pt. Real-time: Yes Immediate Solution Business-Centric Methodology becomes ever more critical
  23. 23. Opportunities: Afforded to an Agile Enterprise 5. Supporting Communities of Interest - CoI Using History-of-Use Filtering to leverage relationships between users and Enterprise artifacts System Service Ontology Composite <ul><li>Institutional communicates and navigates Enterprise via ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Expedient through discovery and use via CM Search </li></ul>Message CoI Expedient Viewports / Capabilities CM Service Search Create Domains Navigation Source: http://www.CollaborativeMemory.com Search Results Registry Persistence User CoI Institutional
  24. 24. Opportunities: Afforded to an Agile Enterprise Doing Business Differently 1. Pragmatic as well as Semantic Interoperability via Templates 2. Collaborative Business - via Templates and aligned ontologies 3. New and simpler mapping methods for interoperability 4. New ways of doing business; i.e. Web Services 5. Supporting Communities of Interest (CoI) Enterprise & You <ul><li>Moving the Enterprise Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure to Move the Enterprise Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Development - Information Architect </li></ul><ul><li>OASIS BCM TC </li></ul>
  25. 25. Moving the Enterprise Forward - Tactics Build with existing infrastructure and have 1, 2, 5, 10 year plan <ul><li>Apply Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage ‘hot button’ initiatives; portal efforts to derive organization’s ontology </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest or federate current Enterprise information </li></ul><ul><li>Complete initial best practice Templates for identified high payback area </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration with ongoing Enterprise Architecture initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Apply methodology to proof-of-principles and new developments </li></ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop: - Project workplan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Metadata management plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - Knowledge management plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Transition plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set in place policy for Enterprise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop Information Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put in place collaboration mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document/automate metadata management procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop first cut taxonomies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Communities of Interest - CoI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set-up ‘help line’ for internal contacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and facilitation </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Infrastructure to Move the Enterprise Forward Major Supporting Services / Components Rules/Mapping Engine Workflow Ontology <ul><li>Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Network </li></ul>Template Processor <ul><li>Thesaurus </li></ul><ul><li>Classifications </li></ul>Federated Visualization Tools Index / Clustering
  27. 27. Personal Development - Information Architect Tasks Infrastructure <ul><li>Skills for Meeting a Demand of an Emerging Profession as an Information Architect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Database -> Document or Database <- Document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eXtensible Markup Language (XML) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information organization and structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faceted Classification / Indexing / Cataloging / Searching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Networks; concepts, business rules, ontologies and taxonomies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>References, Relationships, Communities of Interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation and Visualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles of user-centered iterative design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to put on the Web; JavaScript, VBscript, Java/Active Server Pages (JSP/ASP), etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing for Choice; Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP), Framing, Context-based switching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declarative vs programmatic controls for knowledge management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative tools for infrastructure management: Plan, Organize, Resource, Direct, and Control </li></ul></ul>Techniques GUI Linking Containers
  28. 28. Scope: Setting the Tone EAI Phase 2: XML Definitions Phase 3: Vendor Implementations Phase 1: Methodology -- Specification – Vision -- Template Examples -- Switching & Linking of Templates -- Information Architecture User Business Interoperability EAI Taking the BCM to OASIS for Feedback, Extension and Consensus
  29. 29. Summary           <ul><li>Present an methodology for agility & interoperability that … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>addresses the root cause rather than just symptoms of our integration problems by providing semantic and pragmatic interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is business-centric; shifting power to the business experts; managing Enterprise artifacts and governance through Communities of Interests (CoI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides visibility, accessibility, understandability, using open declarative mechanisms that allow for mass customization of diverse vocabularies and models within heterogeneous environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>insulates business from the high rate of change of technology by dividing the problem into multiple levels and applying constraints properly to reduce complexity and promote reuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides for Enterprise agility and prepares the Enterprise for new opportunities in doing business </li></ul></ul>A tactical-only solution is a waste of money – we need to adopt an Enterprise solution that addresses business context and people.
  30. 30. Thank you http://www.dfas.info Mike Lubash DFAS XML Team Lead DOD Finance and Accounting XML Community Manger Emerging Technologies [email_address]
  31. 31. Our Story, and we are sticking to it
  32. 32. BCM Overview
  33. 33. BCM Infrastructure Conops
  34. 34. Search for the Solution When asked what single event was most helpful in developing the theory of relativity, Albert Einstein is reported to have answered, “Figuring out how to think about the problem.” Source: Wilbur Schramm & William Porter, Men, Women, Messages and Media: Understanding Human Communication

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