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  1. 1. <ul><li>Jason C. H. Chen, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Professor of MIS </li></ul><ul><li>School of Business Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Gonzaga University </li></ul><ul><li>Spokane, WA 99223 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>CHAPTER 5 IT ARCHITECTURES Opening Case Electronic Breaking Points
  2. 2. Chapter Five Overview <ul><li>SECTION 5.1 - HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE BASICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware Basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software Basics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SECTION 5.2 – MANAGING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise Architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Architecture </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Information technology (IT) - any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware - consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software - the set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. HARDWARE BASICS <ul><li>Computer - an electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept, manipulate, and store data </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware components include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central processing unit (CPU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication device </li></ul></ul>Is hard drive a primary storage? How about flash memory?
  7. 7. Computer System Components Primary Storage Which component listed above is the most important for a computer? Which component listed above is the least important for a computer? Central Processing Unit Output Devices Cache Memory Primary Storage Secondary Storage Devices Control Unit ALU Special Purpose Processors Output Devices Input Devices
  8. 8. Primary Storage <ul><li>Primary storage - the computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the CPU </li></ul>
  9. 9. Random Access Memory (RAM) <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) - the computer’s primary working memory, in which program instructions and data are stored so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU via the processor’s high-speed external data bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache memory </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Read-Only Memory (ROM) <ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) - the portion of a computer’s primary storage that does not lose its contents when one switches off the power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory stick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(secondary storage or primary storage)? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Secondary storage - consists of equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Megabyte (MB or M or Meg) - roughly 1 million bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigabyte (GB) - roughly 1 billion bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terabyte (TB) - roughly 1 trillion bytes </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Communication Devices <ul><li>Communication device - equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital subscriber line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. SOFTWARE BASICS <ul><li>System software - controls how the various technology tools work together along with the application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application software - solve specific problems or perform specific tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General purpose (e.g. Java) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific purpose </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Database Management Packages Database Development Database Maintenance Database Interrogation Application Development Primary Tasks of Database Management Packages
  15. 15. Business Enterprise Application Software Customer Relationship Management Human Resource Management Accounting and Financial Management Supply Chain Management Enterprise Resource Planning Business Decision Support
  16. 16. OPENING CASE QUESTIONS Electronic Breaking Points <ul><li>Identify six hardware categories and place each product listed in the case in its appropriate category </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the CPU and identify which products would use a CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the relationship between memory sticks and laptops. How can a user employ one to help protect information loss from the other? </li></ul><ul><li>What different types of software might each of the products listed in the case use? </li></ul>
  17. 17. SECTION 5.2 Enterprise Architecture
  18. 18. Information Architecture and Infrastructure <ul><li>Information architecture ( IA ) is the art and science of expressing a model or concept for information. Information architecture is used in web development, database development, programming, enterprise architecture, critical system software design, library systems and other activities that require expressions of complex systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The term ‘ Information Infrastructure ' (II) refers to the communications networks and associated software that support interaction among people and organizations . The Internet is the phenomenon that has driven the debate to date. </li></ul>
  19. 19. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES <ul><li>Enterprise architecture - includes the plans for how an organization will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and IT assets </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise architect (EA) - a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, a patient diplomat, and provides the important bridge between IT and the business </li></ul>
  20. 20. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES <ul><li>Primary goals of enterprise architectures </li></ul>
  23. 23. CLASSROOM EXERCISE <ul><li>Backup and Recovery (A nswer the following questions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have a backup strategy for your computer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How often do you backup? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you backup? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of format do you use for your backup? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do you save the backup? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long do you save the backup? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now ask your students that if you stole their computer or spilled a hot cup of coffee on their computer right now how much information would they lose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a backup strategy. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Disaster Recovery Cost Curve
  26. 26. INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Five primary characteristics of a solid infrastructure architecture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Internet Enabled Technology Architectures Management Security Software Tools Content and Data Infrastructure TCP/IP Network Hypermedia Databases Servers Browsers Network Management Software Authoring Tools Policies and Standards Firewalls Passwords Encryption
  28. 28. OPENING CASE QUESTIONS Electronic Breaking Points <ul><li>How can an organization use an information architecture to protect its IT investment in electronic devices outlined in the case? </li></ul><ul><li>How can an organization use the devices mentioned in the case to protect information security? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the five ilites (in enterprise infrastructure architecture ) and rank them in order of importance for a laptop (1 highest, 5 lowest) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how a “Customer Phone Number” Web service could be used by one of the products outlined in the case </li></ul>
  29. 29. CLOSING CASE TWO UPS in the Computer Repair Business <ul><li>Do you think UPS’s entrance into the laptop repair business was a good business decision? Why or why not? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the different types of hardware UPS technicians might be working on when fixing laptops </li></ul><ul><li>Assume you are a technician working at UPS. Explain to a customer the different types of memory and why only certain types of data are lost during a computer failure. Also identify a potential backup strategy you can suggest to the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Assume you are a technician working at UPS. Explain to a customer the different types of software found in a typical laptop </li></ul>
  30. 30. End of Chapter 2