Enterprise Information Architecture Methodology <ul><li>Louis Rosenfeld  </li></ul><ul><li>IA Summit 2005 </li></ul><ul><l...
What’s an Enterprise? <ul><li>Large, distributed organization made up of multiple business units  </li></ul><ul><li>Operat...
The Enterprise Challenge: Cutting across departmental silos
Example:  filing an expense report
Information Architects and the Enterprise <ul><li>What’s bad for managers and users… </li></ul><ul><li>…is wonderful for i...
Information Architecture and the Enterprise <ul><li>What’s good for IAs… </li></ul><ul><li>…is a problem for the field; we...
Traditional IA Methods can be Problematic in Enterprise Settings <ul><li>Scale:  volume of users, content, and complexity ...
Rethinking IA Methods for Enterprise Use  1/2 <ul><li>Repurpose and reexamine existing methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usin...
Rethinking IA Methods for Enterprise Use  2/2 <ul><li>Invent new methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-D User Sampling </li></u...
Content Inventory:  Enterprise challenges <ul><li>Difficult to achieve representative samples in the face of these difficu...
Content Inventory: Enterprise work-arounds <ul><li>Greater reliance on automated tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search log an...
Content Inventory Reconsidered: Embracing uncertainty <ul><li>No method--or collection of methods--promises comprehensive ...
Content Migration Strategy: Value Tier Approach <ul><li>Determine  value tiers  of content quality that make sense given y...
Value Tier Approach: Potential quality criteria  <ul><li>Select appropriate criteria for your business context, users, and...
Value Tier Approach: Weighting and scoring
Value Tier Approach: P rioritization
Dealing with Sampling Politics: 2D User Sampling <ul><li>Combines alternative,  apolitical  methods for determining segmen...
2D User Sampling:  Role-based segmentation <ul><li>Roles cut across political boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profile cor...
2D User Sampling:  Demographic segmentation <ul><li>Standard, familiar measure; also cuts across political boundaries </li...
2D User Sampling: Combining roles & demographics 32 4 10 12 6 TOTAL 7 0 4 3 0 Role 4 10 1 2 4 3 Role 3 6 1 1 2 2 Role 2 9 ...
2D User Sampling: Incorporating contextual bias <ul><li>Role/demographic “scorecard” is pure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves ...
2D User Sampling: After stakeholder input 32 4 13 10 5 TOTAL 7 1 3 3 0 Role 4 10 1 2 4 3 Role 3 6 1 3 1 1 Role 2 9 1 5 2 1...
Summary <ul><li>Science takes a beating from politics and pragmatism  </li></ul><ul><li>These methods are straw men:  not ...
Contact Information <ul><li>Louis Rosenfeld LLC </li></ul><ul><li>902 Miller Avenue </li></ul><ul><li>Ann Arbor, Michigan ...
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©2005 Louis Rosenfeld LLC. All rights reserved.

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  • Chances are you work at one, or deal with enterprise-like problems Tug-of-war between central management and business units over authority, responsibility, infrastructure, staff, and budget This tension is a permanent, confounding state
  • Intranet problems “ How come I didn’t know your department was developing a product similar to ours?” “ Why couldn’t we find any relevant case studies to show that important prospect?” “ Why do our sales and support staff keep giving our customers inconsistent information?” Public site problems “ Our customers think we’re still in the widget business; after all these M&amp;As, why don’t they realize that we’ve diversified?” “ We have so many great products that go together; why don’t we cross-sell more?” “ Customers keep asking for product support through our sales channel; why don’t they use the site’s FAQs and tech support content?”
  • Mention negatives, as well as positives, associated with these methods,such as logs can be difficult to find, merge
  • NOTE: these are guidelines, not rules
  • NOTE: these are guidelines, not rules
  • ©2005 Louis Rosenfeld LLC. All rights reserved.

    1. 1. Enterprise Information Architecture Methodology <ul><li>Louis Rosenfeld </li></ul><ul><li>IA Summit 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>March 6, 2005 </li></ul>
    2. 2. What’s an Enterprise? <ul><li>Large, distributed organization made up of multiple business units </li></ul><ul><li>Operates multiple businesses (e.g., HR and marketing, hardware and software) </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent state of war between centralized and local management over who’s in charge of what </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Enterprise Challenge: Cutting across departmental silos
    4. 4. Example: filing an expense report
    5. 5. Information Architects and the Enterprise <ul><li>What’s bad for managers and users… </li></ul><ul><li>…is wonderful for information architects--lots of new opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction: one of two major growth venues for IA (with global IA) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Information Architecture and the Enterprise <ul><li>What’s good for IAs… </li></ul><ul><li>…is a problem for the field; we’re under-prepared to work in enterprise settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IA Design: needs to become less agnostic, more proscriptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IA Skill set: little training for organizational design and navigating politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IA Methodology: Traditional canon of IA methods not designed for large, distributed, highly political environments </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Traditional IA Methods can be Problematic in Enterprise Settings <ul><li>Scale: volume of users, content, and complexity of business context causes headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution: hard to do card sorts with a sample distributed in six sales regions </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling: political divisions can have an unholy impact on sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Timing: neat (re)design cycle not typical in enterprises </li></ul>
    8. 8. Rethinking IA Methods for Enterprise Use 1/2 <ul><li>Repurpose and reexamine existing methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using existing methods (e.g., card sorting, free listing) in combination with digital tools (e.g., WebSort, SurveyMonkey) for broader distribution, greater number of responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater reliance on log analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Inventory </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Rethinking IA Methods for Enterprise Use 2/2 <ul><li>Invent new methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-D User Sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value Tier Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mine other fields for appropriate methods, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zachman IA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Network Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Content Inventory: Enterprise challenges <ul><li>Difficult to achieve representative samples in the face of these difficulties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness: What’s out there? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume: How much is there? Can we cover it all? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs: Can we afford to investigate at this order of magnitude? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics: Which content owners will work with us? And who will try to get in the way? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Content Inventory: Enterprise work-arounds <ul><li>Greater reliance on automated tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search log analysis: can provide sense of popular content; but difficult to find, acquire, and merge multiple logs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spider can uncover unlinked content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manual efforts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine directories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poll content owners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for content areas that answer users’ common information needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform inventory from your own memory (identifies major content areas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Account for “squeaky wheel” content owners </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Content Inventory Reconsidered: Embracing uncertainty <ul><li>No method--or collection of methods--promises comprehensive snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, treat content inventory as an ongoing process--the “ Rolling Content Revue ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat frequently, rather than a one-shot deliverable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge reactive nature-- content will come to you </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Let content--through its users and owners establish--its own importance </li></ul>
    13. 13. Content Migration Strategy: Value Tier Approach <ul><li>Determine value tiers of content quality that make sense given your users/content/context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer “what content is important to the enterprise?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help determine what to add, maintain, delete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to do it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritize and weight quality criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate content areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster into tiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Score content areas while performing content analysis </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Value Tier Approach: Potential quality criteria <ul><li>Select appropriate criteria for your business context, users, and content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity/usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of quality existing metadata </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Value Tier Approach: Weighting and scoring
    16. 16. Value Tier Approach: P rioritization
    17. 17. Dealing with Sampling Politics: 2D User Sampling <ul><li>Combines alternative, apolitical methods for determining segments to sample, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role-based segmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic segmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distracts stakeholders from “org chart-itis,” to purify sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Enables evaluation methods (e.g., task analysis, card sorting) </li></ul>
    18. 18. 2D User Sampling: Role-based segmentation <ul><li>Roles cut across political boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profile core enterprise-wide business functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why does the enterprise exist? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Sell products, B2B or B2C activities, manufacture products, inform opinion, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine major “actors” in each process </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. 2D User Sampling: Demographic segmentation <ul><li>Standard, familiar measure; also cuts across political boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your marketing department probably has this data already </li></ul>
    20. 20. 2D User Sampling: Combining roles & demographics 32 4 10 12 6 TOTAL 7 0 4 3 0 Role 4 10 1 2 4 3 Role 3 6 1 1 2 2 Role 2 9 2 3 3 1 Role 1 TOTAL Demo. Profile D Demo. Profile C Demo. Profile B Demo. Profile A TEST SAMPLE SIZE
    21. 21. 2D User Sampling: Incorporating contextual bias <ul><li>Role/demographic “scorecard” is pure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a structure that doesn’t have to change substantially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But how to incorporate stakeholder bias? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder bias can be accommodated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poll/interview stakeholders to determine how cell values should change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axes and totals stay mostly the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distraction is our friend </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. 2D User Sampling: After stakeholder input 32 4 13 10 5 TOTAL 7 1 3 3 0 Role 4 10 1 2 4 3 Role 3 6 1 3 1 1 Role 2 9 1 5 2 1 Role 1 TOTAL Demo. Profile D Demo. Profile C Demo. Profile B Demo. Profile A TEST SAMPLE SIZE
    23. 23. Summary <ul><li>Science takes a beating from politics and pragmatism </li></ul><ul><li>These methods are straw men: not ideal, but represent a step forward </li></ul><ul><li>Shortcomings in IA methods for enterprise use suggest a major new genre of IA, and an area that requires significant effort on part of the IA community </li></ul>
    24. 24. Contact Information <ul><li>Louis Rosenfeld LLC </li></ul><ul><li>902 Miller Avenue </li></ul><ul><li>Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103 USA </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.louisrosenfeld.com </li></ul><ul><li>+1.734.663.3323 voice </li></ul><ul><li>+1.734.661.1655 fax </li></ul>

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