Human Resource Planning
Human Resource Planning is a process of
determining the number and types of
people/staff required ...
Objectives of HRP
• Determining the personnel needs of the organization;
• Planning the desired profile of personnel – lik...
Components of Hiring Process
Recruitment
Selection
Socialization
Recruitment
Selection
Socialization
Job analysisJob analysis
Job descriptionJob description
RecruitmentRecruitment
SelectionSelection
Human resource
Planning
...
Job Analysis
It is the systematic process of collecting
information used to make decisions about
jobs.
Job analysis identi...
Elements of Job Analysis
• Job Description: Describes and defines a job in
terms of its duties, responsibilities, working ...
Job Analysis
• Job Analysis is intended to
reveal what is actually
done as opposed to what
should be done.
• The purpose o...
Job Analysis
• Job title
• Work performed
• Equipment used (if any)
• Tools & Materials used
• Education (general, technic...
Job Analysis • Questionnaire
– Through mail surveys
– Info gathered from job
incumbent
– Suitable for clerical jobs
– Time...
Job Analysis
• Checklist
– A worker presented with a
list of probable tasks
performed by him
– Worker asked to tick the
ta...
Job Analysis
• Interview
– Group of job incumbents
selected for extensive
interview
– Carried out individually or in
group...
Job Analysis
• Observation
– Followed right on the job
– Analysts observes the
incumbent as he performs the
job
– Probes t...
Job Analysis
• Participation
– Job performed by the
analyst himself
– Good for simple jobs
– For complex jobs advanced
tra...
Job Analysis
Technical conference
– Info gathered from
supervisor and not the
actual job incumbent
– Supervisor may have p...
Job Analysis
• Self- recording
– Record daily activities using
a log book or dairy
– Useful for high managerial
jobs
Obtai...
Job Analysis
• Critical incident
– Supervisor to give on the job
note worthy instances of job
holders behavior
– (Uses for...
Job Description
A job description is an organized, factual
statement of duties & responsibilities of
a specific job. It sh...
Job Description
• job title, code number,
department/division.
• Job contents in terms of
activities or tasks performed.
•...
Job specification
“Job specification is a statement of the
minimum acceptable human qualities
necessary to perform a job p...
Job specification
• Personal characteristics such as
age, sex, education, job
experience & extra & co-
curricular activiti...
Recruitment & Selection
• Placing the requisition
•
• Recruitment
•
•
•
• Selection
•
• Placement &
•
• Induction
•
Steps ...
Placing the requisition
• Specifies the jobs or operations or positions
for which persons are required ;
• The no. to be r...
Recruitment
The process of searching
prospective workers &
stimulating them to apply for
jobs in the organization
Recruitment • Communication medium
• Job seeker to perceive a
match bet. his personal &
prescribed job requirement
• The j...
Recruitment
• Image of the organization
• Attractiveness of the job
• Organizational Policies
• Government Influence
• Rec...
Recruitment
• Has proven record of effective
recruitment and selection in the
past;
• Maintains an inventory of
employee s...
Recruitment
• The management can easily avoid making a wrong decision by
promoting an employee who has proven his capacity...
Recruitment
• Inbreeding can constrain the innovative and
creative moves by the organization;
• A sense of complacency may...
Recruitment
– Both promotions and transfers should be posted;
– Openings should be posted for a specified time
period befo...
Recruitment
The referred employees
• Are less expensive to recruit and
save 60% to 70% of recruitment
costs;
• Stay longer...
Recruitment
• Economic greed may at times over power the
rational or considered judgment of the
employee, therefore, he ma...
Employees hired through referral programmes
Company Percentage of Referred Employees Reasons
VMoksha Technologies 35 perce...
Reruitment
• The pool of talent available outside
is obviously large than the one
available inside the organization;
• The...
Recruitment
• Fresh recruits may take time to
adjust in the new environs and also
in reading and understanding the
culture...
Recruitment
• Advertisement
• Employment
Agencies
• Internet or Cyber
• Colleges, Institutes.
• Unsolicited
Applications
•...
Recruitment
• In India, public employment agencies
are governed by Compulsory
Notification Act 1959 and the online
registr...
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
1 2 3 4 5 6
1. Number of exchanges 914 934 945 955 958
2. Registration (` 000 ) 5872 6322 5852 59...
Recruitment
• The executive search which recruits
top officials for the firm are
commonly called as head hunters.
• Naukri...
RecruitmentRecruitment
• They allow organization to get specific
projects done;
• Expose themselves to talented and
potent...
RecruitmentRecruitment
Benefits to recruiting firm
• Flexibility of employment,
• Ease of recruitment and
replacement,
• l...
12 mn temporary jobs in India
Temporary jobs are fast becoming employers' favourite in cities like Delhi and Mumbai while ...
Recruitment
Campus Recruitment
– here the college/university graduates are
interviewed by the company representatives
and ...
Selection
• The process of choosing individuals’ who
have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in
organization
• Selecting...
Two HR Truisms
• “Good training will not fix for bad selection”
• “If you don’t hire the right one, your
competitor will”
...
Selection Process
Application Forms
Preliminary Interview
Employment Tests
Reference Checks
Medical Examination
Figure: Fr...
Selection techniques
• Structured Application Form
• Unstructured Application
Form
• Weighted Application Form
• Structure...
Selection Techniques
(Cont.)
•Types of interview:-
•1-Structured or systematic Interview.
•*An interview conducted as per ...
Selection Techniques
(Cont.)
• Reviewing background
information
• Preparing a question plan
• Creating a helpful setting
•...
Selection Techniques
(Cont.)
1-Aptitude Tests
Measure/ test the person's capacity to learn or perform
(future inn consider...
Selection Techniques
(Cont.)
• References are usually
obtained from the
candidate’s friends or from
his previous employer
...
Battery of Selection
Techniques
Battery of Selection
Techniques • Profile Matching
• Multiple Cut-off
• Multiple Regressio...
Battery of Selection
Techniques
• Selection is made in any of the
following ways:
– Individuals whose scores are
above the...
Battery of Selection
Techniques
• An applicant is bound to score
above this point on each
technique;
• Cut-off points are ...
Battery of Selection
Techniques
x2 makes twice the
contribution as the
selection technique x1 in
predicting job success (y...
Multiple hurdle
An applicant must clear all
the hurdles to reach the
final stage where he is
considered for selection
Prel...
Determining the
Functional Value of
Selection Technique
Determining the
Functional Value of
Selection Technique
• Reliabil...
Determining the
Functional Value of
Selection Technique
• The reliability of a test is
determined in any of the
following ...
Determining the
Functional Value of
Selection Technique
• Face Validity
– Test should look right to the
test taker. For ex...
Determining the
Functional Value of
Selection Technique
Determining the
Functional Value of
Selection Technique
• Construc...
Selection RatioSelection Ratio
• Selection device used will
have no functional utility,
in case the selection ratio is
gre...
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Ch 02 human resource planning

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Ch 02 human resource planning

  1. 1. Human Resource Planning Human Resource Planning is a process of determining the number and types of people/staff required by an organization in future. It is concerned with right number of people with right kind of skills. Human Resource Planning is a process of determining the number and types of people/staff required by an organization in future. It is concerned with right number of people with right kind of skills.
  2. 2. Objectives of HRP • Determining the personnel needs of the organization; • Planning the desired profile of personnel – like qualification skills, knowledge, experience etc; • Identifying the areas of critical HR shortages; • Identifying the surplus of personnel; • Identifying training & development needs; • Finalizing managerial succession plans. • Determining the personnel needs of the organization; • Planning the desired profile of personnel – like qualification skills, knowledge, experience etc; • Identifying the areas of critical HR shortages; • Identifying the surplus of personnel; • Identifying training & development needs; • Finalizing managerial succession plans.
  3. 3. Components of Hiring Process Recruitment Selection Socialization Recruitment Selection Socialization
  4. 4. Job analysisJob analysis Job descriptionJob description RecruitmentRecruitment SelectionSelection Human resource Planning Human resource Planning Relationship among Job Analysis, Human Resource Planning, Recruitment & Selection.
  5. 5. Job Analysis It is the systematic process of collecting information used to make decisions about jobs. Job analysis identifies the tasks, the duties, and the responsibilities of a particular job. It is the systematic process of collecting information used to make decisions about jobs. Job analysis identifies the tasks, the duties, and the responsibilities of a particular job.
  6. 6. Elements of Job Analysis • Job Description: Describes and defines a job in terms of its duties, responsibilities, working conditions etc; • Job Specification: describes the requirements of individual in terms of his knowledge, education, experience etc. in doing a given job; • Job Evaluation: Assesses the relative/comparative worth of a job in terms of its contribution/importance to overall organizations goals.
  7. 7. Job Analysis • Job Analysis is intended to reveal what is actually done as opposed to what should be done. • The purpose of JA is to show to the management how at the moment a particular job is being carried out. Is the process by means of which a description is developed of the present method & procedures of doing a job, physical conditions in which the job is done, relation of the job to other jobs and other conditions of employment.
  8. 8. Job Analysis • Job title • Work performed • Equipment used (if any) • Tools & Materials used • Education (general, technical) required • Experience • Physical effort • Responsibility • Discomforts • Hazards • Supervision (close or general) received • Supervision (close or general) given • Any other (no. of men or women to be employed) Points on which information may be gathered
  9. 9. Job Analysis • Questionnaire – Through mail surveys – Info gathered from job incumbent – Suitable for clerical jobs – Time consuming Obtaining data for JA
  10. 10. Job Analysis • Checklist – A worker presented with a list of probable tasks performed by him – Worker asked to tick the tasks performed by him – Does not provide an integrated picture of the tasks performed by him – Easy to administer Obtaining data for JA
  11. 11. Job Analysis • Interview – Group of job incumbents selected for extensive interview – Carried out individually or in group – Replies from incumbents combined into a single job description – Integrated picture of job obtained – Many new things about the job revealed – Costly & time consuming Obtaining data for JA
  12. 12. Job Analysis • Observation – Followed right on the job – Analysts observes the incumbent as he performs the job – Probes the incumbent to gather data about the job – Slow & costly – Interferes in normal work operations – Produces a good & complete job description – Desirable where manual operations are prominent Obtaining data for JA
  13. 13. Job Analysis • Participation – Job performed by the analyst himself – Good for simple jobs – For complex jobs advanced training required by the analyst – Time consuming Obtaining data for JA
  14. 14. Job Analysis Technical conference – Info gathered from supervisor and not the actual job incumbent – Supervisor may have poor knowledge about the job Obtaining data for JA
  15. 15. Job Analysis • Self- recording – Record daily activities using a log book or dairy – Useful for high managerial jobs Obtaining data for JA
  16. 16. Job Analysis • Critical incident – Supervisor to give on the job note worthy instances of job holders behavior – (Uses for students) Obtaining data for JA
  17. 17. Job Description A job description is an organized, factual statement of duties & responsibilities of a specific job. It should tell what is to be done, how it is done and why it is done. It is a standard of function, in that it defines the appropriate & authorized content of a job.
  18. 18. Job Description • job title, code number, department/division. • Job contents in terms of activities or tasks performed. • Job responsibilities towards effective performance of the job. • Working conditions specifying specific hazards. • Social environment prevailing at the workplace. • Extent of supervision given & received Information contained in JD
  19. 19. Job specification “Job specification is a statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly …. It is a standard of personnel & designates the qualities required for acceptable performance” (Filppo)
  20. 20. Job specification • Personal characteristics such as age, sex, education, job experience & extra & co- curricular activities; • Physical characteristics such as height, weight, vision, hearing, health, voice, poise & hand etc. • Mental characteristics such as general intelligence, memory, judgment, foresight, ability to concentrate, etc. • Social & psychological characteristics such as emotional stability, flexibility, manners, initiative, drive, conversational ability, creativity, etc. Basic contents in JS
  21. 21. Recruitment & Selection • Placing the requisition • • Recruitment • • • • Selection • • Placement & • • Induction • Steps involved
  22. 22. Placing the requisition • Specifies the jobs or operations or positions for which persons are required ; • The no. to be recruited; • The time by which the persons should be available etc.
  23. 23. Recruitment The process of searching prospective workers & stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization
  24. 24. Recruitment • Communication medium • Job seeker to perceive a match bet. his personal & prescribed job requirement • The job seeker must be motivated to apply Mating theory
  25. 25. Recruitment • Image of the organization • Attractiveness of the job • Organizational Policies • Government Influence • Recruiting Costs Factors affecting recruitment efforts
  26. 26. Recruitment • Has proven record of effective recruitment and selection in the past; • Maintains an inventory of employee skills; • Has unbiased employee performance appraisal system in vogue; • Stresses on continuous employee development; • Has cordial labor management relations; and • Respects the collective bargaining agreements; • Internal Sources: When good
  27. 27. Recruitment • The management can easily avoid making a wrong decision by promoting an employee who has proven his capacity and talent in the past; • The existing employee can fit into the organizations’ culture more appropriately, therefore, needs less socialization effort on the part of the organization; • The promotion of the existing employee can act as strong impetus and source of motivation for others in the organization and encourage them to emulate the promoted employee in performance and commitment to the organizational goals; • The retention of talented employees can be made possible through internal recruiting as other employees will see their future safe and secured in the organization; • It is also cheap, quick, dependable and accurate source of recruitment; • It can encourage cordial and collegial atmosphere in the organization or labor management relations; • It can lead to maximum possible utilization of the employee talent, through placing him at different positions, thus the investment on human resources can be well justified; and • The existing employee will feel more comfortable with the organization, thus will not hold inaccurate expectations from the organization. Internal sources: Advantages
  28. 28. Recruitment • Inbreeding can constrain the innovative and creative moves by the organization; • A sense of complacency may occur in the employees if the promotions are simply based on time-bound criterion, thus will significantly effect the individual and organizational performance; • Infighting for promotions can have a negative effect on the morale and performance of those who are not selected; • At times may strengthen the locus standii of the unions, who can use it for their selfish ends; • It will dampen the entry of the fresh blood into the organization, thus may reduce the competitiveness of the organization; • Above all, internal recruiting cannot meet the demands of the fast growing organizations especially in the service sector. Internal sources: Disadvantages
  29. 29. Recruitment – Both promotions and transfers should be posted; – Openings should be posted for a specified time period before external recruitment begins; – Eligibility rules for the job posting system need to be developed and communicated. For example, one eligibility rule might be that no employee can apply for a posted position unless the employee has been in his or her present position say for six months; – Specific standards for selection should be included in the notice; – Job bidders should be required to list their qualifications and reasons for requesting a transfer or promotion; and – Unsuccessful bidders should be notified by the human resource department and advised as to why they were not accepted. Internal sources: Methods Job Posting and Bidding Here the notices regarding the available jobs in the organization are displayed in central locations and employees are given specified period of time to respond to the notice; Employees are also informed through company bulletins, newsletters, memos circulars etc.
  30. 30. Recruitment The referred employees • Are less expensive to recruit and save 60% to 70% of recruitment costs; • Stay longer with the company; • Adapt to the company culture quickly; • Are quickly searched out or searchable; • Instills sense of pride and belongingness in the recommending employee. Internal sources: Methods Employee Referrals/Recommendations Present employee referrals of job candidates have assumed a great ascendancy in the recent past. Also considered as external source of recruitment Today 80% of the IT or ITEs companies resort to this method of recruitment (ET. Nov. 21, 2008)
  31. 31. Recruitment • Economic greed may at times over power the rational or considered judgment of the employee, therefore, he may recommend a less desirable and unsuitable job candidate to the organization. • Also the existing employee cannot be expected to recommend an outstanding candidate to the organization, because the very existence of such a talented new comer may threaten him his own position especially if they fall in same job category and if the promotions are linked to employee performance. • Employee referrals may also discourage the workforce diversity, as existing employees may be more interested in obliging their own relations and friends. While, this may be true for lower level and managerial positions, in higher level positions however, the referral will be ordinarily a professional acquaintance rather than a friend or a relative of the referee. Internal sources: Methods Disadvantages of employee referrals
  32. 32. Employees hired through referral programmes Company Percentage of Referred Employees Reasons VMoksha Technologies 35 percent Checks the quality of candidates as only quality candidates are referred to by an employee. Also reinstates the faith which an employee has in the organization. Tavant Technologies 60 percent Saves a lot on direct recruiting through placement agencies. Chances of a candidate taking up the offer are very high. FCG Nearly 50 percent Brings in quality candidates in an organization. Netkraft 35 percent Gets the right kind of people and helps in checking attrition. i2Technolgies 58 percent An employee's productivity increases if he works in a friendly atmosphere.The company believes that when a new employee joins through the referral system, he or she has a friend who also acts as a mentor during their first few days in the company. Source: IT vendors: abhinav@expresscomputeronline.com
  33. 33. Reruitment • The pool of talent available outside is obviously large than the one available inside the organization; • The readymade technical and or skilled employees could be cheaper and easier for organizations to recruit than to train and develop them internally especially when the organization has a pressing demand for talent/them; • Fresh recruits can bring new insights and perspectives to the organization, thus, will boast competitiveness and vigor among all. External sources: Adavantages
  34. 34. Recruitment • Fresh recruits may take time to adjust in the new environs and also in reading and understanding the culture of the organization; • It can act as a de-motivator for the existing workforce thus will effect their morale and performance; • It may also lead to hostile labor management relations; • New recruits could be eyesores for the existing employees particularly in small organizations, thus would create an unhealthy atmosphere in the organization. External sources: Disadvantages
  35. 35. Recruitment • Advertisement • Employment Agencies • Internet or Cyber • Colleges, Institutes. • Unsolicited Applications • Job fairs • TV Shows External sources: These may include
  36. 36. Recruitment • In India, public employment agencies are governed by Compulsory Notification Act 1959 and the online registration is available for the desired unemployed youth; • 950 employment exchanges in India with an estimated 47,32,000 candidates registered with them. • Mandatory for both private and public companies as per SC order to inform the District Employment Exchanges about their vacancies, though they can conduct recruitment process themselves. • As per SC order an establishment can be penalized between Rs. 250 to Rs. 10000. • In India, public employment agencies are governed by Compulsory Notification Act 1959 and the online registration is available for the desired unemployed youth; • 950 employment exchanges in India with an estimated 47,32,000 candidates registered with them. • Mandatory for both private and public companies as per SC order to inform the District Employment Exchanges about their vacancies, though they can conduct recruitment process themselves. • As per SC order an establishment can be penalized between Rs. 250 to Rs. 10000. External Sources Employment Exchanges There are two types of employment agencies working for recruiting employees for organizations: public and private agencies.
  37. 37. 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. Number of exchanges 914 934 945 955 958 2. Registration (` 000 ) 5872 6322 5852 5966 4732 3. Placement (` 000 ) 233 275 233 221 132 4. Application on Live register (` 000 ) 3743 0 3914 0 40090 4037 1 4146 0 5.Av.No.of employers using E.E. (`000) 0 0 0 0 0 Source: Central Statistical Organization (Statistical Pocket Book, 1999, 2000)
  38. 38. Recruitment • The executive search which recruits top officials for the firm are commonly called as head hunters. • Naukri.com is a very popular private agency in India. It has offices in major cities of India and abroad in USA. • Prizedjobs.com an online interactive division of M/S Placements.com Ltd., Bangalore has more than 140000 professional registered with it within and outside India. • The executive search which recruits top officials for the firm are commonly called as head hunters. • Naukri.com is a very popular private agency in India. It has offices in major cities of India and abroad in USA. • Prizedjobs.com an online interactive division of M/S Placements.com Ltd., Bangalore has more than 140000 professional registered with it within and outside India. External sources: Private employment exchange The private employment agencies search out for two categories of employees.
  39. 39. RecruitmentRecruitment • They allow organization to get specific projects done; • Expose themselves to talented and potential employees who may become their “recruiters” at school/college; • Provide trial-run employment to determine if they want to hire particular people full time; • Allows both employer and the employee a chance to understand each other before entering into a permanent bond of employment relationship; and • Can supplement the globalization efforts of the organization. External sources: Methods Internships This approach to recruiting is concerned with hiring students as interns usually during the summers. Benefits of Internship External sources: Methods Internships This approach to recruiting is concerned with hiring students as interns usually during the summers. Benefits of Internship
  40. 40. RecruitmentRecruitment Benefits to recruiting firm • Flexibility of employment, • Ease of recruitment and replacement, • long-term cost advantages, • Opportunity for focusing on core areas. Demerits • Suffer from employee disloyalty, • Breach of trade secrets, • Lack of employee commitment and the like. External Source Temporary Worker A “temp” is a temporary worker with an organization who is on a third party (staffing company) payroll. The staffing company pays salary and other benefits to the temporary worker. The employing organization in turn pays the staffing company an agreed-upon amount of the services rendered by the temporary worker. The employment of the temp is purely based on the company needs and requirements. External Source Temporary Worker A “temp” is a temporary worker with an organization who is on a third party (staffing company) payroll. The staffing company pays salary and other benefits to the temporary worker. The employing organization in turn pays the staffing company an agreed-upon amount of the services rendered by the temporary worker. The employment of the temp is purely based on the company needs and requirements.
  41. 41. 12 mn temporary jobs in India Temporary jobs are fast becoming employers' favourite in cities like Delhi and Mumbai while the gap between salary levels of "Temps" and permanent employees has also narrowed down, a new survey has revealed. The compensation offered to temporary job seekers or Temps has gone up substantially for freshers; with an average growth of 15 per cent across all experience levels. The Temps salary levels are closer to permanent salary levels this year as against last year, the TeamLease Annual Temp Salary Primer 2006 said. Information Technology and IT-enabled services companies are hiring more of temporary workers with both these segments emerging as top verticals for temp job prospects, it said. Temporary jobs can create 12 million jobs in India in the next five years, if requisite amendments are made in the Contract Labour Act, TeamLease said. IT city Bangalore and Delhi are the favourite destinations for temp job seekers, offering higher compensation for all the job functions across all verticals. Human Resources and administration are also emerging as the preferred functions. The percentage of temp jobs in verticals like banking, financial services and insurance, manufacturing and consumer durables has also jumped by over 20 per cent since last year. National capital Delhi is gradually emerging as the hot location for temp job seekers in sales sector, Mumbai for accounts and Bangalore for HR and administration. Like in permanent jobs, level of education influences the compensation as it increases by more than 20 per cent for every increase in the education level except for sales, the survey said. Source: Hindustan Times, (PTI) New Delhi, February 13, 2006
  42. 42. Recruitment Campus Recruitment – here the college/university graduates are interviewed by the company representatives and the suitable candidates are selected for the jobs. This is the dominant mode of recruitment nowadays (ET, Nov. 21, 2008) Unsolicited applications – here the prospective employees through letters, e-mails, and telephones or in person contact the employer for the job vacancy. Cyber recruiting or internet recruiting – is the latest way of recruiting the job applicants nowadays where prospective candidates use the company websites for jobs. External Source Campus Recruitment TV Shows Cyber Recruiting Unsolicited Applications
  43. 43. Selection • The process of choosing individuals’ who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in organization • Selecting qualified employees is like putting money in the bank
  44. 44. Two HR Truisms • “Good training will not fix for bad selection” • “If you don’t hire the right one, your competitor will” • “Good training will not fix for bad selection” • “If you don’t hire the right one, your competitor will”
  45. 45. Selection Process Application Forms Preliminary Interview Employment Tests Reference Checks Medical Examination Figure: Framework of Recruitment & Selection Selected Candidates/Final Decision Recruitment Organizational Goals Job Analysis Sources Applicants Workload Analysis Job Description Manpower Requisition Job Specification Applicants Workload Analysis Job Description Manpower Requisition Job Specification
  46. 46. Selection techniques • Structured Application Form • Unstructured Application Form • Weighted Application Form • Structured Application Form • Unstructured Application Form • Weighted Application Form Application Scrutiny Identifies those candidates who fit the job specification and can be called later for the interview
  47. 47. Selection Techniques (Cont.) •Types of interview:- •1-Structured or systematic Interview. •*An interview conducted as per the pre- determined plan. •  •2-Unstructured interview •*An interview conducted without any pre- determined plan and questions. •  •3-Stress interview: •Where an applicant is put under pressure for knowing how emotional he is. •  •4-Panel or Board interview •An interview method where two or more people interview a single applicant. •5-Group interview: •An interview method where several applicants are interviewed to gathers. Interview Face-to-face, observational and personal method of evaluating the applicant Interview Face-to-face, observational and personal method of evaluating the applicant
  48. 48. Selection Techniques (Cont.) • Reviewing background information • Preparing a question plan • Creating a helpful setting • Conducting the interview • Concluding the interview Procedure for an Interview
  49. 49. Selection Techniques (Cont.) 1-Aptitude Tests Measure/ test the person's capacity to learn or perform (future inn consideration( 2-Psychomotor Tests This test measure the person's strength, dexterity and coordination. •3-Ability/Proficiency Tests This test measures how well an applicant can do a given job (present in consideration(. 4-Interest Tests Measures various interests of the applicants 5-Polygraph Tests Here the physiological changes in the bodies of the person are recorded on the machine to see whether the person is lying or not. 6-Graphology Tests Here the personality, emotional problems and honesty is measured through analyzing applicants hand writing. Employment testing
  50. 50. Selection Techniques (Cont.) • References are usually obtained from the candidate’s friends or from his previous employer • Contagious diseases can be avoided from spreading if the candidate is tested in advance for them; • The company may also avoid incurring medical bills on employees found medically unfit. Reference Checking Requesting references is a wide spread practice with substantial doubt to its validity Physical/Medical examination Physical examination reveals whether the candidate possesses the required stamina, strength and tolerance of hard working conditions.
  51. 51. Battery of Selection Techniques Battery of Selection Techniques • Profile Matching • Multiple Cut-off • Multiple Regression • Multiple Hurdles • Profile Matching • Multiple Cut-off • Multiple Regression • Multiple Hurdles No single selection technique can be believed to measure all the abilities required on any job. Therefore, a battery of selection techniques are used to overcome this problem.
  52. 52. Battery of Selection Techniques • Selection is made in any of the following ways: – Individuals whose scores are above the standard score may be selected; – Individuals whose scores show min. deviations from the ideal score may be selected after the deviations are calculated, squared & totalled. The lesser the total the better it is; – Individuals whose scores show max. covaraition with the standard scores may be selected. The r may be calculated between the scores of each individual & the ideal score. The higher the r , the better the match. Profile Matching The ideal profile of a successful worker is obtained by making him to pass through the various selection techniques/criterions The standard so obtained is then used to measure the individual profile of all the new applicants
  53. 53. Battery of Selection Techniques • An applicant is bound to score above this point on each technique; • Cut-off points are usually determined by trail & error method; • Individuals who score above all cut-off points are ranked on the basis of their total scores; • Final selection or rejection decision taken at the end. • An applicant is bound to score above this point on each technique; • Cut-off points are usually determined by trail & error method; • Individuals who score above all cut-off points are ranked on the basis of their total scores; • Final selection or rejection decision taken at the end. Multiple Cut-offs A minimum acceptable point is established separately for each technique. This method assumes that for job success, a certain minimum score is needed by an applicant in respect of each technique. Multiple Cut-offs A minimum acceptable point is established separately for each technique. This method assumes that for job success, a certain minimum score is needed by an applicant in respect of each technique.
  54. 54. Battery of Selection Techniques x2 makes twice the contribution as the selection technique x1 in predicting job success (y) Suppose Applicant 1 scores x1= 5 & x2= 10 Applicant 2 scores x1= 15 & x2= 5 Multiple Regression The relative contribution of each selection technique in predicting job performance is found out through using the multiple regression model. y= 2x1 + 4x2 (where y stands for predicted job success and x1 & x2 stand for the different selection techniques)
  55. 55. Multiple hurdle An applicant must clear all the hurdles to reach the final stage where he is considered for selection Preliminary interview Application scrutiny Tests Interview by personnel dpt. References Physical examination Interview by line manager Multiple hurdle An applicant must clear all the hurdles to reach the final stage where he is considered for selection Preliminary interview Application scrutiny Tests Interview by personnel dpt. References Physical examination Interview by line manager Battery of Selection Techniques • An applicant must score the minimum given score at each stage; • Every stage acts as device for weeding out applicants; • Progressively decreasing the cost of selection • Final selection or rejection decision taken at each stage.
  56. 56. Determining the Functional Value of Selection Technique Determining the Functional Value of Selection Technique • Reliability • Validity • Selection ratio • Ability to increase the percentage of satisfactory performance • Reliability • Validity • Selection ratio • Ability to increase the percentage of satisfactory performance Factors determining the functional utility of a selection technique
  57. 57. Determining the Functional Value of Selection Technique • The reliability of a test is determined in any of the following ways: – By giving the test to the same group at separate times & correlating the resultant series of test scores; – By giving two or more different (but equivalent) forms of the same test & correlating the resultant test scores; – By split-half or odd-even method. Reliability This means that test should give consistent results in repeated trials as the unreliable test has little merit and therefore may act as an elastic ruler Reliability This means that test should give consistent results in repeated trials as the unreliable test has little merit and therefore may act as an elastic ruler
  58. 58. Determining the Functional Value of Selection Technique • Face Validity – Test should look right to the test taker. For example, test designed to measure supervisory skills would lack face validity if it contains items which assess arithmetic knowledge. • Content validity – Test should be fully representative of the relevant domain. For example, if a typist is only tested for typing the numbers, it would lack the content validity. Validity Means that the test should measure what it purports to measure. 4 types of validity measures: Face validity Content validity Construct validity Criterion-related validity Validity Means that the test should measure what it purports to measure. 4 types of validity measures: Face validity Content validity Construct validity Criterion-related validity
  59. 59. Determining the Functional Value of Selection Technique Determining the Functional Value of Selection Technique • Construct Validity – By construct validity is meant the appropriateness of the operational definition of the construct (abstract variables like intelligence, aptitude etc., that cannot be directly observed). • Criterion-Related Validity – Is the ability of a test to successfully predict an applicant’s performance on a specific job as measured by a particular index of job success. A test that has been shown to predict successfully an index of job proficiency is said to be a valid test. Validity Means that the test should measure what it purports to measure. Validity Means that the test should measure what it purports to measure.
  60. 60. Selection RatioSelection Ratio • Selection device used will have no functional utility, in case the selection ratio is greater than 1; • A manager can afford to raise the standards and select only those who hold high promise, in case the selection ratio is less than 1 It is the ratio of the number of applicants to be selected to the total number of applicants available. Expressed as: SR = n⁄N Where nis the number of jobs to be filled up & N is the number of applicants for those jobs It is the ratio of the number of applicants to be selected to the total number of applicants available. Expressed as: SR = n⁄N Where nis the number of jobs to be filled up & N is the number of applicants for those jobs

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