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Literature review and Case study on Commercial Complex in Nepal, Durbar mall, Eyeplex mall

This was the presentation made by fifth semester student from architecture department for their prevailing project on Multi use commercial complexes. This presentation consists of detailed information on Literature review and Case study which can be helpful for the future students

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LITERATURE REVIEW AND CASE STUDY PRESENTATION
DESIGN STUDIO-V
PRESENTERS:
AAKASH BDR SHAKYA
ASHMI SHRESTHA
KATHERYN SHRESTHA
PRAKASH MAHAT
SONALI SHAH
INTRODUCTION
• A commercial complex refers to a multi-purpose, typically multi-story, physical
structure designed and constructed to accommodate various commercial
activities and businesses.
• Many commercial complexes incorporate communal areas, such as food courts,
parks, or gathering spaces, promoting social interaction and community building.
IMPORTANCES:
Some key reasons why commercial complexes are important:
- Economic Hub
- Convenience
- Business Diversity
- Employment Opportunities
- Brand Exposure
- Consumer Experience
HISTORY
Ancient Marketplaces:
 Origins: Ancient civilizations like Rome and Greece had early commercial complexes.
 Function: Central gathering places for merchants and traders.
 Goods Exchange: Diverse goods traded by merchants from various regions.
Bazaars and Caravanserais
 Middle East and Asia: Bazaars and caravanserais pivotal in trade and commerce.
 Bazaars: Vibrant urban marketplaces in cities.
 Caravanserais: Roadside inns and trading posts, facilitating travel and business.
Medieval Fairs
Bazaar and caravanserais of Kashan
Industrial Revolution:
18th & 19th Centuries: Industrial Revolution transformed commercial spaces.
Emergence on Large-scale: Factories and warehouses.
Early Shopping Arcades:
19th Century: Shopping arcades introduced in British towns.
Notable Example: The Burlington Arcade in London.
20th Century Shopping Centers:
Mid-20th Century: Modern shopping centers and malls gained prominence in the United
States.
Nepal Example: Bishal Bazar Complex in Kathmandu, established in 2026 BS, as a local
context.
Warehouse
Burlington Arcade, London
Bishal Bazar, Nepal
SHOPS
• Shops, often referred to as retail stores or simply stores, are physical establishments or commercial spaces
where businesses sell a variety of goods and products directly to consumers.
• Target floor for shops: first floor / second floor
 Important things to be considered while designing a shops:
- Circulation Routes
- Good view of the whole shop from inside and outside
- Visual Merchandising
- Store Layout
- Accessibility
- Color scheme and Lighting
- Aesthetic and Functional Aspects
TYPES AND AREAS OF SHOPS
TYPES AREAS( IN SQUARE FT.)
Small Shop 100 to 500
Medium Shop 500 to 2,000
Large Shop/ Showroom 2,000 to 10,000 or more
Department Store 50,000 to 150,000
BASIC PLAN LAYOUTS FOR THE RETAIL SHOP
1) Straight Plan:
 It is a conventional form of layout that utilizes walls and projection to create smaller spaces.
 It is an economical plan to execute and can be adapted by any type of stores.
Ad

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Literature review and Case study on Commercial Complex in Nepal, Durbar mall, Eyeplex mall

  • 1. LITERATURE REVIEW AND CASE STUDY PRESENTATION DESIGN STUDIO-V PRESENTERS: AAKASH BDR SHAKYA ASHMI SHRESTHA KATHERYN SHRESTHA PRAKASH MAHAT SONALI SHAH
  • 2. INTRODUCTION • A commercial complex refers to a multi-purpose, typically multi-story, physical structure designed and constructed to accommodate various commercial activities and businesses. • Many commercial complexes incorporate communal areas, such as food courts, parks, or gathering spaces, promoting social interaction and community building. IMPORTANCES: Some key reasons why commercial complexes are important: - Economic Hub - Convenience - Business Diversity - Employment Opportunities - Brand Exposure - Consumer Experience
  • 3. HISTORY Ancient Marketplaces:  Origins: Ancient civilizations like Rome and Greece had early commercial complexes.  Function: Central gathering places for merchants and traders.  Goods Exchange: Diverse goods traded by merchants from various regions. Bazaars and Caravanserais  Middle East and Asia: Bazaars and caravanserais pivotal in trade and commerce.  Bazaars: Vibrant urban marketplaces in cities.  Caravanserais: Roadside inns and trading posts, facilitating travel and business. Medieval Fairs Bazaar and caravanserais of Kashan
  • 4. Industrial Revolution: 18th & 19th Centuries: Industrial Revolution transformed commercial spaces. Emergence on Large-scale: Factories and warehouses. Early Shopping Arcades: 19th Century: Shopping arcades introduced in British towns. Notable Example: The Burlington Arcade in London. 20th Century Shopping Centers: Mid-20th Century: Modern shopping centers and malls gained prominence in the United States. Nepal Example: Bishal Bazar Complex in Kathmandu, established in 2026 BS, as a local context. Warehouse Burlington Arcade, London Bishal Bazar, Nepal
  • 5. SHOPS • Shops, often referred to as retail stores or simply stores, are physical establishments or commercial spaces where businesses sell a variety of goods and products directly to consumers. • Target floor for shops: first floor / second floor  Important things to be considered while designing a shops: - Circulation Routes - Good view of the whole shop from inside and outside - Visual Merchandising - Store Layout - Accessibility - Color scheme and Lighting - Aesthetic and Functional Aspects
  • 6. TYPES AND AREAS OF SHOPS TYPES AREAS( IN SQUARE FT.) Small Shop 100 to 500 Medium Shop 500 to 2,000 Large Shop/ Showroom 2,000 to 10,000 or more Department Store 50,000 to 150,000 BASIC PLAN LAYOUTS FOR THE RETAIL SHOP 1) Straight Plan:  It is a conventional form of layout that utilizes walls and projection to create smaller spaces.  It is an economical plan to execute and can be adapted by any type of stores.
  • 7. 2) Pathway Plan: It is applicable to virtually any type of store but is particularly suite to large stores over 5000 square ft and on one level. This type of plan gets the shopper smoothly from the front to the rear of the store. 4) Diagonal Plan: This type of plan is optimal for self service stores. The cashier is in the central location, with sightlines to all the areas of the space. It permits the angular traffic flow and creates perimeter design interest and excitement in movement.
  • 8. CIRCULATION It is the most important element of and plays a big role in the success and failure of the building. Types of circulation: 1. Horizontal Circulation 2. Vertical Circulation 1. HORIZONTAL CIRCULATION It involves: Corridors and Passage Ways  Corridors and passage ways heights shall not be less than 2.4m  Unobstructed Width: 3.2’  For public /commercial area = 4’6”  Secondary public passage ways = 3’ – 3’6”  minimum clear width of 32 inches (81 cm) for door openings within a corridor  Turning spaces are particularly important for wheelchair users and individuals with mobility aids.
  • 9. 2. VERTICAL CIRCULATION It involves: A. Staircase C. Ramps B. Escalator D. Lift / Elevator A) Staircase:  Traditional form of vertical circulation  Clear flight to flight height should not be less than 2.1m  Max riser height = 210mm (8.25 in)  Min riser height = 125mm (5 in)  Height of handrail = 864 - 965mm (34-38 in)  Handrail diameter = 37-68 mm (1.25-2.675 in)
  • 10. B) Escalator:  A form of vertical building transportation designed as a staircase that moves with the assistance of a motor-driven mechanism.  Inclination: 30/35 degree (35 degree is preferred, 30 degree is considered wasteful of space)  Travel: 14.7’- 19.6’  Handrails: 3’  Vertical Headroom Clearance: 7’6”
  • 11. D) Lift/ Elevator :  An elevator is a vertical transportation device used to move people or goods between different floors or levels within a building.  Sizes-  Small Lift: 400kg (for passenger with hand baggage)  Medium Lift: 630kg (for passenger with wheelchair)  Large Lift: 1000kg (can accommodate coffin and stretchers)  Standard size for commercial lift: 1830mm * 1530mm  Space from entry to lift: 500mm  Types of Lift • Person Lift • Service Lift  Factors to be considered - Disable Friendly - Loading Capacity - Safety Fig: Different Sizes Of Lift
  • 12. BUILDING STRUCTURE COLUMN SPACING  Column spacing refers to the distance or gap between columns in architectural and structural design.  Spacing is done along the mall as this involves the with i.e frontage of shops.  Often used spaces are 20, 25,30 ft which is most flexible. CLEAR HEIGHTS  These vary from 10 to 14 ft where 12 ft is a good average.  Above clear height there must be sufficient space for ac ducts, recessed lights, structural system etc.
  • 13. MATERIALS The Most Common Construction Materials •STEEL Uses: • Structures reinforcements • cladding, • roofing • window frames • plumbing, • heating equipment, and many other applications.
  • 14. WOODS •Hardwoods are commonly used in the construction of: • walls, •ceilings, and • floors. • doors, • furniture, and • window frames. CERAMICS • Ceramic materials including brick, porcelain, and cement have been used to construct buildings, and are still some of the most widely used construction materials today. Advantages of ceramics materials:  The ceramic are hard, strong and dense.  They have high resistance to the action of chemical and to the weathering.  Possess a high compression strength compared to the tension.
  • 15. GLASSES Glass is recyclable and can be reused many times without losing quality. Glass reduces the dead load of a building since it is lightweight. Uses •Windows and doors. •Facades. •Tableware •Insulation •Bottles for drinks.
  • 16. EXTERNAL CLADDING MATERIALS Types of cladding •Brick cladding. This cladding provides a charming, patterned and traditional appearance similar to stone. •Wooden cladding. •Stone cladding. •Glass cladding. •Aluminum cladding. •Scyon cladding. •Stainless steel cladding. •Porcelain tile cladding.
  • 17. RESTAURANTS Maximum space is 2.0m2/person, but space required can vary different. Area required of restaurants; Space distribution in kitchen; Receiving area: 15% Food storage: 20% Preparation: 40% Cooking: 8%
  • 18. FOOD COURT A food court is an indoor plaza or common area within a facility that is usually adjacent to the counters of multiple food vendors and provides a common area for self-service dinners. It can also be used as a public dining area in front of cafes and diners. The court must be easily seen and be in prime position. The size of food court is commonly from 250sq. ft to 1000 sq. ft Area required • Area may be allowed between 20-40m2 and 2.0m2 per seat. • Min width of service aisle: 0.9-1.3m • Dinning area per seat: 1.5-2.15m2 • Kitchen area per seat: 0.4-0.6m2 • Waiter area: 1 per 20-30 seats
  • 19. OFFICE SPACES An office is a space where employee of an organization perform administrative work in order to support and realize the various goals of the organization. Types •Individual office. •Shared office. •Group office. •Combi office. •Open-plan office. •Modern open-plan office. •Multi-space office.
  • 20. MOVIE THEATER A movie theater is a place where people go to watch films for entertainment. Area per person:0.85 to 1.05m Small auditorium: 100-250 people Large auditorium: 400-600 people Distance between seats: 900mm to 1200mm Best viewing angle: 36degree Screen sizes ratio : 16:9 Must have one emergency exit Can have one or aisle depending upon the size of a movie theatrel
  • 21. SERVICE APPARTMENT A serviced apartment, also known as a service apartment, is a type of accommodation that combines the features of a hotel and an apartment. These apartments are typically fully furnished and equipped with amenities for both short-term and long-term stays. • Furnished Apartments: Serviced apartments come fully furnished with a range of amenities. This typically includes a kitchen or kitchenette, a living area, a bedroom, and a bathroom. • Housekeeping Services: The apartment is regularly cleaned, and towels and linens are changed, just like in a hotel. • Flexible Stays: Serviced apartments are available for both short-term and long-term stays.
  • 22. • Privacy and Space: Serviced apartments offer more space, including separate living and sleeping areas. This extra space can be particularly. • Location: City centers, residential neighborhoods, and business districts • Kitchen Facilities: This can be a cost-effective option for longer stays and individuals who prefer self- catering. • Security: 24/7 front desk or concierge services, and sometimes even CCTV surveillance, to ensure the safety of guests. • Cost: May be more expensive than standard apartments, they often offer a more affordable alternative to upscale hotels, especially for extended stays.
  • 23. Toilet design for commercial buildings • The cubicles to urinals ratio should be in 1:4 ie for every 1 cubicles, 4 urinals can be used. • The ratio of fittings in male and female toilets should be in the ratio of 3:5, 1 WC and 2 urinals for male: 5 WC for female.
  • 24. Clearance of a W/C and Urinals:
  • 25. Parking • Parking is the first touch point for customers. The main purpose of parking space is to keep the vehicles safe and secure. A powerful parking system is crucial for easy management, marketing strategy, operations efficiency and profitability. • The total parking ratio in complex is 20% of the total ground coverage. • Parking should be within 30 meters of the main entrance the building. • Directional signs guiding people to the accessible parking. • Wheel stoppers to be provided. • One car parking area must not be less than 13.75 sq. m and one two-wheeler • parking area must not be less than 1.25 sq. m • Bikes: 3 sq. m • Cars: 12 sq. m. • Accessible length and slope of ramp. • The gradient of ramp leading to parking space shall be 1:6
  • 26. Angled parking • Reasons for angled parking: • Space efficiency • Increased visibility • Ease of entry and exit • Convience
  • 27. Turning radius • For a typical passenger car with a wheelbase • (the distance between the front and rear axles) of around 100 to 110 inches (2.54 to 2.79 meters), • a common turning radius is roughly 36 to 40 feet (11 to 12 meters) for a full 90- degree turn. This means a passenger car requires approximately 18 to 20 feet (5.5 to 6 meters) of space from the center of the turning circle to make a complete 180-degree turn.
  • 28. Design consideration while designing ramps: • A parking ramp slope of 5% or less is preferred, although parking ramp slopes up to 7% are tolerated by the public in very dense urban areas. Parking ramp slopes should not exceed a 6.67% slope, which is the maximum parking slope permitted in the International Building Code (IBC). • Ensure that the ramp provides sufficient vertical clearance for vehicles to pass underneath, including taller vehicles like vans and SUVs. Clearance height is critical to prevent vehicle collisions and damage. Ie shall not be less than 7feet. • Install appropriate lighting in the ramp area to ensure good visibility for drivers and pedestrians. Proper lighting enhances safety, especially in enclosed or underground parking facilities. • Use of transitional ramp is preffered.
  • 29. Fire escape • A fire escape is a safety feature commonly found in buildings, especially multi-story structures, to provide a means of evacuation in the event of a fire or other emergencies where the main exit routes may be blocked. Fire escapes are designed to allow people to quickly and safely exit a building when traditional exits, such as stairwells or elevators, are not accessible due to fire or smoke. Design consideration for fire escape: Location: Determine the ideal location for the fire escape based on the building's layout and the number of occupants. Fire escapes should be easily accessible from all parts of the building and should provide a clear path to a safe area. Capacity: Ensure that the fire escape can accommodate the expected number of building occupants. This includes considering the width of stairs, landings, and platforms to allow for a smooth and safe evacuation. Materials: Fire escapes are typically made of fire-resistant materials, such as steel or wrought iron. These materials can withstand high temperatures and provide stability during evacuation. Stairs and Landings: Design the fire escape with sturdy staircases and landings. Stairs should have a consistent rise and run, and landings should be spacious enough to allow people to rest and change direction if needed.
  • 30. Hoarding board • A hoarding board in a commercial complex typically refers to a large, temporary, and often freestanding advertising or informational board that is placed in a visible location within or around a commercial property. These hoarding boards serve various purposes, such as marketing upcoming events, advertising retail businesses, displaying construction project details, or providing information about the complex itself. • Advantages of digital hoarding boards: • Effective advertisement • Revenue generation • Enhanced aesthetic • Flexibility • Promotion of Complex Amenities The hoarding board can be of custom sizes, and are made according to the neeed Of a customer, it can also be made curved, which enhances the aesthetic value of a building and a advertisement too.
  • 31. Uses of water tank in a commercial complex • Water Storage: The primary function of a water tank is to store a reserve of water for the building's daily water needs. This includes providing water for domestic use, such as sinks, toilets, showers, and kitchen appliances. • Fire Protection: Water tanks in commercial complexes often serve as a source of water for fire suppression systems, including sprinklers and fire hydrants. This ensures that there is an adequate water supply to combat fires in the event of an emergency. • Emergency Backup: In case of a disruption in the municipal water supply, a water tank can provide a backup source of water, ensuring that the building can continue to function and meet its essential water needs. • Water tank sizes: 1. Small Commercial Complexes: For small commercial complexes like small offices, small retail stores, or low-occupancy buildings, a water tank capacity in the range of 5,000 to 20,000 gallons (19,000 to 75,700 liters) may be sufficient to meet their water needs. This assumes basic domestic water supply and sanitation. 2. Medium-Sized Commercial Complexes: Medium-sized complexes, such as larger office buildings, mid-sized shopping centers, or multi-use buildings, may require water tank capacities ranging from 20,000 to 50,000 gallons (75,700 to 189,270 liters) or more. This size accounts for increased water demand due to higher occupancy and additional facilities. 3. Large Commercial Complexes: Large commercial complexes, including shopping malls, hotels, convention centers, or industrial facilities, can have much larger water tank capacities. They may range from 50,000 to several hundred thousand gallons (189,270 to over a million liters) or more, depending on the complexity of the complex, water- intensive activities (e.g., industrial processes, large kitchens), and fire protection needs.
  • 32. Generator rooms • Location: The generator room should be strategically located to ensure easy access for maintenance and refueling while being protected from potential flooding, fire hazards, and extreme weather conditions. It should also be well-ventilated to dissipate heat generated by the generators. • Exhaust and Ventilation: Adequate exhaust and ventilation systems are crucial to dissipate exhaust gases and maintain proper air circulation. Generators emit carbon monoxide and other harmful gases, so ventilation must comply with safety standards to prevent health hazards. • Fuel Storage: If the generators are powered by diesel or other fuels, the generator room should include fuel storage facilities, such as tanks or fuel lines, with proper safety measures in place to prevent leaks or spills. • Fire Suppression and Safety: Fire safety is paramount in the generator room. The room should be equipped with fire suppression systems like sprinklers or fire extinguishers, and it should adhere to fire safety codes and regulations. Emergency lighting and exit signs should also be present. • Noise Control: since the generators can be noisy it should be placed far from the reach of general public or where there is more crowd, or noise insulations and control measures can be applied.
  • 33. Byelaws • Set back Set back is the distance from the plinth level of a building to the edge of the road. The minimum setback for a commercial building is 6m. The minimum setback for public building upto 17m is 3m. And above that height the setback is 6m. Floor area ratio (FAR) (FAR) is the ratio of a building's total floor area (gross floor area) to the size of the piece of land upon which it is built. Floor Area Ratio (FAR) = Total area of the building / plot size The federal government has set the FAR to 2.5,whereas metropolitan has set upto 3.5 for the commercial building. Ground coverage: The total area covered by the building on the ground floor is known as ground coverage. The ground coverage shouldnot exceed 50-60% for the commercial building.
  • 34. Social space • The areas within a building or urban environment that are designed to facilitate social interaction, engagement, and community-building among people. These spaces are intentionally created to promote social activities, communication, and a sense of belonging. Social spaces can vary in scale, from small gathering spots within a building to large public plazas or parks in an urban setting.
  • 35. Energy efficient buildings • An energy-efficient building, often referred to as a "green" or "sustainable" building, is a structure designed and constructed with the goal of reducing its energy consumption and environmental impact while maintaining or improving the comfort, health, and productivity of its occupants. Energy-efficient buildings utilize various design principles, technologies, and materials to optimize energy use and reduce waste. • Importance of energy enfficient building: • Reduced energy consumption • Lower operating cost • Health and wellbeing • Longterm savings • Improved comfort
  • 36. DAYLIGHT  USE OF LED LIGHTS OVER CFL BULBS CAN SAVE LARGE AMOUNT OF MONEY  EFFICIENT SMART LIGHTS THAT CAN BE REMOTELY CONTROLLED CAN ALSO HELP TO SAVE ENERGY IN THE LONG RUN  NATURAL LIGHTING SHOULD BE GIVEN HIGH PRIORITY TO AVOID THE MORE USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTS
  • 37. VENTILATION  NATURAL VENTILATION • SINGLE SIDED VENTILATION • CROSS VENTILATION • STACK VENTILATION
  • 39. ACOUSTIC  IMPORTANCE  DECREASED EXTERIOR NOISE POLLUTION  REDUCED SOUND ECHOING  CONTROLLED SOUND FLOW AND AMPLICATION  AID IN CONCENTRATION AND PRODUCTIVITY  MATERIALS  FIBER GLASS  MINERAL WOOL  PLASTERBOARD  COTTON  TREATMENT  CAVITY WALL CONSTRUCTION  ACOUSTIC PANELS  FIBERGLASS INSULATION  BASS TRAPS MINERAL WOOL FIBER GLASS
  • 41. NATIONAL CASE STUDY DURBAR MALL ABOUT • Location: Durbar Marg, Kathmandu • Orientation: East • Project Firm: Guna Group • Architect’s Name: Ar. Bijay Prajapati • Project Initiation: 2072 • Project Completion: 2078 • Number of Floors: Basement + 5 floors • Ground floor area: 8624.04 SQ. FT • Approach road: 12’8” INTRODUCTION - Durbar Mall Located in the heart of the city, King’s way. - This 5 storied building consists of various tenant shops, showrooms, theatre, restaurants, salons and many more. - People's movement was mostly witnessed for luxury movie theatre. - Site Forces: Narayanhiti Durbar, Ghantaghar, Dharahara, Sky Walk Tower
  • 42. CONCEPTUAL  A "Durbar“ is referred as a royal court or assembly, where important events or gatherings takes place.  The mall is named ‘DURBAR MALL ’to create a connection with the community and reflect the area's heritage.  It is also named so that its catchy, memorable, and align with the mall's image and target audience. FORM  The building is in the L shape.  The mall entrance starts small but gradually expands as you move deeper inside creates visual appeal and impressive reveal.
  • 43. BUILDING MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES MATERIALS - Concrete - Steel - Tiles - Glass  In the elevation, the building materials and technique used are modern.  Front façade is treated with glass giving elegance and sophistication.  Mezzanine floor is made with portal frames for the theatre.  There is marble flooring in the interior  False ceilings are used.  In the railings, steel handrails are provided with tempered glass. ACCESS AND ENTRANCE  Only accessible through one entrance from front façade  Sliding glass door  Entrance opening: 10’6”  Size of landing: 15’4”x 5’11”  Space from entrance to escalator: 60’
  • 44. DESIGN ELEMENTS  Plaza  Mezzanine  Facade Treatment BUILDING BYE-LAWS  Setback: 7ft  FAR: 4.5  GCR: Less than 60% INFRASTRUCTURE  Waste Management: Nagarpalika  Water Supply: Personal Boring  Drainage: Public Sewage
  • 45. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION It is a 5 storied building with 2 floors in mezzanine for cinemas and 1 basement for parking. Salon, Parlor and Shops Retail shops and Office Retail shops Retail shops and Restaurants Retail shops Basement Parking Food Court and Showrooms Durbar Cineplex
  • 46. SHOP/SHOWROOM SIZES  Small shop: 10.6’ x 19.6’  Medium shop: 16.4’ x 16.4’  Large shop/showroom: 22.1’ x 54.6’  No of shop in each floor: 22  Size of door in shop: 5.2’ x 7’  Distance from plaza to shop: 11.8’ RESTURANTS/ FOODCOURT Red Panda Bubble Tea Yasumi Japanese Restaurant Kenny Rogers Roaster
  • 47. CINEMA THEATRE DURBAR CINEMAX  Has a theatre with the seating capacities for 53 and 50 respectively.  It is one of the most luxurious cinema halls in Nepal which offers a high end interior designed lobby and food and bar services inside the theatre.  The main focus is on providing luxury, comfort, convenience and premium cinema experience to the audience.
  • 48. FEATURES • Lighting:Warm lightswith false ceiling,foot light,house light • Acoustic: Plentyof sound systemattached on the wallsand behind the screen • Insulatingmaterial: Carpetedwalls and decorative panels of wood fiber sunboard • Ticket Counter • Food Hub • Lobby area/ Sittingarea • Toilets – Male and Female PROJECTOR ROOM  Room size: 12’x6’  Has a projector  Ac to dc convertor  5tb Hard Disk  Monitoringand screening setup  Sound system
  • 49. TOILET  Sufficient ventilation and lighting inside toilet  Two floor uses same one toilet  Corridor Infront of Toilet: 4.93 M  Insufficient circulation spaces  Sensory urinals C1 C3 C2 BASIN 1.05 M 1.02 2.6 M GIRL’S TOILET LAYOUT BOY’S TOILET LAYOUT C1 C2 BASIN 2.2 M
  • 50. CIRCULATIONS A. Vertical Circulation 1) Staircase: • No. of staircase : 1 • Type of staircase: Dog legged staircase • Emergency exit staircase: 1 • Type of staircase: Single Straight Flight Staircase • Width of staircase: 1.2 M 2) Lift: • No of lift: 2 • Load Capacity: 1000kg • No. of maximum person capacity: 13 persons • Only accessible from ground floor to 5th floor • Aesthetic and modern 3) Escalator: • No. of escalator in each floor: 2 • Width of escalator: 1.2 M • Headroom is very less
  • 51. B. Horizontal Circulation Corridors: • Primary Corridor Width: 3.6M • Secondary Corridor Width: 2.1 M • Tertiary Corridor Width: 1.4 M • Have to walk entire corridor to use escalator which encourage people to walk past more storefronts, potentially increasing exposure to retail offerings. • The corridors are wide and well-lit from which the stores are easily visible and accessible. Lobby Area: • Cozy, pleasing and aesthetic • Easy access to staircase and lift • Centrally located thereby being an attraction • Influences overall atmosphere of the building.
  • 52. FLOOR DIVISION Services: Staircase, escalator, lift and emergency exit No. of Shops: 15 Mainly showroom and foodcourt Showroom: Li-ning, Kasa, Kade, Mishisa, etc Foodcourt : Red Panda Bubble Tea, Cine Coffee Express, etc GROUND FLOOR PLAN Services: Staircase, escalator, lift and emergency exit No. of Shops: 22 Mainly Retail shops Retail shops: Sneaker Rotation, Next Makeup Store, Mobile Inn
  • 53. Services: Staircase, escalator, lift and emergency exit No. of Shops: 22 No toilet provided in this floor Mainly Retail shops and Restaurants Retail shop: DMK Restaurant: Yasumi Japanese Restaurant, Kenny Rogers Roaster Services: Staircase, escalator, lift and emergency exit No. of Shops: 22 Mainly Retail shops Retail shop: DMK, Orchid Retail, Madame
  • 54. Services: Staircase, escalator, lift and emergency exit No. of Shops: 22 No toilet provided in this floor Mainly Retail shops and Office Retail shop: currently no any shop in this floor Office space provided Services: Staircase, escalator, lift and emergency exit No. of Shops: 22 Mainly Retail shops and Salons Retail shop: currently no any shop in this floor Salons: Pals, Hair and Shanti
  • 55. PARKING BASEMENT PARKING  Column Size: 0.75 x 0.75 M  Clear Height: 12’  Entry: From the back side of the Building  Parking Type: 90 degree parking  Total number of bikes: 150 - 170 cars: 25  Parking is provided separately for bikes and cars  Parking space for the staff was allocated separately  Merging slope is provided  Has a secondary slope for staff parking which has an angle of 28.8 degree.  Insufficient circulation space  Maximum flow: During holidays and weekends  No ventilation  No natural lighting thereby artificial lights were provided.  Has same entry and exit  Only staircase is accessible in basement.
  • 57. LIGHTING, VENTILATION AND SECURITY LIGHTING  Natural Lighting – In between two buildings so natural lighting only from front façade  Artificial Lighting – Warm Lighting and False ceiling VENTILATION  Natural Ventilation– Insufficient natural ventilation  Artificial Ventilation- Provision of exhaust fan SECURITY  Provision of emergency staircase  Fire alarms, fire extinguishers and nozzle systems
  • 58. ASPECTS Positive Aspect  Location of the Building  Well managed spaces, barely any wastage of space.  Easy to navigate / locate the spaces.  Sufficient circulation spaces  The floor scheme has been worked out in such a way that every shop  Proper usage of signage Negative Aspect  No special provision for differently abled peoples  Poor ventilation and natural lighting  Lack of soft landscape, absence of greens.  Provision of only one toilet for two floors causing trafficking  Unmanaged parking spaces
  • 60. GENERAL INTRODUCTION • Location: Devkota Sadak, New Baneshwor • Orientation: West • Estd date: September 20,2019 • Designer: Ar. Sailendra G.C. • Interior designer: Ar. Krishna Shrestha • Site Area: 13670 SQ. FT • Built Up Area: 99752 SQ. FT. • Floor Area: 9235 SQ. FT. • Approach road: 13’-7” wide road
  • 61. INTRODUCTION Eyeplex mall is a newly established mall located in the heart of Kathmandu valley. It has been able to draw attention of the people passing through the Baneshwor road because of its outstanding facade treatment. The unique material selection and its shape is designed in such a way that it stands out from the crowded area. Besides its eye catching exterior design, it has many more features to offer. The 9 storey building consists of various tenant shops, theatre, food court, circulation spaces as well as other attractions like lounge and kids play area. However, the building is still in its phase of completion. A bar and the kids play area are still under construction and are yet to open. Because of its captivating exterior as well as interior design, it has become a popular public destination in a very short time period from its establishment. However, along with the attractive architectural aspects of the mall,some essential elements such as recreational zones for public are still missing.
  • 62. CONCEPT The main concept of the mall is reflected in its front facade because the other three facades are not visible. Architect has taken expressionism as the main concept. The strong horizontal lines are cut off to form major curvature throughout the facade. The remaining facade is cladded with glasses creating voids along with minor masses. In the horizontal stripes, small nail like light is provided. These lights give jagged effects to the strong horizontal lines at night which gives more welcoming look to the mall. Naming the mall ‘eyeplex’ has a certain meaning to it. Designer aspires to build a multiplex that catches everyone’s eye. The surrounding site consists of commercial and residential building of RCC structures with very plain facade treatment. This building stands out as a hierarchal building in such surrounding which automatically draws attention of the people.
  • 63. SITE The site is located at very popular commercial zone of the city, Baneshwor. The rate of flow of people is very high in this area thereby leading to the high retail activity. Therefore, the flow of people in this mall will also be high. ACCESS AND ENTRANCE The mall is only accessible from the front facade. It is strongly visually connected through the road. One vehicular entrance is provided which is directly accessible through the 13’-7” wide road. One pedestrian entrance is provided which is beside the vehicular entrance, through the steps which is 21’-11” wide. One ramp of slope 1:8 is given beside the pedestrian entrance. Vehicle parking is in basements which is of two floors. As the site is surrounded by buildings compactly from three sides and the main road goes right infront of the building, the structure lacks the external plaza or recreational area.
  • 64. BUILDING MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES In the elevation, the building materials and technique used are contemporary. Concrete slabs are used to make horizontal lines in the facade. Along with this, glass and ACP are used as cladding material to make a pattern of mass and void. There is marble flooring in the interior. False ceiling is provided for HVAC and lighting purposes as there is very less provision of natural lighting. This leads to the reduction of floor height which is only .In the railings, steel handrails are provided with tempered glass. Truss roof was used. PLAZA AND INTERIOR The complex is directly connected to the main road. The building is raised to the plinth level of +4’- 8” to create double basements for parking. Steps are provided in the entrance. Plaza has not been designed properly because ofthe small area of the site. That’s why, the designer has intended to create a more vibrant space in the interior. The artificial lighting, different patterns in the ceilings, and pillars has made the space lively and attractive. people come to visit mall not only for shopping but also for a pleasant experience outside the house. This mall even if it couldn’t provide suitable public space around it, it has surely provided an interior environment where people would love to spend time.
  • 65. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION It is a nine storey building with two floors in the basement for parking. The vertical circulation in the mall occupies of the total area of the mall. Lifts, escalators, and stairs are provided for vertical circulation. Emergency exit, service lift, and theater exits are also provided. From the section we can see the positioning of the escalators and stairs. • 9th floor (9'4"): Mezzanine floor for Drishya lounge • 8th floor (9'4"): Drishya longue • 7th floor (11'2"): Bar in construction, water tank • 6th floor (11'2"): Exit of theatre, project room, officeroom • 5th floor (11'2"): AUDI1, AUDI2, concession stand, operation room • 4th floor (11'2"): Food court, children play area, administration, waiting lobby for theatre • 3rd floor (11'2"): Retail stores and beauty salon • 2nd floor (11'2"): Retail stores • 1st floor (11'2"): Branded retail stores • Ground floor (11'2"): Retail stores and coffee shops • Basement 1 (7'1"): Magazine basement parking (bikes) • Basement 2 (7'8"): Lower basement parking (cars)
  • 66. HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION The vertical circulation occupies 7% of the total area whereas the horiziontal circulation occupies 40% of the floor area.The service space occupies only 3%. Other remaining 50% of the area is occupied by the retail shops. PLANNING One can enter basement for parking from east side of the mall,stacked for 36 car parks in the lower floor and 350 bikes in the upper. The floor is of steel structure mezzanine floor. Back up, water tanks and other building service element occupies the lower floors. One can climb upper floors with both lifts and staircase. Atrium space was created in the middle of the mall with escalators. This leads to the courtyard like planning with retail shops around the periphery of the circulation space. It has simple planning as the site suggests placing the fire exits, other facilities making it to its easiest approach. The perimeter walkway around the atrium forming corridor and balcony has let people observe the activities of lower and upper floor. Similarly, the stores are aligned along the corridor letting people see through window front. The bridges connect the wings of the mall and to provide outdoor visibility the mall has open balcony space over the two entrance.
  • 68. FIRST, SECOND AND THIRD FLOOR • Rental space: 46% • Lift: 2% • Toilet: 3% • Circulation: 49% GROUND FLOOR • Retail space: 43% • Lift: 2% • Toilet: 3% • Circulation: 52%
  • 69. FIFTH FLOOR • Theater: 39% • Kitchen: 2% • Lift: 2% • Toilet: 5% • Smoking zone: 2% • Circulation: 50% FOURTH FLOOR • Food court: 34% • Office: 15% • Lift: 2% • Circulation: 49%
  • 70. SEVENTH FLOOR • Lift: 2% • Kids zone: 65% • Circulation: 32% • Toilet: 1% SIXTH FLOOR • Theater: 39% • Lift: 1% • Toilet: 1% • Kids zone: 10% • Circulation: 49%
  • 71. EIGHT AND NINTH FLOOR • Lift: 2% • Lounge: 64% • Circulation: 32% • Toilet: 2%
  • 72. PARKING Two floors of the basement are used for parking. The entrance to the parking is 13’ 17” wide road. The lower basement is used for car parking of capacity 30 car at a time. The upper basement is a steel structure. mezzanine floor which is for two wheelers with the capacity of 150 bikes at a time. The basements have exposed water supply ducts that we observed and artificial lighting.
  • 73. CIRCULATION Eyeplex mall has only one access for pedestrian and one for vehicles. Almost 30% of the total area is dedicated to the circulation space; while remaining 50 % house rental space. Escalators, elevators and staircase assists on the vertical circulation while walkways and lobby in horizontal circulation. The lift in the front façade have provided the physical connectivity and let people enjoy the movement through the space with the exterior site view. The escalators are placed in the centre of the mall, for the proper circulation. LIFTS 1. Elevator Number: 2 (13 people and 10 people) 2. Freight lift Number: 1 (1500 kg) 3. Capsule lift Number: 1 ( 13 people)
  • 74. STAIRCASE • Number: 2 ( passenger staircase and fire exit ) • Type of stairs: Dog legged staircase • Width of stairs: 5’-9”Passenger staircase and 4’-5” Fire Staircase • Tread: 1’-0”Riser: 0’-7” CORRIDOR The corridors are wide and well-lit from which the stores are easily visible and accessible. Width: 7’
  • 75. ESCALATORS Number: 9 Width: 5’-0” Length: 32’-11” Height: 11’-7” Inclination: 20 degree In ground floor, only one escalator is provided for going up. LIGHTING Because of the site is surrounded by buildings from all the three sides except the front facade, naural lighting provision is very minimum in the mall. A central window of 19’10” * 56’9” is on the front facade. The void and mass pattern is in the front facade. A void space of 33’3” * 21’8” is on the centre upto 4th floor but because of plan in 5th floor ( cinema mall ) the void was covered. In the interior, sufficient artificial lighting is provided. The lounge in the top floor is perfectly lit with natural light making the designed interior more vibrant.
  • 76. MAIN ATTRACTIONS OF THE MALL 1. Drishya lounge It is located at 8th and 9th floor of the mall. It is the rooftop lounge of the mall which features sumptuous interiors, an avant garde cocktail bar, coffee station with the capacity of more than 120 customers at a time. 2. Kids play zone It is located at 6th floor of the mall. The mall features a separate play station for the kids under age of 5. The parents can leave their child under the care of the staff also or they can be with their child. The playground contains swings, slides, toys, balls, play houses and ferries.
  • 77. 3. The Theatre The theatre is located in 4th 5th floor of the mall. It covers the area of about 8700 sq. ft. One cinema is the movie theatre of the mall which has 3 theatres. It feature 38x17 feet silver screens with a total seating capacity of 480(Auditorium 1-208, Auditorium 2-203 , Premium-69 ). One Cinemas provides world-class auditorium experiences through our 4K digital projection system and crystal-clear DTS sound system with DOLBY Surround 7.1. The essential space and the respective area of the theatre area are: 1.Board room: • Area= 210 SQ. FT. • Capacity= 12 • Per person area= 17.5 SQ. FT. 2. Staff room: • Area= 94.11 SQ. FT. • Per person area= 3.76 SQ. FT. 3. Hall manager room: • Area= 105.03 SQ. FT. • Capacity= 5 • Per person area= 26.25 SQ.FT
  • 78. CONCLUSION Although the site is enclosed by buildings from all the three sides, the designer has been able to treat the front and the only exposed façade in such a way that the building clearly stands out from the plain landscape. The eye catching exterior of the mall gives it a more welcoming and inviting view justifying the naming of the mall ‘eyeplex’. Even if there is difficulty in providing natural lighting inside the mall, the artificial lighting and interior design is made in such a way that people feel a comforting and vibrant ambience inside. designer is able to justify every space in the mall despite of the small area of the site with proper circulation and attractive design.
  • 80. • INTRODUCTION • Phoenix Market City is a shopping mall developed by mills limited located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. • Opened in January 2013 and is the largest mall in the city • Has several national and international brands such as: i. Lifestyle ii. Pantaloons iii. Globus iv. Manchester v. United vi. Steve vii. Madden viii. Addidas ix. Aldo x. Allensolly
  • 81. SITE PLAN • Location: City Centre – Velachery • Architect: Gordan Benoy • Land area: 17 acres • Retail building: up area – 2.36 acres • Residence built-up area: 2.98 acres • Total built-up area: 7.34 acres • No of stores: 260 • No of stories-basement +5 stories
  • 82. SITE CONTEXT • Guru nanak college – 448.02m • Co- operative bank – 504.06m
  • 83. AREA COVERED • A Hyper Market: 1,00,000 sq ft • 5 anchor shops: 2,50,000 sq ft • 13 mini anchor shops: 1,75,000 sq ft • 122 small stores: 3,00,000 sq ft
  • 84. ENTRANCES • 3 main entrances to mall • One from the front and two from the rare side
  • 85. LOWER GROUND FLOOR PLANS Apparel • Beauty and cosmetic • Coffee shop • Confectionery • Consumer durables, electronic & IT products • Footwear • Furniture and home finishings Hypermarket stores • Personal grooming salon and spa • Pharmacy and Wellness • Restaurants • Service and specialty stores • Sports and fitness • Toys and games • Watches and eyewear • accessories
  • 86. GROUND FLOOR Accessories Apparel • Beauty and cosmetic • books., music and entertainment • Coffee shop • Confectionery • Consumer durables, electronic & IT products • Footwear • Jewelry • Restaurants • Watches and eyewear
  • 87. FIRST FLOOR • Coffee shop • Food court • Furniture and home finishings • Footwear • Restaurants • Service and specialty stores • Toys and games
  • 88. SECOND FLOOR • Restaurants • Food court • Coffee shop • Entertainment • Games
  • 89. THIRD FLOOR • Food court • Restaurants • Cinema hall • Entertainment • service
  • 90. EXTERNAL FINISHING • Upper-level surface is provided for advertisement and forthcoming attraction • Which are visible from the distance governing the external elevation.
  • 91. CORRIDOR • Width of the corridor is 12’ • Wide enough to accommodate the foot traffic even during peak hours
  • 92. ESCALATORS PLACEMENT • Escalators are placed near the entries • 4 escalators per each floor • Info desk placed near the escalators • The area around the escalator used as seating in the lower ground floor
  • 93. LANDSCAPE • The entry leads to landscape area • Landscape contains of: a. An open-air theater b. Space c. Kids play area d. waterfall
  • 94. EMERGENCY EXIT • Emergency exit map is located on each floor • Also has instruction is the signboard • 7 emergency exits are provided • Shows the route to the exit
  • 95. PARKING • Mall consists of basement parking and MLCP • The MLCP consist of 11 floors • The MLCP is attached to the mall for easy access
  • 96. MOVIE THEATER • There is 11 screen multiplex is capable of dealing out of 40 shows, every single day, in 16 languages • With an expected capacity of 15,000 people visiting the multiplex every day
  • 98.  LOCATION – BEIJING, CHINA  ARCHITECT – ZAHA HADID  INITIATION YEAR – 2008  COMPLETION YEAR – 2012  SITE AREA – 49,965 SQ. M  BUILT UP AREA – 332,857 SQ. M  BUILDING HEIGHT – 64 M  NO. OF TOWERS – 4  NO. OF FLOORS – 18  NO. OF BASEMENT – 3  RETAIL FLOORS – B1 TO F3  OFFICE FLOORS – UPPER 12 FLOORS  PAKING – B2 AND B3 WITH 1275 CAR PARKING SPACES GENERAL INTRODUCTION
  • 99. DESIGN CONCEPT LAYOUT OF SIHEYUAN RICE FIELDS OF CHINA GALAXY SOHO
  • 100. DESIGN CONCEPT  INFLUENCED BY CHINESE NATURAL LANDSCAPE AND COURTYARDS  COMPLEX LOOKS LIKE A LARGE CENTRAL CANYON  FEATURES OF LOCAL TERRACED RICE FIELDS IN HORIZONTAL PLANE  CURVILINEAR DESIGN  FOUR ASYMMETRIC CONTINUOUS STRUCTURES  FLOWING VOLUME LINKED BY STRETCHED BRIDGES CENTRAL CANYON STRETCHED BRIDGES
  • 101. FLOOR PLANS OF GALAXY SOHO  TOTAL FLOORS – 18  LOWER BASEMENT FLOORS (B2 AND B3) - PARKING WITH 1275 VEHICLES LEAVING DISTRIBUTION  BASEMENT FLOOR HEIGHT – 5.4M
  • 102. FLOOR PLANS OF GALAXY SOHO  FLOORS (B1 TO F3) - PUBLIC FACILITIES FOR RETAILS AND ENTERTAINMENT  RETAIL FLOORS HEIGHT – 5.4M  RETAIL FLOORS HAVE MORE FLOOR HEIGHT THAN OFFICE FLOORS AS THE VENT PIPES RUN THROUGH THE CEILING IN RETAIL FLOORS  FLOORS (F4 TO F12) - COMMERCIAL OFFICE AND BUSINESS SPACES  OFFICE FLOOR AREA – 100 TO 300 SQ. M EACH  OFFICE FLOOR HEIGHT – 3.5 M  OFFICE FLOORS HAVE LESS AREA AND FEWER VENT PIPES IN CEILING HENCE LESSER FLOOR HEIGHT  FLOORS (F13 TO F15) - SPACE FOR RESTAURANTS, BARS, CAFES AND BISTROS  TOPMOST FLOORS GIVE SPECTACULAR VIEW OVER THE CITY
  • 108. CIRCULATION  EACH TOEWRS HAS 2 CORES FOR VERTICAL MOVEMENT  IT CONSIST OF AN OPEN ATRIUM WHICH IS SEMICOVERED WITH GLASS ON THE THIRD FLOOR WHERE THE RETAIL FLOOR ENDS  IT HAS 2 ESCALATORS IN EACH ATRIUM TO MOVE BETWEEN THE RETAIL FLOORS  THESE ESCALATORS END AFTER THE RETAIL FLOORS  AFTER THE THIRD FLOOR ALL THE VERTICAL CIRCULATION IS THROUGH THE CORE OF THE TOWER  BASEMENTS ARE ACCESSED BY ESCALATORS AND STAIRCASE  HORIZONTAL CIRCULATION BETWEEN TOEWRS THROUGH STRETCHED BRIDGES EMERGENCY EXIT  FIRE EXIT STAIRCASE FROM BELOW GROUND LEVEL ARE SITUATED AT THE BOUNDARIES OF BASEMENT  THESE STAIRCASES OPEN IN THE PATHWAY AROUND THE TOWER  ON UPPER FLOORS (ABOVE THE RETAIL FLOORS), THE SERVICE STAIRCASE ACTS AS A FIRE EXIT STAIRCASE
  • 110. CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM  OLD – STYLE CHINESE COURTYARD SYSTEM  FOUR PRIMARY DOMED CONSTRUCTION  DOMES INTERCONNECTED BY BRIDGE SHOWING CONTINUOUS INTERIOR SPACES  STANDARD CONCRETE STRUCTURE WITH 8.4M SPAN CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS  EXTERIOR : 3 MM ALUMINIUM CLADDING WITH INSULATED GLASS AND STONE  INTERIOR : GLASS, TERRAZZO, STAINLESS STEEL, GYPSUM CEILING INCLUDING THE DECORATIVE WALLS, AND BOARD PAINTED
  • 112. LIGHTING  EACH DOME CONTAINS A VOID SPACE THAT FORMS AN ATRIUM FOR NATURAL SUNLIGHT TO ENTER VIA THE SKYLIGHT  ATRIUM IS GLAZED WITH GLASS FORMING CRISS CROSS PATTERN TO ILUMINATE THE SPACES WITHIN FOUR DOMES NATURALLY  PROFICIENT LIGHTING AND USE OF TWOFOLD SILVER LOWER–E GLASS ATRIUM GLAZED WITH CRISS CROS PATTERN
  • 113. SPECIAL FEATURES  IT IS A 360 DEGREE ARCHITECTURAL WORLD WITH NO CORNERS, NO DISRUPTED TRANSITIONS, WHICH CREATES A FLOWING SPACES  THE CANYON BETWEEN THE SEEWPING CURVES OF BUILDING SERVES AS A CENTRAL OPEN AIR SPACES FOR SHOPPING AND ENTERTAINMENT  THE ROOF HAS A COOLED ROOFING SYSTEM THAT REDUCES HEAT ISLAND EFFECT AND ENSURES MICROCLIMATE IS OPTIMAL FOR PEOPLE  IT ADOPTS WATER – EFFICIENT SYSTEMS THAT RECYCLE WASTE WATER  FOUR TOWERS INTERCONNECTED WITH THE SKY BRIDGES  THE PLANTS AROUND THE PERIMETER OF COMPLEX ARE THE JUXTAPOSITION OF WAVING ORNAMENTAL GRASSES BETWEEN PARAMERTIC CURVES OF STRUCTURES AND THE NATURAL CONTOURS OF LANDSCAPE  THE BANDS OF WHITE ALUMINIUM AND GLASS GIVE A GEOLOGICAL PRESENCE  THE LIGHT TRACKS PLACED BELOW THE GLASS PANEL ILLUMINATES THE EXTERIOR FAÇADE DURING NIGHT
  • 114. NIGHT VIEW OF GALAXY SOHO
  • 115. COMPARISION TABLE SN PARTICULARS DURBAR MALL EYEPLEX MALL PHOENIX MARKETCITY 1. ENTRANCE / FOYER 1 main entrance on front from first facade 1 main entrance on front facade, small attractive foyer 3 main entrance, one from the first and other two from rare sides 2. CIRCULATION INSIDE Primary Corridor Width: 11.8’ Secondary Corridor Width: 6.8’ Corridor Width: 7’ Corridor Width: 12’ 3. ATRIUM Absence of atrium, only presence of plaza. Absence of atrium, only presence of plaza. Presence of atrium, yet not enough natural light in the building, artificial light is required for exhibiting products 4. DINE AREA Food court is in ground floor. Food court is provided at 4th floor, Drishya lounge at 8th and 9th floor Food court is provided in each floor. 5. PARKING SPACE No surface parking. Basement parking designed for: bikes 150 - 170 and cars:25 No surface parking. Double basement designed for : 30 no. of cars and 150 no. of bikes Parking in basement, 11 floors for parking 6. MOVIE THEATRE 2 movie theatres Capacities: 53 and 50 respectively. 3 movie theatres A1:208 seats A2:203 seats Premium:69 seats 11 movie theatres Each theatre capacity: 300