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FAO-EPSO CONSULTATION
Role and Emerging Partnerships for
Crop Improvement in India
Hari S Gupta
Indian Agricultural Resear...
Outline
• Contribution of plant sciences to crop production :
Green Revolution
• Lessons from Green Revolution: inter-regi...
Unprecedented Progress during
the last 60 years
• Increased agricultural production
(from 50 MT to 252 MT)
• Higher real i...
Food Grains Production in India
0
300
600
900
1200
1500
1800
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Yield
AreaandProduction
Area in m.ha...
Production and Productivity of Wheat in India
Prodn.x 9
Yield x3
Area x 2.5
IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
Mexican Wheat in India
Dwarf wheat travelled from Japan to US to Mexico and to India
• Salmon (USDA) to Vogel (WSU) to Bor...
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
TE 1952 TE1981 TE2006
42 45
35
8
16
25
8
9 9
42
30 31
Others
Oilseeds
Fruits &
Vegetables
Food gra...
IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
Source:: Evenson & Gollin (2003) CABI
Reasons for Transformation
GREEN REVOLUTION
• Partnership with CGIAR Institutions - Key to success
• Adoption of HYVs alon...
Wide Inter-Regional Variations in Yield
Sl. No. State Food grain yield, 2009-10
(t/ha)
1. Punjab 4.1
2 Tamil Nadu 2.5
3 We...
Agricultural Production
Scenario
Commodity Production
in 1950
(Million tonnes)
Production
in 2011
(Million tonnes)
Food gr...
FUTURE CHALLENGES
&
STRATEGIES TO MEET THEM
Food Requirement- Indian Scenario
Production 2010-11
(Million tonnes)
• Rice 103.41
• Wheat 90.23
• Coarse cer41.9
• Pulse...
Dr. S. Raman, New Delhi Winter
School, 20/3/09
Fresh Water Resources – 4.6 %
Land – 2.3 %
Population – 17 %
Rainfall – 117...
The Challenges
Second Generation Problems
of Green Revolution
-Nutritional Security?
-Breaking yield barrier
-Decline in F...
The Challenges
Incidence of malnutrition among children
(< 3 years)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Severe Moderate Overall
Percentage...
The Challenges
Raise Productivity
(Small farms holdings)
Increase Income
(Low Cost technology)
Manage Natural
Resources
In...
IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
Climate Change : Effect of Enhanced CO2
Change in insect-pest
dynamics
IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
Climate Change
Need for Anticipatory Research
IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
Recent Successes
 Bt Cotton
Area reached 8.4 m ha in 2011 nearly 85% of total area.
Production doubled 2.3 mt in 2002 to ...
Recent Successes- contd
• Revolution in potato production & productivity
• Area 0.54 mha in 1950 to 1.8 mha in 2011
• Prod...
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
Value of Basmati Export
(Rs. in Crores)
2 billion US $
IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitu...
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
Taraori
Basmati
Pusa Basmati
1
Pusa
Sugandh 2
Pusa RH 10
(Hybrid)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Duration...
Single Cross Maize Hybrids in India
• During the last decade, maize production doubled
• Maize productivity increased by 8...
Maize Yields, 1961-2009
Source: FAO
IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
Consumption of Chemical Fertilizers
Way Forward - Partnership
Past Successes
– Rice Biotechnology- Rockefeller Foundation
New Programs
– Network Projects in c...
Acknowledgements
FAO for Invitation
EPSO for sponsoring consultation
Colleagues at Indian Agricultural Research
Institute,...
IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
Biotechnology at Crossroads?
• 134 m ha under transgenic crops since 1966 – 46% in
developing countries (China, India, Bra...
IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
Bridging the Yield Gap
1. Transfer of Technology
a. Dissemination of HYVs - Seed production & SRR - very low
b. Balanced u...
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  1. 1. FAO-EPSO CONSULTATION Role and Emerging Partnerships for Crop Improvement in India Hari S Gupta Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi-110012 India IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  2. 2. Outline • Contribution of plant sciences to crop production : Green Revolution • Lessons from Green Revolution: inter-regional variations and lack of inclusive growth • Future Challenges • Partnership between Europe and Developing world with special reference to Africa • Way Forward IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  3. 3. Unprecedented Progress during the last 60 years • Increased agricultural production (from 50 MT to 252 MT) • Higher real income and reduced prices (from 1975 to 2007) • Reduced poverty (by 40%) • Life expectancy doubled (64 years) IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  4. 4. Food Grains Production in India 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Yield AreaandProduction Area in m.ha Production in m.t Yield in kg/ha Productivity X3 Production X5 Area- marginal inc. IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  5. 5. Production and Productivity of Wheat in India Prodn.x 9 Yield x3 Area x 2.5 IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  6. 6. Mexican Wheat in India Dwarf wheat travelled from Japan to US to Mexico and to India • Salmon (USDA) to Vogel (WSU) to Borlaug (CIMMYT) to IARI • Rabi 1961-62 -Observational Nursery from USDA • Summer 1962 -Multiplication at Wellington in Southern India • Rabi 1962-63 -Demonstration at IARI farm in New Delhi Dr. Borlaug invited & visited in March 1963 • Rabi 1963-64 -Multilocation Trial 4 places • Rabi 1964-65 -Large Multilocation trails-155 places • 1965- Two Mexican Lines Sonora 64 & Lerma Roho 64 A Released for Commercial cultivation by CVRC (CSCSNRV) • 18,000 tonnes seeds imported despite scarce foreign exchange • Yield increased from 8.3 q/ha in1965-66 to 13 q/ha in 1970-71 • Similar was the story in rice with introduction of IR8-dwarf rice INDIA BECAME SELF-SUFFICIENT IN FOOD GRAINS IN EARLY 1970s IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  7. 7. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% TE 1952 TE1981 TE2006 42 45 35 8 16 25 8 9 9 42 30 31 Others Oilseeds Fruits & Vegetables Food grains Shareincropsub-sector (inpercentage) IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute The Challenges Diversification of Crop sub Sector
  8. 8. IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute Source:: Evenson & Gollin (2003) CABI
  9. 9. Reasons for Transformation GREEN REVOLUTION • Partnership with CGIAR Institutions - Key to success • Adoption of HYVs along with associated technology • Joint efforts of – Agricultural scientists – Bureaucrats – Farmers – Polity • R&D in agriculture in partnership with US Land Grant Institutions- helped in removing the minor deficiencies in Sonora 64 and Lerma Roho 64A
  10. 10. Wide Inter-Regional Variations in Yield Sl. No. State Food grain yield, 2009-10 (t/ha) 1. Punjab 4.1 2 Tamil Nadu 2.5 3 West Bengal 2.5 4 Uttar Pradesh 2.2 5 Bihar 1.5 6 Orissa 1.4 7 Madhya Pradesh 1.3  Focus on high potential eastern region for immediate yield gains and inclusive growth
  11. 11. Agricultural Production Scenario Commodity Production in 1950 (Million tonnes) Production in 2011 (Million tonnes) Food grains 50.00 252.0 Vegetables 58.50 (91-92) 125.0 Fruits 28.60 (91-92) 63.6 Milk 17.00 104.8 Egg (nos.) 1.80 53.5 billion Fish 0.75 7.3 4-27 times increase in production of various commodities
  12. 12. FUTURE CHALLENGES & STRATEGIES TO MEET THEM
  13. 13. Food Requirement- Indian Scenario Production 2010-11 (Million tonnes) • Rice 103.41 • Wheat 90.23 • Coarse cer41.9 • Pulses 17.02 • Total 252.5 • Oilseed-31 Million Tonnes Demand 2021 (Million tonnes) 120 100 40 25 • 285 IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute Rice Wheat Coarse cereals Pulses Total Rice Wheat Coarse cereals Pulses Total Will India import food grains in 2023
  14. 14. Dr. S. Raman, New Delhi Winter School, 20/3/09 Fresh Water Resources – 4.6 % Land – 2.3 % Population – 17 % Rainfall – 1170 mm Resources and Liabilities XXXXXXXXXXXX IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  15. 15. The Challenges Second Generation Problems of Green Revolution -Nutritional Security? -Breaking yield barrier -Decline in Factor Productivity - Soil Health and Water Table declining - Increased Incidence of Diseases and Pests - Climate change- the biggest threat - IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  16. 16. The Challenges Incidence of malnutrition among children (< 3 years) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Severe Moderate Overall Percentage Undernutrition Rural Urban All IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  17. 17. The Challenges Raise Productivity (Small farms holdings) Increase Income (Low Cost technology) Manage Natural Resources IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  18. 18. IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  19. 19. Climate Change : Effect of Enhanced CO2 Change in insect-pest dynamics IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  20. 20. Climate Change Need for Anticipatory Research IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  21. 21. Recent Successes  Bt Cotton Area reached 8.4 m ha in 2011 nearly 85% of total area. Production doubled 2.3 mt in 2002 to 4.9 mt in 2010 Pesticide consumption reduced by 40% Income of 5 m farmers increased substantially Cotton export fetched US $ >1.5 billion in 2010  Soybean Area - 30, 000 ha (1970) to 10.3 Mha in 2011 Production - 0.14 MT (1970) to 12.4 MT in 2011 Productivity - 430 kg/ha-----------to 1300 kg/ha in 2011- x3 times 40% contribution to oilseed: 25% to edible oil of the country IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute 7.67 7.63 8.78 8.68 9.14 9.44 9.37 9.6 0.029 0.086 0.053 1.25 3.8 6.2 7.6 8.4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2002- 03 2003- 04 2004- 05 2005- 06 2006- 07 2007- 08 2008- 09 2009- 10 Millionhectares Year Adoption of Bt cotton in India total (mha) Bt (mha)
  22. 22. Recent Successes- contd • Revolution in potato production & productivity • Area 0.54 mha in 1950 to 1.8 mha in 2011 • Prodn. 1.56mt -------------- to 40 mt in 2011 • Prodn. 28 times: Productivity 3 times Basmati Rice : Volume of Export – 8 times in 20 yrs 1990 2010 0.25 mt 2.0 mt Export earning increased by 1,000 times ? IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  23. 23. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Value of Basmati Export (Rs. in Crores) 2 billion US $ IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  24. 24. 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 Taraori Basmati Pusa Basmati 1 Pusa Sugandh 2 Pusa RH 10 (Hybrid) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Duration(days) Yield(t/ha) Revolution in Basmati Rice Breeding for Earliness with higher yields IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  25. 25. Single Cross Maize Hybrids in India • During the last decade, maize production doubled • Maize productivity increased by 80% • Maize has shown fastest growth rate (~8%) during the last 5 yrs. – highest among cereals • Maize production can further be doubled in next decade • Hybrid coverage to be increased (from current 35%) • QPM will help in reducing protein malnutrition (25% food) • QPM- feed for better conversion ratio in poultry (61%) • QPM through Marker assisted backcross breeding • Baby corn export (1 million US $ in 2008 & 2009) IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  26. 26. Maize Yields, 1961-2009 Source: FAO IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  27. 27. IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute Consumption of Chemical Fertilizers
  28. 28. Way Forward - Partnership Past Successes – Rice Biotechnology- Rockefeller Foundation New Programs – Network Projects in crop improvement • Maize – MAB for biotic & abiotic stresses- • Conservation agriculture for raising system productivity and conserving resources • Rice - Golden rice for β carotene • Tuber crops for disease-free planting materials • Grain legumes for resistance to stored grain pests IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  29. 29. Acknowledgements FAO for Invitation EPSO for sponsoring consultation Colleagues at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi & Indian Council of Agricultural Research IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  30. 30. IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  31. 31. Biotechnology at Crossroads? • 134 m ha under transgenic crops since 1966 – 46% in developing countries (China, India, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and South Africa) • Crops: Soybean, Maize, Cotton, Canola • Traits: Insects, Herbicides, Viruses • More than 50 crops and forestry trees are being targeted currently • Tissue culture for propagation of plating material for horticultural crops • Which is the path we want to take? • Science-led or otherwise based on emotions IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  32. 32. IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  33. 33. IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute
  34. 34. Bridging the Yield Gap 1. Transfer of Technology a. Dissemination of HYVs - Seed production & SRR - very low b. Balanced use of fertilizers – 156 kg/ha India against 396 kg/ha in China c. Judicious use of water – Increasing WUE d. Increasing cropping intensity – 14 mha rice fallows in Eastern India e. Diversification with HVC & LS -Increasing prod. per unit area & profitability f. Supply of right input- On time and doorstep of farmers 2. Raising Productivity of RFAs- Watershed approach 3. Farming System Approach- Raising system productivity rather than of component crops 3. IPM & IPNM- Biological control & site-specific nutrient management 4. Sustainability to Irrigated Areas- Mung bean in wheat-rice system 5. Linking farmers to market- For increasing profitability IndianAgriculturalResearchInstitute

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