One might say, why focus so much time and money on R&R….. Some factors include….
DIVERSITY: WHAT THINGS COME TO MIND? LISTING
- Primary elements-- things we cannot control - Secondary elements -- things we have some control EVERYONE IS INCLUDED IN THESE ELEMENTS/DEFINITION Elements of Diversity There are various qualities that differentiate one individual from the next. 1. Primary Dimensions Race/ethnicity, gender, social class and culture are some examples of major elements of diversity. Race is often used as a biological concept of differentiating humans mostly based on skin color while ethnicity is more socially defined term often based on language or culture. It is not simple to differentiate race and ethnicity because those two terms are often overlapped and interchangeably used in census, research and field practice setting. The term ethnic diversity refers to the differences between people due to ethnicity. Differences in skin color, facial structure, and belief systems are likely to have roots in ethnic diversity. Sex and gender are also interchangeably used terms in daily lives. Sex is more biological concept while gender is more socially oriented term. Thus, when we say gender, it implies socially given roles and norms embedded in gender. Whether a person is man or woman, that is an element of diversity, which leads to further differences Social class Is it a biological construct or social construct? Are poor people genetically born as being ended up with being poor? Or is that simply socially constructed? Researchers now started opening their eyes to examine how these diversity elements are mutually related; not worrying about whether they are strictly biological or social construct, but much more interested in how they are related. 2. Secondary Dimensions What are some secondary dimensions of diversity? For example, personality. It looks like an individual construct. But personality is also socially constructed. How about cohort differences? Are those who grew up in 1930s experiencing the Great Depression likely to have the same aging experiences from you who are getting more education and better nutrition? Maybe not. Geographic locations, marital status, living arrangements, sexual orientation, functional ability, religious beliefs are only a few examples of secondary dimensions of diversity. These dimensions of diversity affect an individual&apos;s perception and reaction to life, their interactions with others, and their view of society and the world.
Ensure equal opportunities and prevent discrimination The worst poison to diversity is discrimination and inequality. To harvest the fruits from diversity we must secure that discrimination and harassment is extinct from the working place. Discrimination is many times an invisible problem. It often takes place hidden, and one should not count on the victims to fend for themselves. It may well take place even though one hears nothing about the problems and it is part of management responsibility to prevent it. For it is illegal to discriminate on grounds of gender, ethnicity, religion, age, disability and sexual orientation. If one will ensure everybody’s full contribution, it is sometimes even necessary to &quot;reach out&quot; and act particularly favorably towards groups which traditionally meets barriers and resistance at the labor market.
Improved understanding of those you work for, with, and around CUSTOMERS Cohesive Atmosphere / Enhanced Teamwork / Higher Morale Increased Efficiency / Quality / Productivity Removal of barriers keeping you from achieving your goals.
Competency may take the following forms: Knowledge, Attitude, Skill, Other characteristics of an individual including: Motives, Values, Self concept etc. Competencies may be grouped in to various areas. In classic article published a few decades ago in Harvard Business Review Daniel Katz grouped them under three areas which were later expanded in to the following four: Technical. Managerial, Human and Conceptual This is a convenience classification and a given competency may fall into one or more areas and may include more than one from. It is this combination that are labelled and promoted by some firms as competency dictionaries. A competency dictionary of a firm gives detailed descriptions of the competency language used by that firm. It contains detailed explanations of the combinations of competencies (technical, managerial, human and conceptual knowledge, attitudes and skills) using their own language. For example Team work or Team Management competency can be defined in terms of organization specific and level specific behaviors for a given origination. At top levels it might mean in the case of one organization ability identify utilize and synergize the contributions of a project team and at another level it might mean ability to inspire and carry along the top management team including diversity management. In competency mapping all details of the behaviors (observable, specific, measurable etc.) to be shown by the person occupying that role are specified.
Competencies That Build Career Success Definitions of Some Specific Competencies Communication Expressing one’s needs, wants, opinions and preferences without offending the sensitivities of others. Listening with objectivity and clarifying messages, giving feedback, receiving feedback effectively. Critical Thinking Analytic: Critically evaluating data. Identifying and defining problems, identifying probable causes, and coming up with suggestions for a solution. Conceptual: Being able to think in abstract terms, to see the ‘big picture’ and understand how the various parts of an organization and idea can fit together. Making decisions. Judging under uncertainty. Ethics/Social Responsibility Defining and practicing ethical behavior in difficult situations. Considering the impact of one’s actions and decisions on others, both inside and outside one’s organization. Information Technology Using information technology to organize, summarize, analyze, and transform data into meaningful and useful information. Knowing how to find and gather information from multiple sources. Knowing how to organize, summarize, analyze, and convert it into meaningful and useful information for making decisions or taking specific actions. Applying information creatively to specific tasks or problems. Interpersonal/Diversity Accepting others’ opinions in a non-judgmental way. Establishing relationships with and learning more about people of other racial, religious, ethnic, or cultural backgrounds. Advocating the value of diversity. Examining one’s own biases and behaviors to avoid stereotypical actions or responses. Understanding sexist, racist, ageist and homophobic behavior and exhibit non-sexist, non-racist, non-ageist, and non-homophobic behavior. Interacting with and appreciating physically or mentally challenged individuals. Leadership Facilitating groups in the decision-making process. Implementing sound decisions. Remaining flexible with decisions. Explaining unpopular decisions to others. Using effective coaching skills with peers/subordinates. Managing Change Managing change within oneself and organizations. Understanding controlling forces in the environment that affect global change (e.g., customers, governments, global trends, competitors, employees and society as a whole). Self-Managed Learning Actively identifying new areas for learning; regularly creating and taking advantage of new learning opportunities. Being self-directed and self-motivated. Team Work Active participation in, and facilitation of, team effectiveness. Being aware of the effect of one’s behavior on others. Acknowledging other team members’ concerns and contributions. Collaborating on projects. Technical Knowledge Demonstrating satisfactory level of technical and professional skills in job-related areas. Keeping abreast of current product developments and trends. Knowing where to get in-depth expertise on specific technical areas. Understanding technical terminology and developments. Knowing how and when to apply a technical skill or procedure. Synthesizing new solutions to problems based on professional principles.
Personal Competence Self Awareness = Knowing one’s internal states, preferences and intuitions Self Regulation = Managing one’s internal states, impulses, resources Motivation = Emotional tendencies that guide or facilitate reaching goals Social Competence Empathy = Awareness of others’ feelings, needs, concerns Social Skills = Adeptness at inducing desirable responses in others
Importance of Competencies Provides both an entree into, and progression/ advancement in, your chosen occupation/career field Enables you to become a contributing member to your communities (school, organization in which you work, home, etc.) Helps you to find job satisfaction/career fit between your competencies and the competencies required of that organization or job function.
Identifying the competencies that will help us anticipate new ways of perceiving and thinking about complex problems should be our foundation as we strive for relevance, usefulness and quality in our educational programs.
Human resource development
Human Resource Development
Definition of HRD
A set of systematic and planned activities designed
by an organization to provide its members with the
necessary skills to meet current and future job
Emergence of HRD
Employee needs extend beyond the training
Includes coaching, group work, and problem solving
Need for basic employee development
Need for structured career development
Relationship Between HRM and HRD
Human resource management (HRM) encompasses
Human resource development (HRD) is just one of
the functions within HRM
Primary Functions of HRM
Human resource planning
Equal employment opportunity
Staffing (recruitment and selection)
Compensation and benefits
Employee and labor relations
Health, safety, and security
Human resource development
Secondary HRM Functions
Organization and job design
Performance management/ performance appraisal
Research and information systems
Training and development (T&D)
Training and Development (T&D)
Training – improving the knowledge, skills and
attitudes of employees for the short-term,
particular to a specific job or task – e.g.,
Skills & technical training
Training and Development (T&D)
Development – preparing for future responsibilities,
while increasing the capacity to perform at a
The process of improving an organization’s
effectiveness and member’s well-being through the
application of behavioral science concepts
Focuses on both macro- and micro-levels
HRD plays the role of a change agent
Ongoing process by which individuals progress
through series of changes until they achieve their
personal level of maximum achievement.
Critical HRD Issues
Strategic management and HRD
The supervisor’s role in HRD
Organizational structure of HRD
Strategic Management & HRD
Strategic management aims to ensure
organizational effectiveness for the foreseeable
future – e.g., maximizing profits in the next 3 to 5
HRD aims to get managers and workers ready for
new products, procedures, and materials
Supervisor’s Role in HRD
Implements HRD programs and procedures
On-the-job training (OJT)
Career and employee development
A “front-line participant” in HRD
Organizational Structure of HRD
Depends on company size, industry and maturity
No single structure used
Depends in large part on how well the HRD
manager becomes an institutional part of the
company – i.e., a revenue contributor, not just a
Sample HRD Jobs/Roles
HR Strategic Advisor
HR Systems Designer/Developer
Organization Change Agent
Organization Design Consultant
Learning Program Specialist
Individual Development and Career Counselor
Performance Consultant (Coach)
HR’s strategic role
Employees as organisation’s assets
Driving business strategy
Spanning organizational functions
Org. change and development
Integration of HRD with strategy formulation and
Long-term view of HR policy
Horizontal integration among HR functions
Vertical integration with corporate strategy
SHR as core competitive advantage
Knowledge, skills, abilities of individuals
Relationships in social networks
Knowledge and knowing capability of social
Structural, cognitive, relational dimensions
Procedural/declarative; tacit/explicit; individual/social
Value and Uniqueness of capitals
Multiple Roles for HR (Ulrich, 1997)
Mgmt of SHR
Mgmt of Firm
Mgmt of TransFormation/Change
Mgmt of Employee
Definition of HR Roles
Mgmt of SHR
Aligning HR and bus.
Mgmt of Firm
Building an efficient
Mgmt of Employee
Importance of Human Resources
Human resources are an important part of the
They can be unique, and thus a source of core
competence in an organization
If a core competence is related to HR, then HR can
contribute to competitive advantage
Strategic Analysis of HR: Purpose
People related strategies may be important to new
strategy (for example, a change in the way the
organization does business)
In today’s technologically complex business world,
analysis of existing human resources is important in
order to determine what options are available
The network of people within an organization and
their relationships with people can be an important
part of strategy
HR and Sustainable Competitive Advantage
In some industries, people are the most important
factor in success
- advertising and creative development
- leisure and tourism
- management consulting
- hospitals and medical professions
The adaptability of people to changing environments
is an important skill
“The ability to learn faster than your competitors
may be the only sustainable advantage” – Arie De
Geus, former head of planning at Royal Dutch Shell
Challenges for HRD
Changing workforce demographics
Competing in global economy
Eliminating the skills gap
Need for lifelong learning
Need for organizational learning
Competing in the Global Economy
Need for more skilled and educated workers
Cultural sensitivity required
Better communications skills
Need for Lifelong Learning
PEOPLE must change!!
Need for Organizational Learning
Organizations must be able to learn, adapt, and
Creating a Learning Organization
Senge suggests top managers follow several steps to build in
Personal Mastery: managers empower employees and allow them to
create and explore.
Mental Models: challenge employees to find new, better methods to
perform a task.
Team Learning: is more important than individual learning since most
decisions are made in groups.
Build a Shared Vision: people share a common mental model of the
firm to evaluate opportunities.
Systems Thinking: know that actions in one area of the firm impacts all
A Framework for the HRD Process
HRD efforts should use the following four phases
Needs Assessment Phase
Establishing HRD priorities
Defining specific training and objectives
Establishing evaluation criteria
Selecting who delivers program
Selecting and developing program content
Scheduling the training program
Implementing or delivering the program
Determining program effectiveness – e.g.,
Keep or change providers?
Offer it again?
What are the true costs?
Can we do it another way?
Motivation, Reward and
Recognition System Management
The force within us that activates our behavior.
It is a function of three distinct components,
Intensity, Direction, and Persistence.
Motivation - Intensity
Intensity refers to the amount of mental and
physical effort put forth by the person.
Motivation - Direction
The extent to which an individual determines
and chooses efforts focused on a particular
Motivation - Persistence
The extent to which the goal-directed effort is
put forth over time.
Motivation: Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic
When doing the job is
When rewards such as pay
and formal recognition
act as motivators
Two Basic Categories of Rewards
Those given in return for acceptable
performance or effort. They can include
Those beneficial factors related to the work
situation and well-being of each person.
Types of Rewards
Financial Compensation: Straight Salary
Salaries are simple to administer
Planned earnings are easy to project.
Salaries are useful when substantial
development work is required.
Salaries offer little incentive for better
Salaries represent fixed overhead.
Financial Compensation: Pay for Performance
Reward Systems in most cases should be consistent
with other HR systems.
The Reward System is a key driver of:
Need for Consistency with Other HR Systems
Financial Compensation: Performance Bonuses
- Organization can direct emphasis to what it
- Bonuses are particularly useful for tying rewards
to accomplishment of objectives.
- It may be difficult to determine a formula for
calculating bonus achievement if the objective
is expressed in subjective terms.
Opportunity for Promotion:
The ability to move up in an organization along
one or more career paths
Sense of Accomplishment:
The internal sense of satisfaction from
Opportunity for Personal Growth:
Access to programs that allow for personal
development (e.g., tuition reimbursement,
leadership development seminars)
The informal or formal acknowledgement of a
A sense of being a desired employee that comes
from consistent exceptional performance
Understanding Reward & Recognition
A reward is an item or experience with monetary value that
is provided for a desired behavior or performance, often
with accompanying recognition
Recognition is a positive consequence provided to a person
for a behavior or a result in the form of acknowledgement,
approval or the expression of gratitude
“Recognition” is more of an activity or an association (a
social or interpersonal activity) while a “Reward” is more of
a thing (Money, Merchandise, Trophy, Travel etc)
Why Reward & Recognise employees
By valuating and recognizing people, you harness the power
of motivation, which is the single most powerful strategy
used to promote performance and positive behaviors
Drives Stretch in Performance
Enhances aspirations and creates Motivation
Builds Self Esteem and sense of Belonging
Improves Individual Attitudes
Reward is a Right; Recognition is a Gift…..
Rewards at work
Direct Financial (pay)
Indirect Financial (benefits)
Work Content (work)
Affiliation (feeling of
Study results: Surprisingly,
all 5 types of rewards were
* Gerald Ledford Jr. and Peter LeBlanc, World at Work 9, no.3 (Q3 2000):1-11
Toys, Trophies & Trinkets
Fun, Freedom & Food
Common thread – Genuine,
What is Recognition?
“Recognition is any thought, word, or deed towards making
someone feel appreciated for who they are and recognized
for what they do.” 1
“Recognition can be a strategic tool for shaping behavior and
moving an organization in a desired direction.” 2
“Recognition is something a manager should be doing all the
time—it’s a running dialogue with people.” 3
“Making Recognition a Daily Event” by Roy Saunderson, Recognition Management Institute
“A Culture of Recognition; Building a System to Celebrate Great Performance” by Rhonda
Sunnarborg, BI Business Improvement Series
Ron Zemke, Training magazine
Why Focus on Recognition?
Employees identify recognition as one of the most effective
Even small increases in supportive practices are associated
with decreased turnover and increased sales/profitability2
Employees who feel that their organization values them are
more likely to value their customers2
Appreciation and/or praise are among the top three drivers of
employee motivation and engagement across a variety of
industries and companies3
The Conference Board, 1999 HR Executive Review:
Employee Recognition Programs
Pfeffer 2001 study
You are the HR Manager of an FMCG organisation
which has 400 employees at their HO.
You have been asked to develop an R&R program
for your organisation to keep employees engaged
and motivation levels high.
A separate budget would be provided for the R&R
You and you team has to design a program and
present it to your leadership team.
What is Diversity?
In simple terms, diversity is "otherness," or those
human qualities that are different from our own
and outside the groups in which we belong. There
are various qualities that differentiate one
individual from the next.
Elements of Diversity
The uniqueness of all individuals;
Principles of Diversity Management
Establish a business strategy for effectively
managing a diverse workforce
Create a positive work environment
Promote personal and professional development
Empower all people to reach their full potential
Remove barriers that hinder progress
Ensure equal opportunities and prevent
Creating an Organization That Can Manage Diversity
Top management commitment
Auditing and assessment of needs
Clarity of objectives
Coordination of activity
Techniques for Managing Diversity
Managing diversity training programs
Senior managers of diversity
Targeted recruitment and selection programs
Techniques for Managing Diversity
Compensation and reward programs tied to
achieving diversity goals
Cultural advisory groups
Corporate social activities that celebrate
Managing diversity effectively
Greater range of perspectives, ideas, and
Better problem definition, generation of
alternatives, and decisions.
Greater potential of developing a high
Greater resilience in dealing with escalating
Disrupts development of trust, constructive
working relationships, arriving at consensus &
Stereotyping of other members and sub grouping
along cultural lines.
Misunderstanding and disruptive communication.
Low levels of efficiency, effectiveness &
Unintended Results of Managing Diversity
Programs that focus on encouraging certain groups
may create feelings of unfairness or exclusion in
Giving preferential treatment to certain groups may
stigmatize their members
Increasing diversity without recognition and
rewards for the new members can create
Implications for Managers
Managing a diverse workforce is an important
part of an international manager’s job
Must understand the impact of diversity and
know how to utilize
Realize different cultures view diversity
differently and consider impact on manager
Potential Benefits of an Effective Diversity
Improve organizational performance
Help prevent unlawful discrimination or harassment incidents
Improve workplace relations
Build more effective work teams
Improve organizational problem solving
Improve customer service
Enhanced recruitment efforts
Making heads count is more important
than counting heads
Possible barriers in the organization that
prevent a more balanced workforce?
Limiting area of consideration
Lack of diversity at the senior ranks
Categorizing people into certain positions
Always recruiting from same source
Grooming/developing only one person
The Value of Mentoring
Without regard to race, gender, religion,
national origin ….
Inconvenience yourself to show someone
else the way
Unleash someone else’s potential
Identify training and development needs for all
Utilize Individual Development Plans
Rotational & Developmental Assignments
Rotate “acting” supervisor
Diversity management is about full utilization of
people with different backgrounds and
Effective diversity management strategy has a
positive effect on cost reduction, creativity,
problem solving, and organizational flexibility
How is Human Resource Analysis Done?
Human Resource Audit
To identify the size, skills and structure surrounding
current employees and
to identify future human resource needs of the
Are the human resources a strength or a
The Audit: Principles
Obtain some basic information on the people and
policies involved in the organization
Explore in detail the role and contribution of the
human resources management function in the
development of strategy
The Audit: Contents
People in the Organization
Role and Contribution of HR strategy
HR Audit: People in the organization
Employee numbers and turnover
Structures for controlling the
Use of special teams, e.g. for
Level of skills and capabilities
Morale and rewards
Selection, training and
Role of quality and personal service
in delivering the products or
of the organization
Role of professional advice in
delivering the product or service
Employee and industrial
Role & Contribution of HR Strategy
Relationship with strategy
Key characteristics of HR strategy
Consistency of strategy across different levels
Responsiveness of HR strategy in leading change in
Role of HR strategy in leading change in the
Monitoring and review of HR strategy
Time horizon for operation of HR strategy
What the Audit Achieves
Provides information that is useful in deciding how
feasible a strategy is
Identifies any human resource “gaps” (human
resources necessary for a proposed strategy minus
the current state of human resources)
Allows the organization to “benchmark” their
performance against other organizations
(benchmark is a process of comparison)
Human Resources as a CSF
Critical Success Factor (CSF) = a reason why one
organization is superior to another
HR can be a CSF if employees have unique skills
Coaching and Mentoring
These definitions indicate some overlap and
some differences between Mentoring and
Coaching. Mentoring is often seen as a longer
term process, for example offering support
during a career change such as induction or
becoming a senior manager.
Mentoring is usually concerned with supporting
practitioners whilst they make a significant career
Mentoring in intended to be supportive of the
individual and occurs ‘at need’. Here the emphasis
is on ready and confidential access to a ‘critical
friend’ who can be used as a sounding board and
who offers a free form of advice.
Coaching is normally used to support the process of
reviewing established or emerging practices. It is
focused on innovation, change or specific skills.
Coaching is conceived as a more structured
learning process aimed at explicit professional
development in an agreed area of performance.
Activities involved in mentoring and coaching and their overlap
The learner (the personal dimension)
If writers are more aware of their own writing
processes and what helps and hinders their writing then
they are more likely both to become more confident
writers and are able to support others in their writing
too. The same principles apply to leaders and
managers. The Mentor/Coach needs to be aware of the
ways in which Mentees/Coachees can focus on
themselves as learners.
The learning (the transformational dimension)
In Mentoring and Coaching transformation or change comes about
through the learning conversation. The conversation enables the
process of Mentoring/Coaching in which there needs to be an
explicit focus on learning. Dennison and Kirk’s cycle of learning
(1990) is useful for this purpose.
This model can be
applied to developing
What Mentoring and Coaching is not
Mentoring and Coaching is not counseling although
some counseling skills may be used by the
Mentor/Coach. Learning conversations do not focus
on personal problems.
Neither is the learning conversation therapy
although the outcome of the conversation may
leave the person feeling up-lifted and may feel
their emotions have changed. But learning is
always the focus.
It is derived from the Latin word
‘Competere’, which means to be suitable.
The concept was originally developed in
Psychology denoting Individual’s ability to
respond to demand placed on them by the
Any underlying characteristic required
performing a given task, activity, or role
successfully can be considered as
A collection of characteristics (i.e. skills, knowledge
and self-concept, traits, behaviour, motivation, etc.),
that enables us to successfully complete a given task.
Iceberg Model of Competencies
•Skills = a learned ability
•Knowledge = acquiring
information in a particular field
•Self-Image = attitudes and
•Traits = why and how we
behave a certain way
•Motives = what drives us, i.e.,
the need to seek achievement,
Competencies in the Corporate World
Communication – without offending others
Critical Thinking – Seeing the Big picture
Ethics / Social Responsibility – Ethical behaviour
Information Technology – creativity optimization
Interpersonal Diversity – Being non-judgmental
Self-managed Learning – self motivated
Teamwork – collaboration & impact of self
Emotional Competency Framework
Knowledge of one’s selfconcept and values
Awareness of others’
feelings and emotions
Management of one’s
impulses and emotions
Adeptness at inducing
desired responses in others
Self-guidance and direction
* from Working With Emotional Intelligence, by Daniel Goleman
Why use competencies
help individuals and organisations to improve
their performance and deliver results
can be quantified and communicated
can be taught, learned, measured and monitored
Benefits of competency-modeling
Integrates fragmented management and practices
Links individual or group performance to strategic
Helps develop high value activities for the
Focusing on what people do, not what they are
Leads to organisational flexibility and stability
Leads to competitive advantage
Is participatory and involving
Is objective; therefore, can be geared to possible
change in business future and to ensure relevance
Benefits of competency-modeling – HR Delivery
Matching of Individuals and Jobs
Training and Development
Professional and Personal Development
Who Identifies competencies?
Competencies can be identified by one of more of the
following category of people:
Industrial Engineers etc.
in consultation with: Line Managers, Current & Past Role
holders, Supervising Seniors, Reporting and Reviewing
Officers, Internal Customers, Subordinates of the role
holders and Other role set members of the role (those who
have expectations from the role holder and who interact
What Methodology is used?
The following methods are used in combination for
Task Analysis workshops
Use of Job descriptions
Performance Appraisal Formats etc.
How are they Identified?
The process of identification is not very complex.
One of the methods is given below:
1. Simply ask each person who is currently
performing the role to list the tasks to be
performed by him one by one, and identify the
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills required to
perform each of these.
Consolidate the list.
Present it to a role set group or a special task force
constituted for that role.
Edit and Finalize.
What Language to Use?
Use Technical language for technical
competencies. For example: knowledge of
Use business language for business competencies.
Example: Knowledge of markets for watch business
or Strategic thinking.
Use your own language or standard terms for
Behavior competencies. Example: Ability to
Negotiate, Interpersonal sensitivity, Sales
techniques. Too technical and conceptual
knowledge align to the organization and people
may create more problems than help
Assessment centers typically involve the
participants completing a range of exercises which
simulate the activities carried out in the target
Various combinations of these exercises and
sometimes other assessment methods like
psychometric testing and interviews are used to
assess particular competencies in individuals.
The theory behind this is that if one wishes to
predict future job performance then the best way of
doing this is to get the individual to carry out a set
of tasks which accurately sample those required in
the job and are as similar to them as possible.
The particular competencies used will depend upon
the target job but one will often find competencies
such as relating to people; resistance to stress;
planning and organising; motivation; adaptability
and flexibility; problem solving; leadership;
communication; decision making and initiative.
AC Vs DC
Assessment centres usually –
have a pass/fail criteria
are geared towards filing a job vacancy
address an immediate organisational need
have fewer assessors and more participants
involve line managers as assessors
have less emphasis placed on selfassessment
focus on what the candidate can do now
are geared to meet the needs of the
assign the role of judge to assessors
place emphasis on selection with little or
no developmental feedback and follow up
give feedback at a later date
involve the organisation having control over
the information obtained
have very little pre-centre briefing
tend to be used with external candidates
Development centres usually –
do not have a pass/fail criteria
are geared towards developing the
address a longer term need
have a 1:1 ratio of assessor to participant
do not have line managers as assessors
have a greater emphasis placed on selfassessment
focus on potential
are geared to meet needs of the individual
as well as the organisation
assign the role of facilitator to assessors
place emphasis on developmental feedback
and follow up with little or no selection
give feedback immediately
involve the individual having control over
the information obtained
have a substantial pre-centre briefing
tend to be used with internal candidates
Types of Exercises
In these, candidates are brought together as a
committee or project team with one or a number of
items to make a recommendation on. Candidates may
be assigned specific roles to play in the group or it may
be structured in such a way that all the candidates have
the same basic information. With this type of exercise,
and in common with other types of exercise, it is of
great benefit to ensure that you understand and follow
the instructions for the exercise.
Types of Exercises
This type of exercise is normally undertaken by candidates
individually. The materials comprise a bundle of
correspondence and the candidate is placed in the role of
somebody, generally, who assumed a new position or replaced
their predecessor at short notice and have been asked to deal
with their accumulated correspondence. Generally the only
evidence that the assessors have to work with are the
annotations which the candidates have made on the articles of
mail. It is important when undertaking such an exercise to
make sure that the items are not just dealt with, but that
clearly mark on the items any thoughts that you have about
them or any other actions that you would wish to put in train.
Interview Simulations / Role Plays
In these exercises candidates meet individually with a role player or
Their brief is either to gather information to form a view and make a
decision, or alternatively, to engage in discussion with the resource
person to come to a resolution on an aspect or issue of dispute.
Typically, candidates will be allowed 15 -30 minutes to prepare for
such a meeting and will be given a short, general brief on the
objective for the meeting.
In undertaking such an exercise you should consider carefully how you
want to spend the time in the meeting and plan accordingly. Although
the assessment is made mainly on the conduct of the meeting itself,
consideration will also be given to preparatory notes, thus it is useful
for any meeting plan or objectives that you set yourself for the
meeting to be clearly set out in your preparatory notes.
Case Studies / Analysis Exercises
In this type of exercise the candidate is presented with the
task of making a decision about a particular business case.
They are provided with a large amount of factual
information which is generally ambiguous and, in some
Candidates generally work independently on such an
exercise and their recommendation or decision is usually to
be communicated in the form of a brief written report
and/or a presentation made to the assessors. As with the
other exercises it is important with this kind of exercise to
ensure that your thought processes are clearly articulated
and available for the scrutiny of the assessors. Of
paramount importance, if the brief requires a decision to
be made, ensure that a decision is made and articulated.
The above is meant as an illustrated list of the types of
exercises that may be encountered in an assessment
centre. Variations and permutations are almost infinite.
It is, however, worth remembering that there is a large
body of academic research which suggests that the
assessment centre is probably one of the most valid
predictors of performance in a job and, if correctly
structured, is probably one of the fairest and most
objective means of gathering information upon which a
selection decision can be based. From the candidate's
perspective it is important to be natural and to be oneself
when faced with an assessment centre, remembering
always that you can only be assessed on what you have
done and what the assessors can observe
Level 1: Administrative - suitable for a wide range of roles
including: secretarial and clerical staff, call centre staff,
frontline customer service roles
Level 2: Graduate - ideal for roles where there is no
requirement for significant organisational experience
Level 3: First line manager - primarily for new or junior
managers, or managers with little experience of people
Level 4: Middle manager - for experienced managers, including
familiarity with people management
Level 5: Executive - targeted at senior managers with
Design an Assessment Centre
Design of an assessment centre should reflect:
the ethos of the organisation
the actual skills required to carry out the job
potential sources of recruits
the extent to which recruitment is devolved to line
the HR strategy.
The essential design criteria should include:
duration of the centre (one day might be insufficient
for more senior posts)
location (reality or ideal surroundings and
accessibility for candidates with disabilities)
number of candidates brought together (five may be
too few for comfort under observation and more than
eight gives problems in sharing the assessed time)
candidate background and comparability of past
number, mix, and experience of assessors.
Essential and desired skills /competencies to be
matched to the techniques and tasks which test
Group exercises should be as real as possible
The tasks might need to encourage competitiveness
There should be a number of senior observers/selectors
to ensure greater objectivity through a range of views.
Selectors must be trained to observe, record, classify
and rate behaviour and seek evidence accurately and
objectively against the job description and person
Selectors preferably should also have had some training
on interviewing skills and in managing diversity, and
have good listening skills.
Assessors might also be used to observe and comment
on behaviour although they do not necessarlity take
part in final selection decisions
An objective is a simple statement of an end result
to be achieved within a specified time frame.
It should be short, clear and specific.
It can also be in the form of an activity as it may
not always be possible to quantify the end results.
Why Objective setting ?
Gives direction to job.
Helps focus on important job areas.
Assists review and change in job emphasis.
Provides a basis for appraisal, counselling and
Increases mutual job understanding with superior.
Are significantly important areas of job.
When performed well, improves overall results.
Are maximum payoff job areas.
Represent the work which account for 80% of
Targets – are specific conditions to be
achieved/indicates how much of what and by when
Activities – action steps which lead to the end
results / used when targets are not quantifiable /
indicate what by when
Process of goal setting
What is the job ?
What are the end results expected ?
What policies / procedures / work methods are
impeding performance ?
What changes are needed for better results ?
How can work assignments be regrouped/altered to
improve schedule ?
What problems need to be overcome next year ?
Objectives v/s Targets
Focus on imp. Areas
Related to job description
Direction of work
Optimum number 6
Measures imp. Results
Related to objectives
One or more for each
Criteria for objectives
Basis for appraisal
Clear/consistent with dept. objective
End result- emphasis on
Objectives should be
S - Specific
M - Measurable
A - Attainable
R - Relevant
T - Time-bound
Establishing specific goals to support stated
Determining the importance of these goals.
Making plans for action.
Arriving at performance standards and
Stating anticipated problems.
Weighing the resources required to carry out the
Providing for interaction of organization and
Following up with actual performance
measurement and evaluation.
HRs role in Performance Management
Ensuring timely adherence
Auditing the objectives jointly with line managers
Ensuring objectives are in line with organisational
Requesting modification if required