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Human resource development

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Human resource development

  1. 1. Human Resource Development 1
  2. 2. Definition of HRD  A set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the necessary skills to meet current and future job demands. 2
  3. 3. Emergence of HRD     Employee needs extend beyond the training classroom Includes coaching, group work, and problem solving Need for basic employee development Need for structured career development 3
  4. 4. Relationship Between HRM and HRD   Human resource management (HRM) encompasses many functions Human resource development (HRD) is just one of the functions within HRM 4
  5. 5. Primary Functions of HRM        Human resource planning Equal employment opportunity Staffing (recruitment and selection) Compensation and benefits Employee and labor relations Health, safety, and security Human resource development 5
  6. 6. Secondary HRM Functions    Organization and job design Performance management/ performance appraisal systems Research and information systems 6
  7. 7. HRD Functions    Training and development (T&D) Organizational development Career development 7
  8. 8. Training and Development (T&D)  Training – improving the knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees for the short-term, particular to a specific job or task – e.g.,     Employee orientation Skills & technical training Coaching Counseling 8
  9. 9. Training and Development (T&D)  Development – preparing for future responsibilities, while increasing the capacity to perform at a current job   Management training Supervisor development 9
  10. 10. Organizational Development  The process of improving an organization’s effectiveness and member’s well-being through the application of behavioral science concepts  Focuses on both macro- and micro-levels  HRD plays the role of a change agent 10
  11. 11. Career Development  Ongoing process by which individuals progress through series of changes until they achieve their personal level of maximum achievement.  Career planning  Career management 11
  12. 12. Learning & Performance 12
  13. 13. Critical HRD Issues    Strategic management and HRD The supervisor’s role in HRD Organizational structure of HRD 13
  14. 14. Strategic Management & HRD   Strategic management aims to ensure organizational effectiveness for the foreseeable future – e.g., maximizing profits in the next 3 to 5 years HRD aims to get managers and workers ready for new products, procedures, and materials 14
  15. 15. Supervisor’s Role in HRD      Implements HRD programs and procedures On-the-job training (OJT) Coaching/mentoring/counseling Career and employee development A “front-line participant” in HRD 15
  16. 16. Organizational Structure of HRD Departments    Depends on company size, industry and maturity No single structure used Depends in large part on how well the HRD manager becomes an institutional part of the company – i.e., a revenue contributor, not just a revenue user 16
  17. 17. Sample HRD Jobs/Roles           Executive/Manager HR Strategic Advisor HR Systems Designer/Developer Organization Change Agent Organization Design Consultant Learning Program Specialist Instructor/Facilitator Individual Development and Career Counselor Performance Consultant (Coach) Researcher 17
  18. 18. HR’s strategic role     Employees as organisation’s assets Driving business strategy Spanning organizational functions HRD Deliverables:     Performance Capacity Building Problem solving/consulting Org. change and development 18
  19. 19. Strategic HRD      Integration of HRD with strategy formulation and implementation Long-term view of HR policy Horizontal integration among HR functions Vertical integration with corporate strategy SHR as core competitive advantage 19
  20. 20. Firm Capitals  Human Capital   Knowledge, skills, abilities of individuals Social Capital  Relationships in social networks   Intellectual capital  Knowledge and knowing capability of social collectivities   Structural, cognitive, relational dimensions Procedural/declarative; tacit/explicit; individual/social Value and Uniqueness of capitals 20
  21. 21. Multiple Roles for HR (Ulrich, 1997) Future/Strategic Focus Mgmt of SHR Processes Mgmt of Firm Infrastructure Mgmt of TransFormation/Change People Mgmt of Employee Contributions Day-to-day/Operational Focus 21
  22. 22. Definition of HR Roles Role/Cell Deliverable/ Outcome Metaphor Core Activity Mgmt of SHR Executing corp. strategy Strategic Partner Aligning HR and bus. Strategy Mgmt of Firm Infrastructure Building an efficient infrastructure Administrative Expert Reengineering org. Processes Mgmt of Employee Contributions Increasing employee commitment and capability Employee Champion Providing resources to employees Mgmt of Transformation/Cha nge Organizational renewal Change Agent Managing transformation and change, 22
  23. 23. Importance of Human Resources    Human resources are an important part of the value chain They can be unique, and thus a source of core competence in an organization If a core competence is related to HR, then HR can contribute to competitive advantage 23
  24. 24. Strategic Analysis of HR: Purpose    People related strategies may be important to new strategy (for example, a change in the way the organization does business) In today’s technologically complex business world, analysis of existing human resources is important in order to determine what options are available The network of people within an organization and their relationships with people can be an important part of strategy 24
  25. 25. HR and Sustainable Competitive Advantage    In some industries, people are the most important factor in success - advertising and creative development - leisure and tourism - management consulting - hospitals and medical professions The adaptability of people to changing environments is an important skill “The ability to learn faster than your competitors may be the only sustainable advantage” – Arie De Geus, former head of planning at Royal Dutch Shell 25
  26. 26. Challenges for HRD      Changing workforce demographics Competing in global economy Eliminating the skills gap Need for lifelong learning Need for organizational learning 26
  27. 27. Competing in the Global Economy       New technologies Need for more skilled and educated workers Cultural sensitivity required Team involvement Problem solving Better communications skills 27
  28. 28. Need for Lifelong Learning      Organizations change Technologies change Products change Processes change PEOPLE must change!! 28
  29. 29. Creating a learning organisation 29
  30. 30. Need for Organizational Learning   Organizations must be able to learn, adapt, and change Principles:      Systems thinking Personal mastery Mental models Shared visions Team learning 30
  31. 31. Creating a Learning Organization  Senge suggests top managers follow several steps to build in learning:  Personal Mastery: managers empower employees and allow them to create and explore.  Mental Models: challenge employees to find new, better methods to perform a task.  Team Learning: is more important than individual learning since most decisions are made in groups.  Build a Shared Vision: people share a common mental model of the firm to evaluate opportunities.  Systems Thinking: know that actions in one area of the firm impacts all others. 31
  32. 32. A Framework for the HRD Process HRD efforts should use the following four phases (or stages):     Needs assessment Design Implementation Evaluation 32
  33. 33. Training & HRD Process Model 33
  34. 34. Needs Assessment Phase    Establishing HRD priorities Defining specific training and objectives Establishing evaluation criteria 34
  35. 35. Design Phase    Selecting who delivers program Selecting and developing program content Scheduling the training program 35
  36. 36. Implementation Phase  Implementing or delivering the program 36
  37. 37. Evaluation Phase Determining program effectiveness – e.g.,     Keep or change providers? Offer it again? What are the true costs? Can we do it another way? 37
  38. 38. Motivation, Reward and Recognition System Management 38
  39. 39. Motivation The force within us that activates our behavior. It is a function of three distinct components, Intensity, Direction, and Persistence. Motivation Motivation Intensity Direction Persistence 39
  40. 40. Motivation - Intensity Intensity refers to the amount of mental and physical effort put forth by the person. Motivation Motivation Intensity Direction Persistence 40
  41. 41. Motivation - Direction The extent to which an individual determines and chooses efforts focused on a particular goal. Motivation Motivation Intensity Direction Persistence 41
  42. 42. Motivation - Persistence The extent to which the goal-directed effort is put forth over time. Motivation Motivation Intensity Direction Persistence 42
  43. 43. Motivation: Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic  Intrinsic When doing the job is inherently motivating  Extrinsic When rewards such as pay and formal recognition act as motivators 43
  44. 44. Two Basic Categories of Rewards Compensation Rewards: Those given in return for acceptable performance or effort. They can include nonfinancial compensation. Non-Compensation Rewards: Those beneficial factors related to the work situation and well-being of each person. 44
  45. 45. Types of Rewards Intrinsic Sense of Accomplishment Personal Growth Opportunities Motivation Extrinsic Pay Job security Promotion Recognition 45
  46. 46. Financial Compensation: Straight Salary Advantages - Salaries are simple to administer Planned earnings are easy to project. Salaries are useful when substantial development work is required. Disadvantages - - Salaries offer little incentive for better performance. Salaries represent fixed overhead. 46
  47. 47. Financial Compensation: Pay for Performance Reward Systems in most cases should be consistent with other HR systems. The Reward System is a key driver of:  HR Strategy  Business Strategy  Organization Culture 47
  48. 48. Need for Consistency with Other HR Systems Skill-based pay Training Overtime pay rules in contract Labor Relations Sign-on Bonus Culture Rewards Merit pay reinforces performance culture Performance Management Employment Merit Pay 48
  49. 49. Financial Compensation: Performance Bonuses Advantages - Organization can direct emphasis to what it considers important. - Bonuses are particularly useful for tying rewards to accomplishment of objectives. Disadvantages - It may be difficult to determine a formula for calculating bonus achievement if the objective is expressed in subjective terms. 49
  50. 50. Non-financial Compensation Opportunity for Promotion:  The ability to move up in an organization along one or more career paths Sense of Accomplishment:  The internal sense of satisfaction from successful performance 50
  51. 51. Non-financial Compensation Opportunity for Personal Growth:  Access to programs that allow for personal development (e.g., tuition reimbursement, leadership development seminars) Recognition:  The informal or formal acknowledgement of a desired accomplishment Job Security:  A sense of being a desired employee that comes from consistent exceptional performance 51
  52. 52. Understanding Reward & Recognition Definitions:    A reward is an item or experience with monetary value that is provided for a desired behavior or performance, often with accompanying recognition Recognition is a positive consequence provided to a person for a behavior or a result in the form of acknowledgement, approval or the expression of gratitude “Recognition” is more of an activity or an association (a social or interpersonal activity) while a “Reward” is more of a thing (Money, Merchandise, Trophy, Travel etc) 52
  53. 53. Why Reward & Recognise employees  By valuating and recognizing people, you harness the power of motivation, which is the single most powerful strategy used to promote performance and positive behaviors      Drives Stretch in Performance Enhances aspirations and creates Motivation Feeling Valued Builds Self Esteem and sense of Belonging Improves Individual Attitudes 53
  54. 54. Reward is a Right; Recognition is a Gift….. Rewards at work       Direct Financial (pay) Indirect Financial (benefits) Work Content (work) Careers (development) Affiliation (feeling of belonging) Study results: Surprisingly, all 5 types of rewards were considered equally important…. * Gerald Ledford Jr. and Peter LeBlanc, World at Work 9, no.3 (Q3 2000):1-11 Recognition        Praise Time Toys, Trophies & Trinkets Fun, Freedom & Food Small Money Others Common thread – Genuine, positive, emotion 54
  55. 55. What is Recognition? “Recognition is any thought, word, or deed towards making someone feel appreciated for who they are and recognized for what they do.” 1 “Recognition can be a strategic tool for shaping behavior and moving an organization in a desired direction.” 2 “Recognition is something a manager should be doing all the time—it’s a running dialogue with people.” 3 1 “Making Recognition a Daily Event” by Roy Saunderson, Recognition Management Institute 2 “A Culture of Recognition; Building a System to Celebrate Great Performance” by Rhonda Sunnarborg, BI Business Improvement Series 3 Ron Zemke, Training magazine 55
  56. 56. Why Focus on Recognition? Employees identify recognition as one of the most effective motivators1  Even small increases in supportive practices are associated with decreased turnover and increased sales/profitability2  Employees who feel that their organization values them are more likely to value their customers2  Appreciation and/or praise are among the top three drivers of employee motivation and engagement across a variety of industries and companies3  1 The Conference Board, 1999 HR Executive Review: Employee Recognition Programs 2 Pfeffer 2001 study 3 Hewitt Associates 56
  57. 57. Exercise     You are the HR Manager of an FMCG organisation which has 400 employees at their HO. You have been asked to develop an R&R program for your organisation to keep employees engaged and motivation levels high. A separate budget would be provided for the R&R activities. You and you team has to design a program and present it to your leadership team. 57
  58. 58. Diversity @ workplace 59
  59. 59. What is Diversity?  In simple terms, diversity is "otherness," or those human qualities that are different from our own and outside the groups in which we belong. There are various qualities that differentiate one individual from the next. 60
  60. 60. Elements of Diversity  Age  Income  Gender  Education  Ethnicity   Race Marital Status  Religious Beliefs  Geographic Location  Parental Status  Personality Type    Physical Ability Sexual Orientation Physical Characteristics 61
  61. 61. Diversity: The uniqueness of all individuals; includes everyone. 62
  62. 62. Principles of Diversity Management  Establish a business strategy for effectively managing a diverse workforce  Create a positive work environment  Promote personal and professional development  Empower all people to reach their full potential  Remove barriers that hinder progress  Ensure equal opportunities and prevent discrimination 63
  63. 63. Creating an Organization That Can Manage Diversity         Organizational vision Top management commitment Auditing and assessment of needs Clarity of objectives Clear accountability Effective communication Coordination of activity Evaluation 64
  64. 64. Techniques for Managing Diversity      Managing diversity training programs Core groups Multicultural teams Senior managers of diversity Targeted recruitment and selection programs 65
  65. 65. Techniques for Managing Diversity      Compensation and reward programs tied to achieving diversity goals Language training Mentoring programs Cultural advisory groups Corporate social activities that celebrate diversity 66
  66. 66. Managing diversity effectively     Greater range of perspectives, ideas, and creativity. Better problem definition, generation of alternatives, and decisions. Greater potential of developing a high performance team. Greater resilience in dealing with escalating demands. 67
  67. 67. Mismanaging diversity     Disrupts development of trust, constructive working relationships, arriving at consensus & agreement. Stereotyping of other members and sub grouping along cultural lines. Misunderstanding and disruptive communication. Low levels of efficiency, effectiveness & productivity 68
  68. 68. Unintended Results of Managing Diversity    Programs that focus on encouraging certain groups may create feelings of unfairness or exclusion in others Giving preferential treatment to certain groups may stigmatize their members Increasing diversity without recognition and rewards for the new members can create organizational tension 69
  69. 69. Implications for Managers    Managing a diverse workforce is an important part of an international manager’s job Must understand the impact of diversity and know how to utilize Realize different cultures view diversity differently and consider impact on manager 71
  70. 70. Potential Benefits of an Effective Diversity Management Program  Improve organizational performance  Help prevent unlawful discrimination or harassment incidents  Improve workplace relations  Build more effective work teams  Improve organizational problem solving  Improve customer service  Enhanced recruitment efforts 72
  71. 71. Making heads count is more important than counting heads 73
  72. 72. Possible barriers in the organization that prevent a more balanced workforce?      Limiting area of consideration Lack of diversity at the senior ranks Categorizing people into certain positions Always recruiting from same source Grooming/developing only one person 74
  73. 73. Strategies for Inclusion 75
  74. 74. The Value of Mentoring    Without regard to race, gender, religion, national origin …. Inconvenience yourself to show someone else the way Unleash someone else’s potential 76
  75. 75. Professional Development     Identify training and development needs for all employees Utilize Individual Development Plans Rotational & Developmental Assignments Rotate “acting” supervisor 77
  76. 76.  Diversity management is about full utilization of people with different backgrounds and experiences.  Effective diversity management strategy has a positive effect on cost reduction, creativity, problem solving, and organizational flexibility 78
  77. 77. Human Resource Audit 79
  78. 78. How is Human Resource Analysis Done?   Human Resource Audit Purpose:    To identify the size, skills and structure surrounding current employees and to identify future human resource needs of the organization Question Answered: Are the human resources a strength or a weakness? 80
  79. 79. The Audit: Principles  Obtain some basic information on the people and policies involved in the organization  Explore in detail the role and contribution of the human resources management function in the development of strategy 81
  80. 80. The Audit: Contents   People in the Organization Role and Contribution of HR strategy 82
  81. 81. HR Audit: People in the organization  Employee numbers and turnover  Organization structure Structures for controlling the organization  Use of special teams, e.g. for Innovation  Level of skills and capabilities required  Morale and rewards  Selection, training and development    Staffing levels  Capital investment/employee  Role of quality and personal service in delivering the products or services  of the organization  Role of professional advice in delivering the product or service Employee and industrial relations 83
  82. 82. Role & Contribution of HR Strategy        Relationship with strategy Key characteristics of HR strategy Consistency of strategy across different levels Responsiveness of HR strategy in leading change in the organization Role of HR strategy in leading change in the organization Monitoring and review of HR strategy Time horizon for operation of HR strategy 84
  83. 83. What the Audit Achieves    Provides information that is useful in deciding how feasible a strategy is Identifies any human resource “gaps” (human resources necessary for a proposed strategy minus the current state of human resources) Allows the organization to “benchmark” their performance against other organizations (benchmark is a process of comparison) 85
  84. 84. Human Resources as a CSF  Critical Success Factor (CSF) = a reason why one organization is superior to another  HR can be a CSF if employees have unique skills 86
  85. 85. Coaching and Mentoring 87
  86. 86. Coaching and Mentoring  These definitions indicate some overlap and some differences between Mentoring and Coaching. Mentoring is often seen as a longer term process, for example offering support during a career change such as induction or becoming a senior manager. 88
  87. 87. Mentoring  Mentoring is usually concerned with supporting practitioners whilst they make a significant career transition.  Mentoring in intended to be supportive of the individual and occurs ‘at need’. Here the emphasis is on ready and confidential access to a ‘critical friend’ who can be used as a sounding board and who offers a free form of advice. 89
  88. 88. Coaching  Coaching is normally used to support the process of reviewing established or emerging practices. It is focused on innovation, change or specific skills.  Coaching is conceived as a more structured learning process aimed at explicit professional development in an agreed area of performance. 90
  89. 89. Activities involved in mentoring and coaching and their overlap 91
  90. 90. The learner (the personal dimension) If writers are more aware of their own writing processes and what helps and hinders their writing then they are more likely both to become more confident writers and are able to support others in their writing too. The same principles apply to leaders and managers. The Mentor/Coach needs to be aware of the ways in which Mentees/Coachees can focus on themselves as learners. 92
  91. 91. The learning (the transformational dimension) In Mentoring and Coaching transformation or change comes about through the learning conversation. The conversation enables the process of Mentoring/Coaching in which there needs to be an explicit focus on learning. Dennison and Kirk’s cycle of learning (1990) is useful for this purpose. This model can be applied to developing leaders and managers ie: understanding themselves before understanding others! 93
  92. 92. What Mentoring and Coaching is not Mentoring and Coaching is not counseling although some counseling skills may be used by the Mentor/Coach. Learning conversations do not focus on personal problems. Neither is the learning conversation therapy although the outcome of the conversation may leave the person feeling up-lifted and may feel their emotions have changed. But learning is always the focus. 94
  93. 93. Competency Modeling 95
  94. 94. Competency    It is derived from the Latin word ‘Competere’, which means to be suitable. The concept was originally developed in Psychology denoting Individual’s ability to respond to demand placed on them by the environment. Any underlying characteristic required performing a given task, activity, or role successfully can be considered as competency. 96
  95. 95. Competencies defined  A collection of characteristics (i.e. skills, knowledge and self-concept, traits, behaviour, motivation, etc.), that enables us to successfully complete a given task. Skills Knowledge Self-concept (Attitude) 97
  96. 96. Iceberg Model of Competencies •Skills = a learned ability •Knowledge = acquiring information in a particular field •Self-Image = attitudes and values •Traits = why and how we behave a certain way •Motives = what drives us, i.e., the need to seek achievement, power/influence, affliliation 98
  97. 97. Competencies in the Corporate World           Communication – without offending others Critical Thinking – Seeing the Big picture Ethics / Social Responsibility – Ethical behaviour Information Technology – creativity optimization Interpersonal Diversity – Being non-judgmental Leadership Managing Change Self-managed Learning – self motivated Teamwork – collaboration & impact of self Technical know-how 100
  98. 98. Emotional Competency Framework Personal Competence Social Competence Self Awareness: Knowledge of one’s selfconcept and values Empathy: Awareness of others’ feelings and emotions Self Regulation: Management of one’s impulses and emotions Social Skills: Adeptness at inducing desired responses in others Motivation: Self-guidance and direction * from Working With Emotional Intelligence, by Daniel Goleman 101
  99. 99. Competency Classification Individual Organisation Social Behavioural Leadership Generic competencies Technical Functional / operational Core competencies knowledge Corporate competencies Skill knowledge Distinctive competencies Threshold competencies Organisational Cultural 102
  100. 100. Why use competencies  Competencies    help individuals and organisations to improve their performance and deliver results can be quantified and communicated can be taught, learned, measured and monitored 103
  101. 101. Benefits of competency-modeling         Integrates fragmented management and practices Links individual or group performance to strategic direction Helps develop high value activities for the organisation Focusing on what people do, not what they are Leads to organisational flexibility and stability Leads to competitive advantage Is participatory and involving Is objective; therefore, can be geared to possible change in business future and to ensure relevance 104
  102. 102. Benefits of competency-modeling – HR Delivery       Matching of Individuals and Jobs Employee Selection Training and Development Professional and Personal Development Performance Measurement Succession Planning 105
  103. 103. Who Identifies competencies?       Competencies can be identified by one of more of the following category of people: Experts HR Specialists Job analysts Psychologists Industrial Engineers etc. in consultation with: Line Managers, Current & Past Role holders, Supervising Seniors, Reporting and Reviewing Officers, Internal Customers, Subordinates of the role holders and Other role set members of the role (those who have expectations from the role holder and who interact with him/her). 106
  104. 104. What Methodology is used?         The following methods are used in combination for competency mapping: Interviews Group work Task Forces Task Analysis workshops Questionnaire Use of Job descriptions Performance Appraisal Formats etc. 107
  105. 105. How are they Identified?      The process of identification is not very complex. One of the methods is given below: 1. Simply ask each person who is currently performing the role to list the tasks to be performed by him one by one, and identify the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills required to perform each of these. Consolidate the list. Present it to a role set group or a special task force constituted for that role. Edit and Finalize. 108
  106. 106. What Language to Use?    Use Technical language for technical competencies. For example: knowledge of hydraulics. Use business language for business competencies. Example: Knowledge of markets for watch business or Strategic thinking. Use your own language or standard terms for Behavior competencies. Example: Ability to Negotiate, Interpersonal sensitivity, Sales techniques. Too technical and conceptual knowledge align to the organization and people may create more problems than help 109
  107. 107. Assessment Centers 110
  108. 108. Assessment Centre  Assessment centers typically involve the participants completing a range of exercises which simulate the activities carried out in the target job.  Various combinations of these exercises and sometimes other assessment methods like psychometric testing and interviews are used to assess particular competencies in individuals. 111
  109. 109.  The theory behind this is that if one wishes to predict future job performance then the best way of doing this is to get the individual to carry out a set of tasks which accurately sample those required in the job and are as similar to them as possible.  The particular competencies used will depend upon the target job but one will often find competencies such as relating to people; resistance to stress; planning and organising; motivation; adaptability and flexibility; problem solving; leadership; communication; decision making and initiative. 112
  110. 110. AC Vs DC Assessment centres usually –               have a pass/fail criteria are geared towards filing a job vacancy address an immediate organisational need have fewer assessors and more participants involve line managers as assessors have less emphasis placed on selfassessment focus on what the candidate can do now are geared to meet the needs of the organisation assign the role of judge to assessors place emphasis on selection with little or no developmental feedback and follow up give feedback at a later date involve the organisation having control over the information obtained have very little pre-centre briefing tend to be used with external candidates Development centres usually –               do not have a pass/fail criteria are geared towards developing the individual address a longer term need have a 1:1 ratio of assessor to participant do not have line managers as assessors have a greater emphasis placed on selfassessment focus on potential are geared to meet needs of the individual as well as the organisation assign the role of facilitator to assessors place emphasis on developmental feedback and follow up with little or no selection function give feedback immediately involve the individual having control over the information obtained have a substantial pre-centre briefing tend to be used with internal candidates 113
  111. 111. Types of Exercises Group Discussions  In these, candidates are brought together as a committee or project team with one or a number of items to make a recommendation on. Candidates may be assigned specific roles to play in the group or it may be structured in such a way that all the candidates have the same basic information. With this type of exercise, and in common with other types of exercise, it is of great benefit to ensure that you understand and follow the instructions for the exercise. 114
  112. 112. Types of Exercises In Tray  This type of exercise is normally undertaken by candidates individually. The materials comprise a bundle of correspondence and the candidate is placed in the role of somebody, generally, who assumed a new position or replaced their predecessor at short notice and have been asked to deal with their accumulated correspondence. Generally the only evidence that the assessors have to work with are the annotations which the candidates have made on the articles of mail. It is important when undertaking such an exercise to make sure that the items are not just dealt with, but that clearly mark on the items any thoughts that you have about them or any other actions that you would wish to put in train. 115
  113. 113. Interview Simulations / Role Plays     In these exercises candidates meet individually with a role player or resource person. Their brief is either to gather information to form a view and make a decision, or alternatively, to engage in discussion with the resource person to come to a resolution on an aspect or issue of dispute. Typically, candidates will be allowed 15 -30 minutes to prepare for such a meeting and will be given a short, general brief on the objective for the meeting. In undertaking such an exercise you should consider carefully how you want to spend the time in the meeting and plan accordingly. Although the assessment is made mainly on the conduct of the meeting itself, consideration will also be given to preparatory notes, thus it is useful for any meeting plan or objectives that you set yourself for the meeting to be clearly set out in your preparatory notes. 116
  114. 114. Case Studies / Analysis Exercises   In this type of exercise the candidate is presented with the task of making a decision about a particular business case. They are provided with a large amount of factual information which is generally ambiguous and, in some cases, contradictory. Candidates generally work independently on such an exercise and their recommendation or decision is usually to be communicated in the form of a brief written report and/or a presentation made to the assessors. As with the other exercises it is important with this kind of exercise to ensure that your thought processes are clearly articulated and available for the scrutiny of the assessors. Of paramount importance, if the brief requires a decision to be made, ensure that a decision is made and articulated. 117
  115. 115.  The above is meant as an illustrated list of the types of exercises that may be encountered in an assessment centre. Variations and permutations are almost infinite.  It is, however, worth remembering that there is a large body of academic research which suggests that the assessment centre is probably one of the most valid predictors of performance in a job and, if correctly structured, is probably one of the fairest and most objective means of gathering information upon which a selection decision can be based. From the candidate's perspective it is important to be natural and to be oneself when faced with an assessment centre, remembering always that you can only be assessed on what you have done and what the assessors can observe 118
  116. 116. Exercise categorisation      Level 1: Administrative - suitable for a wide range of roles including: secretarial and clerical staff, call centre staff, frontline customer service roles Level 2: Graduate - ideal for roles where there is no requirement for significant organisational experience Level 3: First line manager - primarily for new or junior managers, or managers with little experience of people management Level 4: Middle manager - for experienced managers, including familiarity with people management Level 5: Executive - targeted at senior managers with significant experience 119
  117. 117. Design an Assessment Centre  Design of an assessment centre should reflect:      the ethos of the organisation the actual skills required to carry out the job potential sources of recruits the extent to which recruitment is devolved to line managers the HR strategy. 120
  118. 118. Design Criteria  The essential design criteria should include:      duration of the centre (one day might be insufficient for more senior posts) location (reality or ideal surroundings and accessibility for candidates with disabilities) number of candidates brought together (five may be too few for comfort under observation and more than eight gives problems in sharing the assessed time) candidate background and comparability of past experience number, mix, and experience of assessors. 121
  119. 119. Design Criteria    Essential and desired skills /competencies to be matched to the techniques and tasks which test them Group exercises should be as real as possible The tasks might need to encourage competitiveness /collaboration 122
  120. 120. Observers     There should be a number of senior observers/selectors to ensure greater objectivity through a range of views. Selectors must be trained to observe, record, classify and rate behaviour and seek evidence accurately and objectively against the job description and person specification. Selectors preferably should also have had some training on interviewing skills and in managing diversity, and have good listening skills. Assessors might also be used to observe and comment on behaviour although they do not necessarlity take part in final selection decisions 123
  121. 121. Performance Management 124
  122. 122. Objective Setting    An objective is a simple statement of an end result to be achieved within a specified time frame. It should be short, clear and specific. It can also be in the form of an activity as it may not always be possible to quantify the end results. 125
  123. 123. Why Objective setting ?      Gives direction to job. Helps focus on important job areas. Assists review and change in job emphasis. Provides a basis for appraisal, counselling and feedback. Increases mutual job understanding with superior. 126
  124. 124. Objectives     Are significantly important areas of job. When performed well, improves overall results. Are maximum payoff job areas. Represent the work which account for 80% of results. 127
  125. 125. Objectives  Targets – are specific conditions to be achieved/indicates how much of what and by when  Activities – action steps which lead to the end results / used when targets are not quantifiable / indicate what by when 128
  126. 126. Process of goal setting       What is the job ? What are the end results expected ? What policies / procedures / work methods are impeding performance ? What changes are needed for better results ? How can work assignments be regrouped/altered to improve schedule ? What problems need to be overcome next year ? 129
  127. 127. Objectives v/s Targets      Focus on imp. Areas Related to job description Signposts Direction of work Optimum number 6      Measures imp. Results Related to objectives Milestones/Pathways Specific condition One or more for each objective 130
  128. 128. Criteria for objectives           Observable Basis for appraisal Jointly evolved Extra effort Clear/consistent with dept. objective Time bound Initiative Verifiable End result- emphasis on Satisfying 131
  129. 129. Objectives should be      S - Specific M - Measurable A - Attainable R - Relevant T - Time-bound 132
  130. 130. Process      Establishing specific goals to support stated purpose. Determining the importance of these goals. Making plans for action. Arriving at performance standards and measurement criteria. Stating anticipated problems. 133
  131. 131. Process..    Weighing the resources required to carry out the planned action. Providing for interaction of organization and individual goals. Following up with actual performance measurement and evaluation. 134
  132. 132. HRs role in Performance Management      Delivering time-lines Ensuring timely adherence Auditing the objectives jointly with line managers Ensuring objectives are in line with organisational goals Requesting modification if required 135
  133. 133. Thank you 136
  134. 134. High Performance Organizations  Design Components  People  Decision Systems  Human Resources  Structure  Values & Culture  Traditional Organizations  Narrow expertise  Rugged individuals  Centralized  Closed  Standardized selection  Routine training  Job-based pay  Narrow, repetitive jobs  Tall rigid hierarchies  Functional departments  Promote compliance  Routine behaviors  High Performance Organizations  Multi-skilled team players  Dispersed  Open  Realistic job interviews  Continuous learning  Performance-based pay  Enriched jobs  Flat, flexible hierarchies  Self-contained businesses  Promote involvement  Innovation and cooperation 137

Editor's Notes

  • One might say, why focus so much time and money on R&R…..
    Some factors include….
  • - Primary elements-- things we cannot control
    - Secondary elements -- things we have some control
    Elements of Diversity
    There are various qualities that differentiate one individual from the next.
    1. Primary Dimensions Race/ethnicity, gender, social class and culture are some examples of major elements of diversity. Race is often used as a biological concept of differentiating humans mostly based on skin color while ethnicity is more socially defined term often based on language or culture. It is not simple to differentiate race and ethnicity because those two terms are often overlapped and interchangeably used in census, research and field practice setting.
    The term ethnic diversity refers to the differences between people due to ethnicity. Differences in skin color, facial structure, and belief systems are likely to have roots in ethnic diversity.
    Sex and gender are also interchangeably used terms in daily lives. Sex is more biological concept while gender is more socially oriented term. Thus, when we say gender, it implies socially given roles and norms embedded in gender. Whether a person is man or woman, that is an element of diversity, which leads to further differences
    Social class Is it a biological construct or social construct? Are poor people genetically born as being ended up with being poor? Or is that simply socially constructed? Researchers now started opening their eyes to examine how these diversity elements are mutually related; not worrying about whether they are strictly biological or social construct, but much more interested in how they are related.
    2. Secondary Dimensions What are some secondary dimensions of diversity? For example, personality. It looks like an individual construct. But personality is also socially constructed. How about cohort differences? Are those who grew up in 1930s experiencing the Great Depression likely to have the same aging experiences from you who are getting more education and better nutrition? Maybe not. Geographic locations, marital status, living arrangements, sexual orientation, functional ability, religious beliefs are only a few examples of secondary dimensions of diversity.
    These dimensions of diversity affect an individual's perception and reaction to life, their interactions with others, and their view of society and the world.
  • Ensure equal opportunities and prevent discrimination
    The worst poison to diversity is discrimination and inequality. To harvest the fruits from diversity we must secure that discrimination and harassment is extinct from the working place. Discrimination is many times an invisible problem. It often takes place hidden, and one should not count on the victims to fend for themselves. It may well take place even though one hears nothing about the problems and it is part of management responsibility to prevent it. For it is illegal to discriminate on grounds of gender, ethnicity, religion, age, disability and sexual orientation. If one will ensure everybody’s full contribution, it is sometimes even necessary to "reach out" and act particularly favorably towards groups which traditionally meets barriers and resistance at the labor market.
  • Improved understanding of those you work for, with, and around CUSTOMERS
    Cohesive Atmosphere / Enhanced Teamwork / Higher Morale
    Increased Efficiency / Quality / Productivity
    Removal of barriers keeping you from achieving your goals.
  • Handout page
  • Competency may take the following forms: Knowledge, Attitude, Skill, Other characteristics of an individual including: Motives, Values, Self concept etc.
    Competencies may be grouped in to various areas. In classic article published a few decades ago in Harvard Business Review Daniel Katz grouped them under three areas which were later expanded in to the following four: Technical. Managerial, Human and Conceptual
    This is a convenience classification and a given competency may fall into one or more areas and may include more than one from. It is this combination that are labelled and promoted by some firms as competency dictionaries. A competency dictionary of a firm gives detailed descriptions of the competency language used by that firm. It contains detailed explanations of the combinations of competencies (technical, managerial, human and conceptual knowledge, attitudes and skills) using their own language. For example Team work or Team Management competency can be defined in terms of organization specific and level specific behaviors for a given origination. At top levels it might mean in the case of one organization ability identify utilize and synergize the contributions of a project team and at another level it might mean ability to inspire and carry along the top management team including diversity management. In competency mapping all details of the behaviors (observable, specific, measurable etc.) to be shown by the person occupying that role are specified.
  • Competencies That Build Career Success
    Definitions of Some Specific Competencies
    Expressing one’s needs, wants, opinions and preferences without offending the sensitivities of others. Listening with objectivity and clarifying messages, giving feedback, receiving feedback effectively.
    Critical Thinking
    Analytic: Critically evaluating data. Identifying and defining problems, identifying probable causes, and coming up with suggestions for a solution.
    Conceptual: Being able to think in abstract terms, to see the ‘big picture’ and understand how the various parts of an organization and idea can fit together. Making decisions. Judging under uncertainty.
    Ethics/Social Responsibility
    Defining and practicing ethical behavior in difficult situations. Considering the impact of one’s actions and decisions on others, both inside and outside one’s organization.
    Information Technology
    Using information technology to organize, summarize, analyze, and transform data into meaningful and useful information.
    Knowing how to find and gather information from multiple sources.
    Knowing how to organize, summarize, analyze, and convert it into meaningful and useful information for making decisions or taking specific actions.
    Applying information creatively to specific tasks or problems.
    Accepting others’ opinions in a non-judgmental way.
    Establishing relationships with and learning more about people of other racial, religious, ethnic, or cultural backgrounds. Advocating the value of diversity.
    Examining one’s own biases and behaviors to avoid stereotypical actions or responses. Understanding sexist, racist, ageist and homophobic behavior and exhibit non-sexist, non-racist, non-ageist, and non-homophobic behavior.
    Interacting with and appreciating physically or mentally challenged individuals.
    Facilitating groups in the decision-making process. Implementing sound decisions. Remaining flexible with decisions. Explaining unpopular decisions to others. Using effective coaching skills with peers/subordinates.
    Managing Change
    Managing change within oneself and organizations. Understanding controlling forces in the environment that affect global change (e.g., customers, governments, global trends, competitors, employees and society as a whole).
    Self-Managed Learning
    Actively identifying new areas for learning; regularly creating and taking advantage of new learning opportunities. Being self-directed and self-motivated.
    Team Work
    Active participation in, and facilitation of, team effectiveness. Being aware of the effect of one’s behavior on others. Acknowledging other team members’ concerns and contributions. Collaborating on projects.
    Technical Knowledge
    Demonstrating satisfactory level of technical and professional skills in job-related areas. Keeping abreast of current product developments and trends.
    Knowing where to get in-depth expertise on specific technical areas. Understanding technical terminology and developments. Knowing how and when to apply a technical skill or procedure. Synthesizing new solutions to problems based on professional principles.
  • Personal Competence
    Self Awareness = Knowing one’s internal states, preferences and intuitions
    Self Regulation = Managing one’s internal states, impulses, resources
    Motivation = Emotional tendencies that guide or facilitate reaching goals
    Social Competence
    Empathy = Awareness of others’ feelings, needs, concerns
    Social Skills = Adeptness at inducing desirable responses in others
  • Importance of Competencies
    Provides both an entree into, and progression/ advancement in, your chosen occupation/career field
    Enables you to become a contributing member to your communities (school, organization in which you work, home, etc.)
    Helps you to find job satisfaction/career fit between your competencies and the competencies required of that organization or job function.
  • Identifying the competencies that will help us anticipate new ways of perceiving and thinking about complex problems should be our foundation as we strive for relevance, usefulness and quality in our educational programs.