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STEEL IN ARCHITECTURE-CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

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Steel is crucial in development of economy and is considered as backbone of human civilization.
* Important milestones in Architecture was development of iron and steel in construction.
*New Method based in industrialization
DRYCONSTRUCTION, RATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY, RECIYCLING

*Steel buildings and bridges were being built in the latter part of the 19th century and early 20th century during the British era,

*New trend:-
Structural steel selectively used in the construction of high-rise buildings with 2-4/ projects/ year in India, mainly in metropolitan cities those are constrained by limited land availability.

*The evolution of steel frame construction in the 20th century entirely changed the concept of the Wall and the support.

*Steel is typical because of high tensile and compressive strengths

*steel buildings save time and money as compared to conventional building systems.

*Strong internal demand and emphasis on developing infrastructure can be expected to remain the foundation of Economic growth.
Industry and infrastructure segments can be expected, the key demand drivers for steel structures in India over the next 5 years.
*Overall, there is good potential for steel structures in India owing to robust economic growth, increased government spending on infrastructure and change in mindset with regards to use of structural steel in building.

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STEEL IN ARCHITECTURE-CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE

  1. 1. Presented by :- Ar. MOHAMMED AZMATULLAH M.Arch , Building Services J.M.I. New Delhi. * CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE 1
  2. 2. *  Important milestones in Architecture was development of iron and steel in construction. Mill at Derby- 1793 By William Strut, wooden beams sheeted in iron Dithering Flax Mill-1797 first fully integrated iron-framed building, oldest iron framed building in the world, by Charles Bage  Steel Buildings – Symbol of Modern Architecture 1780-1840 Cast Iron Arched shaped bridges up to 30 m span 1840-1890 Wrought Iron Span up to 100 m 1870-1920 Bessemer Converter Intro. Carbon Steel 1920- To Date Third most popular material after Concrete and Timber Steel is crucial in development of economy and is considered as backbone of human civilization. 2M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  3. 3. Orrell’s Mill-1834 by William Fairbairn, Hollow circular cross section in it cast iron columns E.V. Haughwout Building -1840 by Daniel Badger Cast iron façade became popular replaced masonry Wall Cristalpalace.1851 by Sir Joseph Paxton, Exhibition building, 564 m long, with an interior height of 39 m First Leiter Building 1879 by William LeBaron Building constructed with a skeleton frame cast- iron columns supporting wrought-iron beams Metropolitan Life tower -1909 SPECIALLY DESIGNED TO WITHSTAN D WIND LOADS 19th Century Train Station (3-hinge arch) * 3M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  4. 4. John Hancock Center 1969 Used the KHAN inspired Trussed- Tube bracing Bruce Graham Sears Tower-1974 Designed by both khan Graham, bundled tube system, Remains tallest building for over 20 years. WTC 1972 Minoru Yamasaki • Most famous examples of khans framed Tube system, hollow tube made of Heavy steel box column. • Columns were welded to steel beam at each floor creating a stiff Lattice like structure. Javits Convention Center U.S Architect: I M Pei 1986 New Method based in industrialization DRYCONSTRUCTION RATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY RECIYCLING By this we have been able to construct Stronger and taller structures, while using less Materials. World 1st bridge 1779 * 4M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  5. 5. * *Steel buildings and bridges were being built in the latter part of the 19th century and early 20th century during the British era, In the post-independence era, in the 1950s, steel traditionally used to set up public and private factories, plants, ports, railways, etc Essentially structures in which architecture plays an insignificant role and projects largely managed by engineering professionals from design to construction. This usage pattern continued up to the 1990s. • its inherent properties ensured that it commanded a high level of comfort with engineers. The Howrah Bridge is a cantilever bridge West Bengal,1942, Total length 705 m C.S.T Mumbai 5M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  6. 6. * The industry and infrastructure are currently the main contributing to the overall demand of steel structures in India. Usage of structural steel is currently driven by exception rather than practice.  The building’s in India is presently dominated by concrete.  The building segment has been slow to adopt.  This is expected to change in the future, ‘Volvo-Eicher’ headquarters GURGAON, NCR The corporate ’ is designed to be a state of the art steel building which uses the least amount of energy and resources possible in its day to day functioning. Work in Progress World Architecture Award Winner. New trend:- Structural steel selectively used in the construction of high-rise buildings with 2-4/ projects/ year in India, mainly in metropolitan cities those are constrained by limited land availability. 6M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  7. 7. * Today steel buildings are best known for *diversity of their shapes * their architectural expressiveness. *Which make them more reliable than other types of structures. Steel Usage : - Facades - Bridges - Roofing - Entrances - Windows and Doors - Interiors - Streetscapes - Sculpture Grades Usage profile DUPLEX Corrosive / marine environments 316 Mostly exteriors where close to seaside / corrosive environment roofing, facia and cladding 304 Interiors, Exteriors, Roofing, Railings, cladding and aesthetic embellishments 430 Interior usages, false ceilings, trims and decorative furnishings Low Ni Interior usages, railings and other embellishments involving less draw in non corrosive environment •steel buildings have evolved into various specific types •which can be storage, places of work, living accommodation, and others. The evolution of steel frame construction in the 20th century entirely changed the concept of the Wall and the support. •Steel is typical because of high tensile and compressive strengths •steel is used for buildings for both practical and aesthetic reasons 7M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  8. 8. * Due to the high strength of steel, the strength of these buildings is unmatched compared to other building materials.  It is essential when one desires to have a building with a strong foundation for use with long life. The CCTV Headquarters is a 234 m, 44- story skyscraper, in China Towers Lean at 60o angles and “kink” at right angles at the top Cantilever overhang starts after 36 floors and is 13 floors high. The towers cantilever 75m outwards Next, steel buildings save time and money as compared to conventional building systems. 8M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  9. 9. * *Living Steel Restello *Restello the steel apartment, by UK architects Piercy Conner *Winner of the Living Steel International Architecture Competition in 2006, Galvanized and painted steels are used for corrosion protection and to ensure a long life for the apartments. Ready to go to market in Kolkata, India. The steel used in this building fits the climate Of Kolkata Dampness is the major factor . skin of the building comprises one permeable outer layer of perforated steel screens, and a second inner skin of floor to ceiling glazing. The scheme won not only because of its bold, elegant design, but because of the strong concept of cross-ventilation and solar-shading 9M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  10. 10. * *It is a library in Sendai, Japan. It was designed by Toyo Ito in 1995 and completed in 2001. *The Sendai Mediatheque is a mixed-program public facility building. *The Mediatheque's seven levels of facilities offer a range of services including a conventional book-lending library, collection of film and audio recordings with stations for viewing and editing, a theatre, a cafe. The seven platforms are supported by what “Ito” calls "characterizing" architectural elements A forest of 13 non-uniform tubes which appear to rise fluidly through the building. Floor area 21,682 m² CASE STUDY 10M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  11. 11. Structure and materials The structure of the Sendai Mediatheque is composed of three main elements: tubes, plates and skin. The four tubes closest to the outer corners of the plates were designed to resist a 400 year earthquake, The most striking structural elements are the tubes, composed of thick steel pipes; they range in size from 7 to 30 feet In diameter. The floor slabs are composed of a honeycomb like network of steel sections in filled with light weight Concrete, allows the plate to span between irregularly spaced vertical supports without beams, and minimal thickness of the slab itself. •while the others resist the vertical gravity loads. As a test to its integrity, the building survived the March 2011 earthquake with little to no damage.11M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  12. 12. Tubes appear to be continuous, they were actually manufactured in floor-height segments and were assembled sequentially, floor-by-floor. The tubes have vertical circulation of air, water, electricity, light and people within the building. Because tubes creates link with the floor they often glazed to provide fire protection between floors 12M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  13. 13. Volvo Eicher Building, India By Ar. ROOMI KHOSLA Long spans, open plan commercial office space Broad gate Tower London spans over railway lines Tubular steel in 6 story entrance atrium at Tower Place, London Cannon Place, London S.I.A. MUMBAI JAWAHAR LAL NEHRU STADIUM SOME RECENT WORKS ON STEEL Beijing Birds Nest Stadium 13M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  14. 14. * CHRYSLER TOWERS, USA, Grade : 302 Cloud Gate Designed by Anish Kapur at Chicago 10 mtr x 20 mtr x 13 mtr - Grade : SS 304 PETRONAS TOWERS – K L,Grade :304 / 316 METRO RTA BLDG - TOKYO Grade : SS 304 INDL ECONOMIST, CHENNAI Grade : SS 304 8 Spruce Street, By Ghery 2011 BUILT YEAR 76 FLOORS The south façade, is flat but the other three façades are rippled. 14M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  15. 15. * Different from double-grazing concept, façade design using louver was investigated for adapting climates, effective to renew the design of the building EXTERIOR FACADES Particularly well suited for the facades of buildings, steel is a functional, practical, and long lasting material with a universal aesthetic appeal. SUN SHADING 15M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  16. 16. *PARKS & RECREATION ART & SCULPTURES LANDSCAPE FURNITURE FLOOR GRATES VERTICAL Columns Because of its exceptional properties, It has been chosen for a variety of applications. 16M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  17. 17. Arup Campus, Solihual Service routing for localized temperature control though regular web openings Stiffened large web opening in a steel beam, Routing through and between steel beams LARGE SPACES AND BEAMS USAGE  The use of long span sections for building’s creates large, open and flexible spaces.  Using steel columns instead of concrete ones could deliver around 40 square meters of additional floor area on 1000 square meter office floor plates.  Thin floor systems allow appreciable gains in vertical space. Angelina™ beam 17M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  18. 18. * The diagrid structural system has been widely used due to structural efficiency and aesthetic potential provided by the unique geometric configuration. Hearst Tower (New York City) 30 St MaryAxeEngland o This a system of triangulated beams, straight or curved, and horizontal rings that together make up a structural element for a skyscraper. Fixing and joinery of Steel section MyZeil Germany Capital Gate Diagrid is a design Which creates triangular structures with diagonal support beams.  Diagrid structures providing great structural efficiency without vertical columns save Approximately 20% of structural steel weight when Compared to a conventional moment-frame structures. 18M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  19. 19. * The steel structure have high strength hence, steel member can resist high load with comparatively light weight * The steel members are gas and water tight because of high density steel. * Steel members can be readily replaced or re assembled increased sanitary conditions, environment conservation, and flexibility * Steel offers design flexibility, Steel structures are easy to install. * Steel is cost effective and rarely fluctuates in price. * Steel allows for improved quality of construction and less maintenance, while offering improved safety and resistance. * High strength * Ductility * Choice of coatings * Can use In Different types * Durability * Zero maintenance * Lower Life Cycle Cost *Heat conductivity: steel conducts heat 310 times more efficiently than wood. *Corrosion: Faulty design leads to the corrosion of iron and steel in buildings. *However, it is weaker in fire resistance for steel will lose strength and deform serious at higher temperature (at 600oC or above). This can be improved by applying fire resistant plaster ADVANTAGE DIS ADVANTAGE 19M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  20. 20. * *Strong internal demand and emphasis on developing infrastructure can be expected to remain the foundation of Economic growth. *Industry and infrastructure segments can be expected, the key demand drivers for steel structures in India over the next 5 years. *Presently, structural steel industry employs the on-site model of fabrication for industry and infrastructure segments. *Workshop delivery model is prevalent in PEB and buildings segment. * Overall, there is good potential for steel structures in India owing to robust economic growth, increased government spending on infrastructure and change in mindset with regards to use of structural steel in building. 20M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi
  21. 21. * * atlassteels.com.au/site/pages/stainless-steel-in-architecture.php * buildingssteel.wordpress.com/2012/01/08/steel-buildings-history-to-latest-technology/ * nickelinstitute.org/NickelUseInSociety/MaterialsSelectionAndUse/ArchitectureBuildingAndConstruction/Archi tectureAndBuilding.aspx * en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steel_building * e-architect.co.uk/india/living_steel_restello.htm * steelconstruction.info/Multi-storey_office_buildings * en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stainless_steel * cityrealty.com/nyc/financial-district/new-york-by-gehry-8-spruce-street/35081 * visual.ly/evolution-impact-steel-architecture visual.ly/evolution-impact-steel-architecture * en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diagrid * pritzkerprize.com/media/2013_media/images-download * mbss-india.com/News-Articles-Features/?p=268 * indian-architects.com/en/projects/30777_Volvo_Eicher_Headquarter 21M.Arch- J.M.I. New Delhi

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