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Culture: terme, notion et concept

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Notes de cours sur le concept de culture.
Mis en ligne à l'attention des étudiants de la Filière de sociologie, S3, et de la Filère de Médiation culturelle, S5.

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Culture: terme, notion et concept

  1. 1. CULTURE1. Origine étymologique du TERME2. La NOTION philosophique3. Le CONCEPT anthropologique
  2. 2. 1. Origine étymologique latine colere = « habiter », cultiver », « honorer » cultura = « soin apporté aux champs et au bétail » « Un champ si fertile soit-il ne peut être productif sans culture, et cest la même chose pour lhumain sans enseignement. » Cicéron (106/43 av. J.C.) Pour Cicéron, la philosophie = la culture de l’esprit (animi cultura ).
  3. 3. Evolution sémantique dans la langue française Fin 13ème siècle Emprunt : cultura  culture Désigne la chose cultivée : « une parcelle de terre cultivée » Début du 16ème siècle Désigne l’action de cultiver la terre Milieu du 16ème siècle Sens figuré Désigne l’action de cultiver l’esprit, une faculté Jusqu’à fin du 17ème Usage limité du sens figuré, pas de siècle reconnaissance académique. Mais émergence de la notion philosophique
  4. 4. 2. La notion philosophique 1680-1790: Le siècle des « Lumières » (Raison, Liberté, Progrès de la connaissance) Usage de « culture » par les philosophes = reflet de l’idéologie des LumièresAssociation de culture aux idées de progrès, évolution, éducation &raisonFondée sur 2 croyances majeures1. Amélioration constante de l’Homme2. Culture de l’esprit = Origine du progrès de l’HumanitéAssociation des notions de culture et humanitéFondée sur une attitude anthropocentriste et 1 croyanceLa culture = le propre de l’Homme. La culture = ce qui distingue l’Humainde l’AnimalConception universaliste de la cultureLa notion de culture utilisée dans un sens collectif.Culture = L’addition de toutes les connaissances accumulées et transmisespar toutes les générations humaines passées.Usage philosophique du terme: toujours au singulier.
  5. 5. Usages nationaux différenciésFRANCE 18ème siècle ALLEMAGNE 18ème siècleSens figuré s’impose bildung = « accomplissements1. L’action de s’instruire : « culture individuels » des arts », « culture des Kultur : sens figuré français lettres », « culture des sciences » introduit par les aristocrates2. L’état d’instruction Mais appropriation par laApparition de la notion de bourgeoisie allemande. civilisation = « affinement des meurs » (contraires = Opposition kultur // zivilisation = barbarie, sauvagerie, nature) Opposition bourgeoisie // aristocratie. L’aristocratie accusée d’inculture et de superficialité, sans valeurs morales. Valeurs bourgeoises = sincérité, profondeur, spiritualité et instruction.
  6. 6. Usages nationaux différenciésFRANCE au 19ème siècle ALLEMAGNE au 19ème siècle« culture » réservé pour les Opposition Kultur//Zivilisation =accomplissements individuels. Opposition Allemagne // France.« civilisation » pour les Les Français accusés d’inculture et deaccomplissements de l’Humanité. superficialité.Conception universaliste Conception particularisteIgnorance des particularismes au profit Reconnaissance de la diversité desde l’unité de l’Humanité. cultures et des particularismes« civilisation » et « culture » toujours nationaux.utilisés au singulier. Chaque culture a son propre destin, Chaque culture = un aspect deFin 19ème siècle, culture commence à l’Humanité.prendre une dimension collective,mais toujours dans une vision Le terme « volksgeit » désigne leuniversaliste. Culture = « forme de « génie national » de chaquecivilisation ». peuple.
  7. 7. Culture/Civilisation : Notions concurrentesTrès proches dans leur contenu sémantique, sans être vraimentsynonymiques  « culture » s’applique surtout à des progrès individuels « civilisation » désigne des progrès collectifs.Pour les philosophes des Lumières, « Civilisation » désigne  le processus qui a conduit l’Humanité des ténèbres de l’ignorance auxLumières de la Connaissance et de la Raison;  l’état d’avancement des nations qui sont passées par l’ensemble de ceprocessusLa CIVILISATION est définie comme un ÉTAT IDÉAL que doiventatteindre et auquel doivent aspirer tous les peuples.Les peuples dits « civilisés » doivent aider les peuples dits « arriérés »,« sauvages », « barbares » ou encore « primitifs », à atteindre cet état idéalde perfectionnement.
  8. 8. 3. Le concept anthropologique Fin 19ème siècle : Anthropologie naît dans le contexted’une dialectique entre visions universaliste etparticulariste de la culture. Premiers anthropologues : héritiers de l’idéologie desphilosophes des Lumières : Notions de culture et civilisation Idéologie du progrès Croyance en l’amélioration constante de l’Humanité Adoption du schéma évolutionniste de Montesquieu 1871 : Première définition scientifique de « culture »par Edward TYLOR (1832-1917), anthropologue anglais.
  9. 9. Définition de Edward TYLOR Culture ou civilisation, pris dans son sensethnologique le plus étendu, est ce toutcomplexe qui comprend la connaissance, lescroyances, l’art, la morale, le droit, lescoutumes et les autres capacités ouhabitudes acquises par l’homme en tant quemembre de la société.La civilisation primitive (1871)

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