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Medical implication of developmental biology


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Medical implication of developmental biology

  1. 1. Medical Implication of Developmental Biology
  2. 2. Contents  Infertility ◦ Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART)  In Vitro Fertilization  Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)  Ovary transfer Developmental cancer therapy  Gene therapy  Stem cells and therapeutic cloning 
  3. 3. Infertility • • Inability to achieve or sustain pregnancy. Not a disease. • 80% by 1.5 years, beyond 2 years. • Failure of ovulation, physical blockage, sperm defects.
  4. 4. In Vitro Fertilization  Assisted reproductive technology (ART).  Four steps ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Ovarian stimulation Eggs retrieval, aspiration Fertilization, sperm collection and “washing”. Embryo transfer.
  5. 5. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Procedure in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg.  In vitro fertilization. 
  6. 6. Ovary Transfer
  7. 7. Developmental Cancer Therapy  Cancer can be seen as a result of altered development.
  8. 8. Cancer Therapy- Angiogenesis Inhibition  Angiogenesis ◦ The formation of new blood vessels. ◦ Is utilized to provide blood supply to a tumor ◦ Tumor cells secrete molecules such as VEGF(Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor)
  9. 9. Angiogenesis Inhibition  Angiogenesis inhibitors are drugs that prevent angiogenesis and hence prevent vascularization from occurring.  Natural and synthetic inhibitors of angiogenesis have been characterized by several groups.  Some angiogenesis inhibitors have been FDA approved for humans
  10. 10. Gene Therapy  The insertion of normal or genetically altered genes into cells usually to replace defective genes especially in the treatment of genetic disorders.  Somatic cell gene therapy ◦ (e.g. through blood or liver stem cells)  Germ line gene therapy ◦ by modifying a germ cell or fertilized egg and transferring to next generation. ◦ by modifying embryonic stem cells and making a body )
  11. 11. Stem Cell - Medicine  The human stem cells can be used to produce new cells or organs (neurons, blood cells, pancreas etc.) for people with diseases or failing organs.