ECO-INTENSIFICATION – THE SCIENCE OF ORGANIC FARMING – A GUIDE TO CLIMATE REGULATION & RESILIENCE<br />Andreas Gattinger<b...
Contents<br />What is eco-intensification?<br />Soil management in organic agriculture and its climate relevance<br />Anim...
The four basic principles of organic agriculture, endorsed by IFOAM, September 2005    <br />
Eco-functionalintensification?<br />Higher degree of organization of farms, knowledge-based farming and food systems.<br /...
5<br />Built-upofsoilfertility<br />
6<br />Recycle and produce on-farm nutrients<br />Global potential to use 160 million tons of nitrogen (and other nutrient...
7<br />Intensification through ecological support functions<br />Fotos: Eric Wyss, Lukas Pfiffner<br />
8<br />Making bestuseofnature‘spharmacy<br />Health promoting agents from plants against endo-parasites of livestock (espe...
9<br />Breeding smartly<br />Maize: Mechanical resistance against the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)<br />Walter...
10<br />
Organic farming – managingandusingnaturalressources/ecosystemservices<br />
Contents<br />What is eco-intensification?<br />Soil management in organic agriculture and its climate relevance<br />Anim...
Overall sustainability parameters of organically managed soils<br />Increased SOM or Corg-contents(Gerhardt, 1997; Clark e...
Overall sustainability parameters of organically managed<br />Increased aggregate stability(Gerhardt, 1997; Siegrist et al...
DOK trial: Soil aggregate stability<br />Bio dynamic<br />Conventional/ IPM<br />Mäder et al. 2002, Science<br />
Soil aggregate stability, infiltration rate <br />Biodynamic with composted manure<br />Fotos: Fliessbach Nov. 2002<br />I...
Resource use efficiency (DOK trial, 28 years) <br />Mäder, Fliessbach, Dubois, Fried, Niggli (2002), Science 296<br />
Carbon sequestration in long term experiments<br />Niggli, U., Fließbach, A., Hepperly, P. and Scialabba, N., 2009. ftp://...
Carbon sequestration in long term experiments<br />Average difference between the best organic and the conventional treatm...
Contents<br />What is eco-intensification?<br />Soil management in organic agriculture and its climate relevance<br />Anim...
Integration of livestock: Improved management of livestock manure and on-farm production of nitrogen<br />Global potential...
Influence of soil texture and livestockintegration on soil organic matter<br />Decreasing particle size<br />(n = 1276)<br...
Sourcesof GHGE in animalproduction<br />Feed production (on farm))<br />Feed production (importincluding LUC)<br />Buildin...
Entericfermentationandmethane<br />Focus of discussion according to organic cows<br />High milk yield requires concentrate...
Concentrates in cattlenutrition<br />30% of crop production for animal feeding <br />Not an appropriate diet for ruminants...
Increasingefficiency of production<br />Conventional approach<br />Intensification of production<br />Genetic improvement ...
Feed no Food – Grass andRoughageratherthanconcentratesfordairycows<br />
Feed no Food: Objectives<br />Forage based milk production concepts<br />Reduction of concentrates to a minimum<br />Consi...
Exemplary LCA in 4 model farms<br />
Preliminaryresults (GHGE models)<br />Scenarios (assumingconstantenergycontent)<br />Total kg CO2-eq/kg milk<br />Valley 1...
Animalhealth and climateprotection<br />General health improvement and longevity<br />Udder health improvement<br />Fertil...
Health, Longevity and climate protection<br />Impact of replacementintensity on „unproductivedays“ <br />duringrearingperi...
Fertiliy and climateprotection<br />Fertilty of heifers<br />Age at first calving in CH: 30 mon<br />Optimum: 24 to 28 mon...
Lactationcurvesdepending on fertility<br />subfertilecows (days to conception: >150d)<br />Date of conception<br />dry<br ...
Udderhealth and climateprotection<br />Milk loss by clinical mastitis<br />5 to 10 days by delivery stop<br />10+ days by ...
Contents<br />What is eco-intensification?<br />Soil management in organic agriculture and its climate relevance<br />Anim...
Eco-intensification as a climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy has the following benefits:<br />Soil-plant sys...
Livestock systems<br />Livestock play an integral role in organic farming systems<br />can utilize roughage on grasslands ...
Thank you very much for your attention!<br />
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Eco-Intensification - the science of organic farming: A guide to climate resilience and regulation

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Eco-Intensification - the science of organic farming: A guide to climate resilience and regulation

  1. 1. ECO-INTENSIFICATION – THE SCIENCE OF ORGANIC FARMING – A GUIDE TO CLIMATE REGULATION & RESILIENCE<br />Andreas Gattinger<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />What is eco-intensification?<br />Soil management in organic agriculture and its climate relevance<br />Animal husbandry in organic agriculture and its climate relevance<br />Conclusions<br />
  3. 3. The four basic principles of organic agriculture, endorsed by IFOAM, September 2005 <br />
  4. 4. Eco-functionalintensification?<br />Higher degree of organization of farms, knowledge-based farming and food systems.<br />More complex and less industrialised farming systems (e.g. agro-forestry).<br />Improved land and resource use efficiency.<br />Improved management of soil fertility, water, biodiversity, genetic diversity, energy and nutrients.<br />Improved use of resilience, self-regulation and self-healing in farming systems and animal herds.<br />Adaptation of crop and animal breeding programs to organic and low-input systems.<br />Novel and improved therapies against pests and diseases in crop and livestock. <br />
  5. 5. 5<br />Built-upofsoilfertility<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Recycle and produce on-farm nutrients<br />Global potential to use 160 million tons of nitrogen (and other nutrients) from livestock manure more efficiently on cropland (calculated on the basis of 18.3 billion farm animals/FAO) <br />Global potential to produce 140 million tons of nitrogen on cropland <br />(Badgley et al., 2007) <br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Intensification through ecological support functions<br />Fotos: Eric Wyss, Lukas Pfiffner<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Making bestuseofnature‘spharmacy<br />Health promoting agents from plants against endo-parasites of livestock (especially sheep and pig)<br />Cichorium intybus<br />Onobrychis viciifolia<br />Heckendorn et al., 2006; Marley et al., 2003; Hansen et al., 2006<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Breeding smartly<br />Maize: Mechanical resistance against the European Corn Borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)<br />Walter Schmidt, 2009<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />
  11. 11. Organic farming – managingandusingnaturalressources/ecosystemservices<br />
  12. 12. Contents<br />What is eco-intensification?<br />Soil management in organic agriculture and its climate relevance<br />Animal husbandry in organic agriculture and its climate relevance<br />Conclusions<br />
  13. 13. Overall sustainability parameters of organically managed soils<br />Increased SOM or Corg-contents(Gerhardt, 1997; Clark et al., 1998; Brown et al., 2000; Pulleman et al., 2003; Pimentel et al., 2005; Marriott & Wander, 2006)<br />Ranging from 10 to 60 % (average 28 %, Soil Association, 2009).<br />Improved biological properties of soils (e.g. microbial biomass, microbial enzyme activities, abundance of earthworms, abundance of soil-dwelling insects): Gerhardt, 1997; Siegrist et al., 1998; Hansen et al., 2001; Mäder et al., 2002; Pulleman et al., 2003; Fließbach et al., 2007, Pfiffner, L. and Luka, H., 2002.<br />Ranging from 40 to 120 %.<br />
  14. 14. Overall sustainability parameters of organically managed<br />Increased aggregate stability(Gerhardt, 1997; Siegrist et al., 1998; Brown et al., 2000; Maeder et al., 2002; Pulleman et al., 2003; Williams & Petticrew, 2009).<br />Increased water holding capacity, higher water content in soil(Brown et al., 2000; Lotter et al., 2003; Pimentel et al., 2005)<br />Improved infiltration rate of water (Lotter et al., 2003; Pimentel et al., 2005; Zeiger & Fohrer, 2009).<br />e.g. Rodale experiment in Pennsylvania + 17 % in both organic systems (livestock manure and green manure) compared to conventional system.<br />
  15. 15. DOK trial: Soil aggregate stability<br />Bio dynamic<br />Conventional/ IPM<br />Mäder et al. 2002, Science<br />
  16. 16. Soil aggregate stability, infiltration rate <br />Biodynamic with composted manure<br />Fotos: Fliessbach Nov. 2002<br />IP with mineral fertilizers<br />
  17. 17. Resource use efficiency (DOK trial, 28 years) <br />Mäder, Fliessbach, Dubois, Fried, Niggli (2002), Science 296<br />
  18. 18. Carbon sequestration in long term experiments<br />Niggli, U., Fließbach, A., Hepperly, P. and Scialabba, N., 2009. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/ai781e/ai781e.pdf<br />
  19. 19. Carbon sequestration in long term experiments<br />Average difference between the best organic and the conventional treatments: 590 kg carbon ( 2.2 t CO2) per hectare and year.<br />Niggli, U., Fließbach, A., Hepperly, P. and Scialabba, N., 2009. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/ai781e/ai781e.pdf<br />
  20. 20. Contents<br />What is eco-intensification?<br />Soil management in organic agriculture and its climate relevance<br />Animal husbandry in organic agriculture and its climate relevance<br />Conclusions<br />
  21. 21. Integration of livestock: Improved management of livestock manure and on-farm production of nitrogen<br />Global potential to use 160 million tons of nitrogen (and other nutrients) from livestock manure more efficiently on cropland (calculated on the basis of 18.3 billion farm animals/FAO) <br />Global potential to produce 140 million tons of nitrogen on cropland <br />(Badgley et al., 2007) <br />
  22. 22. Influence of soil texture and livestockintegration on soil organic matter<br />Decreasing particle size<br />(n = 1276)<br />Capriel, 2006<br />
  23. 23. Sourcesof GHGE in animalproduction<br />Feed production (on farm))<br />Feed production (importincluding LUC)<br />Buildings, technique<br />Bedding, Manure<br />Metabolicemissions (entericfermentation)<br />GHGE (kgCO2-eq) per kg milk for eight <br />Dairy production systems in Austria <br />(Hörtenhuber et al., 2010)<br />
  24. 24. Entericfermentationandmethane<br />Focus of discussion according to organic cows<br />High milk yield requires concentrates rich diets<br />Low-fibre diets decrease ruminal methane production<br />Intensive High-output dairy production as climate protector??<br />Unconsidered critical elements<br />Import of soybeans and other feed crops from overseas (LUC)<br />Breed characteristics (Holstein: milk and not beef)<br />Animal Health > Replacement rate > Rearing intensity<br />LONGEVITY<br />
  25. 25. Concentrates in cattlenutrition<br />30% of crop production for animal feeding <br />Not an appropriate diet for ruminants<br />Competition to human nutrition<br />Imported feed crops in CH: 0.8 Mio. tons/a <br />Organic feed crops import: <br />Grains 70% <br />Protein carrier (soy) 98% <br />
  26. 26. Increasingefficiency of production<br />Conventional approach<br />Intensification of production<br />Genetic improvement (more product units per animal)<br />Changing ruminalmetamolism by additives and modified diets<br />Sustainable approach including<br />Physiological improvement of milk yield curves<br />Animal welfare aspects<br />Integrated herd health management<br />Optimized (not maximized) reproduction parameters<br />
  27. 27. Feed no Food – Grass andRoughageratherthanconcentratesfordairycows<br />
  28. 28. Feed no Food: Objectives<br />Forage based milk production concepts<br />Reduction of concentrates to a minimum<br />Consideration of animal needs<br />Local feed production as far as possible<br />Optimizing feeding management<br />Evaluation of roughage based cow type<br />Effects on health, welfare and fertility<br />Implementation of herd health programmes<br />Effects on product quality<br />Modeling economic impact<br />Modeling GHG emissions<br />
  29. 29. Exemplary LCA in 4 model farms<br />
  30. 30. Preliminaryresults (GHGE models)<br />Scenarios (assumingconstantenergycontent)<br />Total kg CO2-eq/kg milk<br />Valley 1<br />(<10% Conc.)<br />Valley 2<br />(<5% Conc.,<br />no silage)<br />Mountain 2<br />(<5% Conc.)<br />Mountain 1<br />(concentratesfree)<br />
  31. 31. Animalhealth and climateprotection<br />General health improvement and longevity<br />Udder health improvement<br />Fertility improvement<br />Rearing management<br />
  32. 32. Health, Longevity and climate protection<br />Impact of replacementintensity on „unproductivedays“ <br />duringrearingperiod<br />Replacement strongly depends on animal health<br />Replacement intensity increases rearing days per farm<br />Health improvement reduces culling rate<br />Prolongation of LNo by 1 lactation leads to 23% less „unproductive“ days<br />Milk yield optimum during 6th lactation!<br />* Age at 1st calving: 30 m<br />Milk yield (kg/cow) per 305 daysbylactationnumber<br />(data of FiBL project „pro-Q“)<br />
  33. 33. Fertiliy and climateprotection<br />Fertilty of heifers<br />Age at first calving in CH: 30 mon<br />Optimum: 24 to 28 mon?<br />Fertility of cows<br />Infertility the most important culling reason<br />Reducing periods of low milk yield<br />Increasing number of calves for beef production<br />
  34. 34. Lactationcurvesdepending on fertility<br />subfertilecows (days to conception: >150d)<br />Date of conception<br />dry<br />dry<br />dry<br />dry<br />fertile cows (days to conception <100 days)<br />dry<br />dry<br />dry<br />dry<br />t<br />Milk yielddifferenceafter 5 years: +5000 kg<br />
  35. 35. Udderhealth and climateprotection<br />Milk loss by clinical mastitis<br />5 to 10 days by delivery stop<br />10+ days by reconvalescence<br />Milk loss per day by increased Somatic Cell Count (SCC)<br />10 to 20% <br />High culling rates due to udder health<br />
  36. 36. Contents<br />What is eco-intensification?<br />Soil management in organic agriculture and its climate relevance<br />Animal husbandry in organic agriculture and its climate relevance<br />Conclusions<br />
  37. 37. Eco-intensification as a climate change mitigation and adaptation strategy has the following benefits:<br />Soil-plant systems<br />Increased carbon sequestration in soils. <br />Reduced energy consumption.<br />Reduced nitrogen inputs and resultant reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide. <br />Avoidance of burning of crop residues. <br />Better soil quality and soil fertility with resultant reduced soil erosion and increased water retention capacity. <br />Diversified management systems with resultant lower risks.<br />Higher species diversity on farms and fields – more resilient.<br />
  38. 38. Livestock systems<br />Livestock play an integral role in organic farming systems<br />can utilize roughage on grasslands that are not suited to other types of agricultural uses: high C stocks under permanent grassland and high aboveground diversity!<br />No competition between feeding ruminants and human nutrition. <br />Animal health has a significant impact on GHGE<br />Health improvement is leading to longevity increase<br />Improved udder health minimizes milk losses<br />Optimized fertility increases cumulative milk yield<br />Need for herd health improvement programmes<br />Animal welfare aspects are of highest priority<br />Robust animals for improved lifetime performance<br />
  39. 39. Thank you very much for your attention!<br />

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