The circulatory system is a network of flexible tubes through which blood flows as it carries oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body. It includes the heart, lungs, arteries, arterioles (small arteries) and capillaries (minute blood vessels). It also includes venules (small veins) and veins, the blood vessels through which blood flows as it returns to the heart. If all these vessels were laid end-to-end, they would extend for about 60,000 miles--far enough to encircle the earth more than twice.
The circulatory system is made up of the heart and blood vessels known as arteries, capillaries and veins. Consists of 3 Components: -Blood vessels - Heart -Blood
The Heart It is located in the upper body (chest area) between the lungs, and with its pointed end (called the apex) downwards, forwards, and pointing towards the left. The main purpose of the heart is to pump blood around the body. It's small, a little larger than a clenched fist. Relatively simple in function, your heart's primary purpose is to pump...24 hours a day, 70 to 80 times a minute. With each beat, the heart pumps blood that delivers life-sustaining oxygen and nutrients to 300 trillion cells. Each day the average heart "beats" (or expands and contracts) 100,000 times and pumps about 2,000 gallons of blood. In a 70-year lifetime, an average human heart beats more than 2.5 billion times, pumping approximately 1 million barrels of blood.
<ul><li>Heart Valves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The picture shows your heart’s four valves. Shown counterclockwise in the picture, the valves include the aortic (ay-OR-tik) valve, the tricuspid (tri-CUSS-pid) valve, the pulmonary valve, and the mitral (MI-trul) valve. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Septum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The right and left sides of your heart are divided by an internal wall of tissue called the septum. The area of the septum that divides the two upper chambers (atria) of your heart is called the atrial or interatrial septum. The area of the septum that divides the two lower chambers (ventricles) of your heart is called the ventricular or interventricular septum. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart Chambers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The picture shows the inside of your heart and how it’s divided into four chambers. The two upper chambers of your heart are called atria. The atria receive and collect blood. The two lower chambers of your heart are called ventricles. The ventricles pump blood out of your heart into the circulatory system to other parts of your body. </li></ul></ul>
These are hollow, tubular vessels which conduct the blood from the heart to the tissues and from the tissues to the heart.
Arteries , capillaries and veins are blood vessels that carry blood throughout the body. If all the arteries, veins and capillaries in your body were placed end to end, they would stretch for more than 100,000 kilometres. Blood vessels carry blood from the heart to all areas of the body. The blood travels from the heart via arteries to smaller arterioles, then to capillaries or sinusoids, to venules, to veins and back to the heart.
The strongest blood vessels are arteries. They carry blood away from the heart to body parts. Arteries have thick walls because the blood inside them presses hard on the walls with each heartbeat. The way the blood presses on the walls is known as blood pressure. The biggest arteries in the body are as wide as your thumb. They divide or split, becoming narrower until they are too small to see. The smallest arteries are thinner than hair. These thinner arteries are called arterioles. Arteries carry bright red blood! The color comes from the oxygen that it carries. Carry Away
The tiniest blood vessels are known as capillaries. Their walls are so thin that useful substances from blood can easily pass or seep through from the blood out to the surrounding parts. At the same time waste matter passes the other way, into the blood, to be carried away. There are millions of capillaries inside all parts of the body. located within the tissues of the body, that transports blood from arteries to veins. Capillaries are most abundant in tissues and organs that are metabolically active. Connecting Arteries and Veins
Capillaries join together to make bigger tubes known as veins. These are wider than arteries, but their walls are thin and floppy, because the blood inside flows slowly with little pressure. The smallest veins, also called venules, are very thin. They join larger veins that open into the heart. The veins carry dark red blood that doesn't have much oxygen. Veins carry blood back to the heart.
<ul><li>Four Main Parts of Blood: </li></ul><ul><li>Red Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><li>White Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul>
Blood is thicker than water and has a little bit salty taste. In an adults body there is 10.6 pints of blood circulating around. In their blood there is billions of living blood cells floating in a liquid called plasma. If you took a small sample of this blood and poured it into a test tube and then put it in a machine called a centrifuge, you would be able to see the layers of this blood. This machine spins the blood around so fast that it separates the red blood cells, from the white blood cells, from the platelets. The red blood cells sink to the bottom because they are the heavier, more solid parts, but the plasma remains at the top because it is lighter. The plasma is 95% water and the other 5% is made up of dissolved substances including salts.
BLOOD TYPE there are four main types of blood - A, B, AB, and O blood types were only discovered in 1901 Before this point, biologists could not understand why some transfusions worked and others didn't. Sometimes the patients lived, and sometimes they had bad reactions. In 1909, Karl Landsteiner in Vienna, Austria made the discovery that all blood is not alike. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work. There were four main 'groupings' of blood - A, B, AB and O - and they were not all compatible with each other.
Does Your Blood Type Reveal Your Personality? According to a Japanese institute that does research on blood types, there are certain personality traits that seem to match up with certain blood types. How do you rate?
Red blood cells are also called erythrocytes which are shapes like microscopic doughnuts that carries oxygen. They take up oxygen in the lungs or gills and release it while squeezing through the body's capillaries. Transport carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs. Rich in hemoglobin, an iron-containing biomolecule that can bind oxygen and is responsible for the blood's red color.
White blood cells are known as leucocytes which are tiny blobs that can move about and change shape, and help to fight diseases. Some white blood cells attack and eat germs that enter the body. Others make natural substances called antibodies that stick on to germs and kill them. Are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials.
A third main group of tiny cells in blood is the platelets or thrombocytes . They help blood go sticky and solid at a wound or cut, which is called clotting. The clot seals the cut and stops germs getting in or blood leaking out. Over a day or two the clot hardens into a scab, which protects the damaged part as it heals. The average lifespan of a platelet is normally just 5 to 9 days They circulate in the blood of mammals and are involved in hemostasis, leading to the formation of blood clots.
This has hundreds of different substances spread out or dissolved in it. Plasma also contains many nutrients from our food. Body parts use these nutrients to grow and mend everyday wear and tear. . In a normal healthy person about 45% of blood is made up of cells. The rest of the blood is plasma. Plasma is a clear, yellowish liquid. It is mostly water, but also contains glucose (blood sugar), fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
Blood also carries hormones. These are natural substances made by body parts called glands . Hormones travel around in the blood and control various processes inside the body, such as growth, digesting food and adjusting the amount of water in the body.
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Oxygen-poor blood (shown in blue) flows from the body into the right atrium. Blood flows through the right atrium into the right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs, where the blood releases waste gases and picks up oxygen. The newly oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) returns to the heart and enters the left atrium. Blood flows through the left atrium into the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps the oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body.
The Heartbeat Almost everyone has heard the real or recorded sound of a heartbeat. When your heart beats, it makes a “lub-DUB” sound. Between the time you hear “lub” and “DUB,” blood is pumped through your heart and circulatory system. The “LUB” is the sound of the mitral and tricuspid valves closing. The ”DUB” is the sound of the aortic and tricuspid valves closing.
Aortic Aneurysm - This is caused when the aorta is damaged and starts bulging. It might even tear and cause severe bleeding. Causes are atherosclerosis, obesity and high blood pressure.
Angina - It is pain or discomfort in the chest which occurs due to a block in the blood vessels leading to the heart. Causes are reduced flow of blood and not enough oxygen.
Arrhythmia - One has arrhythmia when one has irregular heartbeat rhythm. The rhythm can be fast or slow.
Atherosclerosis - When there is a formation of plaque in the walls of the blood vessels, it results in this condition. The plaque might be due to fat, cholesterol and calcium. This might obstruct the flow of blood and in severe cases, even stop it.
High Blood Pressure - High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is a common thing that effects about 50 millions Americans and countless others worldwide. It’s generally caused by fatty foods. - High blood pressure is often hard to diagnose as it has so few symptoms that you don’t even know that you have it. A few ways to know if you may have high blood pressure is if you often wake up with a headache or if headache continues throughout the day, you have a ringing or buzzing noise in your ears, and/or you’re often dizzy or confused.
Cardiomyopathy - It is a chronic heart disease affecting the heart muscle and making it weak. It starts with the ventricles and spreads to all the other cells of the heart. It might give way to heart failure.
Tachycardia <ul><li>Tachycardia is a very serious matter in which </li></ul><ul><li>the heart is racing at an extremely high pace. </li></ul><ul><li>You may be able to diagnose tachycardia </li></ul><ul><li>yourself if you have shortness of breath, </li></ul><ul><li>find yourself dizzy for no reason, or you </li></ul><ul><li>just get that feeling where you can sense </li></ul><ul><li>your own heartbeat without even checking </li></ul><ul><li>your pulse and you know it’s extra high. Often times you would experience several of these symptoms at once. If this happens, you need to sit down and relax immediately and calm down. In this case, laughter can really be the best medicine as it takes your mind off of it. </li></ul>
Hyperlipidemia or Hypercholesterolemia - It is very high cholesterol in the blood which is extremely harmful and can produce a heart attack.
Coronary Heart Disease - Coronary Heart Disease, also known as CHD, is the most common of all the heart-related problems. It’s caused by your arteries getting smaller which leads to your heart not getting enough blood supply.
Heart Attack - Prone victims of heart attacks is the elderly. As you get older, your body gets weaker and it’s as if your heart has to work double time just to keep up with you anymore. People with heart problems in general should take it easy, lay off the salty/high cholesterol foods, and visit a doctor regularly for checkups. Take an ibuprofen to reduce inflammation. Heart attacks are generally felt as a shooting pain in your left arm just beforehand, followed by an immense pain in your chest.
Ischemic Heart Disease - Ischemic heart disease is the opposite of hypertension, in that it is the reduced flow of blood to the heart. The main symptom involved with ischemic heart disease is the concurrent feeling of chest pain, especially pain in the left side of the chest (around the heart). The best thing to do for ischemic heart disease, aside from visiting a doctor, is to start up an exercise routine in order to raise your pulse, thereby making the heart pump faster. If you’re not eating regularly or moving around that much then you may be a candidate for ischemic heart disease.
Heart Rhythm Disorders <ul><li>Heart rhythm disorders, also known as </li></ul><ul><li>heart murmurs, are irregularities in the </li></ul><ul><li>sound that the heart makes when </li></ul><ul><li>listened to by a doctor via the means </li></ul><ul><li>of a stethoscope. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes heart murmurs </li></ul><ul><li>are harmless and are just weird sounds </li></ul><ul><li>that the heart makes. Other times, however, </li></ul><ul><li>heart murmurs can be extremely serious and </li></ul><ul><li>need to be checked out more thoroughly for a deeper analysis. </li></ul>
Rheumatic Heart Disease <ul><li>Rheumatic heart disease is a problem </li></ul><ul><li>associated with heart damage from </li></ul><ul><li>rheumatic flu. It can be diagnosed by </li></ul><ul><li>a fever and/or rash along with </li></ul><ul><li>chest pains or heartburn. </li></ul><ul><li>This is usually due to a problem with the </li></ul><ul><li>valves in your heart not being able </li></ul><ul><li>to close properly which leads to blood </li></ul><ul><li>spilling out into the wrong parts of the heart. In extreme cases, </li></ul><ul><li>rheumatic heart disease can lead to heart failure so if you even suspect it (if you notice these symptoms after experiencing rheumatic fever) then go to the doctor’s office or hospital as soon as possible. </li></ul>
Pulmonary Heart Disease <ul><li>Pulmonary heart disease is caused by </li></ul><ul><li>an abnormal pressure on the lungs due </li></ul><ul><li>to an improper flow of blood to that </li></ul><ul><li>region. A diagnosis can be reached </li></ul><ul><li>if you notice you frequently have </li></ul><ul><li>shortness of breath, chest pain or faint on occasion. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have been diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension, </li></ul><ul><li>cystic fibrosis or advanced emphysema and are now experiencing these symptoms, you may have pulmonary heart disease. There’s nothing you can really do personally to correct pulmonary heart disease as its an actual hardware problem with your body. </li></ul>