Bio report

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Bio report

  1. 1. Goodafternoon!!Please listen and Cooperate 
  2. 2. Rules: No talking while the reportersare talking in front Ask questions at the end of thereport Listen very carefully becausenot all the needed informationsare on the provided handouts
  3. 3. Objectives to be able to know the functions of the circulatory system to be able to determine and describe the parts of the Circulatory system
  4. 4. Thecirculatory system
  5. 5. The Circulatory System•The circulatory system is an organ system thatpasses nutrients (such as amino acids, electrolytesand lymph), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. toand from cells in the body to help fight diseases andhelp stabilize body temperature and pH to maintainhomeostasis.•The human circulatory system has three main parts:• (1) the heart•(2) the blood vessels•(3) the blood•A watery fluid called lymph, and the vessels thatcarry it, are sometimes considered a part of thecirculatory system
  6. 6. Parts and functionsof the circulatory system
  7. 7. Heart
  8. 8. Heart The heart is a muscular organ a little larger than your fist weighing between 7 and 15 ounces (200 to 425 grams). It is responsible for pumping blood through the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions
  9. 9. •The heart is a two sided, fourchambered pump. It is made upmostly of muscle. Heart muscleor cardiac muscle is very special.Unlike all the other muscles inthe body, the cardiac musclecannot afford to get tired.Cardiac muscle is alwaysexpanding andcontracting, usually at between60 and 100 beats per minute.
  10. 10. The heart consists of the following parts:•Aorta: It is the largest artery and carriesoxygenated blood from the heart to the restof the body.•Superior Vena Cava: Deoxygenatedblood from the upper parts of the bodyreturns to the heart through the superiorvena cava.•Inferior Vena Cava: Deoxygenatedblood from the lower parts of the bodyreturns to the heart through the inferiorvena cava.•Pulmonary Veins: They carryoxygenated blood from the lungs back to theheart.
  11. 11. •Pulmonary Arteries: They carry blood fromthe heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen.•Right Atrium: It collects deoxygenated bloodreturning from the body (through the vena cavas)and then forces it into the right ventricle throughthe tricuspid valve.•Right Ventricle: It collects deoxygenatedblood from the right atrium and then forces itinto the lungs through the pulmonary valve.•Left Atrium: It collects oxygenated bloodreturning from the lungs and then forces it intothe left ventricle through the mitral valve.•Left Ventricle: It is the largest and thestrongest chamber in the heart. It pushes bloodthrough the aortic valve and into the body.
  12. 12. Blood vessels
  13. 13. Blood Vessels-Blood vessels are an integral part of thecirculatory system. These componentsassist in the transportation of bloodwithin the body, often in and out of theheart. There are three basic types ofblood vessels: the capillaries, whichexchange water and chemicals betweenthe blood and tissues; the arteries, whichcarry blood away from the beating heartand the veins, which transport bloodfrom the capillaries to the heart, thusenabling the heart to continue beating.
  14. 14. blood
  15. 15. Blood-The blood consists chiefly of aliquid called plasma and threekinds of solid particles knownas formed elements. Plasma ismade up mostly of water, but italso contains proteins,minerals, and othersubstances.
  16. 16. Blood is the fluid of life,transporting oxygen from thelungs to body tissue and carbondioxide from body tissue to thelungs. Blood is the fluid of growth,transporting nourishment fromdigestion and hormones fromglands throughout the body. Bloodis the fluid of health, transportingdisease fighting substances to thetissue and waste to the kidneys.
  17. 17. blood types
  18. 18. There are four differentblood types. These are:•Type A•Type B•Type AB•Type O
  19. 19. A person with type A blood candonate blood to a person withtype A or type AB. A personwith type B blood can donateblood to a person with type B ortype AB. A person with type ABblood can donate blood to aperson with type AB only. Aperson with type O blood candonate to anyone.
  20. 20. The three types of formed elements in Blood
  21. 21. Red Blood Cells(RBC orerythrocytes)
  22. 22. Red blood cells perform themost important blood duty. Asingle drop of blood containsmillions of red blood cellswhich are constantly travelingthrough your body deliveringoxygen and removing waste. Ifthey werent, your body wouldslowly die.
  23. 23. White BloodCells (WBC orLeukocytes)
  24. 24. The white blood cells arecontinually on the lookout forsigns of disease. When a germdoes appear, the white blood cellshave a variety of ways by whichthey can attack. Some will produceprotective antibodies that willoverpower the germ. Others willsurround and devour the bacteria.
  25. 25. Platelets(Thrombocytes)
  26. 26. Platelets are irregularly-shaped, colorless bodies that arepresent in blood. Their stickysurface lets them, along withother substances, form clots tostop bleeding. When bleedingfrom a wound suddenlyoccurs, the platelets gather atthe wound and attempt to blockthe blood flow.
  27. 27. Circulations
  28. 28. The bodys circulatory system reallyhas three distinct parts:  PULMONARY CIRCULATION  SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION  CORONARY CIRCULATION
  29. 29. • PULMONARY CIRCULATION - is the movement of blood from the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart again.• SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION - supplies nourishment to all of the tissue located throughout your body, with the exception of the heart and lungs because they have their own systems.• CORONARY CIRCULATION - refers to the movement of blood through the tissues of the heart.
  30. 30. PULMONARY CIRCULATION
  31. 31. PULMONARY CIRCULATION• Deoxygenated blood goes back to the heart, entering the right atrium throughout vena cavae.• The right atrium pushes the blood through a one-way valve into the right ventricle which pushes the blood into the pulmonary artery which leads to the lungs. Exchange of gases happens in lungs.• Oxygenated blood passes through a one- way valve into the left ventricle where it will exit through aorta and continue its journey throughout the body.
  32. 32. SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION
  33. 33. SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION• Oxygenated blood enters blood vessels through aorta. The contraction of left ventricle forces the blood into the aorta which the branches into smaller arteries which run throughout the body.• The oxygenated blood then enters the capillaries. The waste products are collected and the deoxygenated blood flows into the veins in order to circulate back to the heart.
  34. 34. CIRCULATION PROCESS
  35. 35. OXYGENATED BLOOD ENTERS THE ARTERIES AND CONTINUES TO TRAVEL THROUGH SMALLERARTERIES AND ARTERIOLES UNTIL IT REACHES THE CAPILLARIES DEOXYGENATED BLOOD FROM THE CAPILLARIESENTERS THE VENULES THEN TRAVELS TO THE VEINS UNTIL IT REACHES THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE HEART BLOOD FLOWS THROUGH ARTERIES TO THE LUNGS,WHERE IT BECOMES OXYGENATED AGAIN.
  36. 36. ComparisonBetween humans and animals
  37. 37. VERTEBRATE HEART•Fish • Two-chambered heart • 1 atrium • 1 ventricle•Amphibian • Three-chambered heart • 2 atrium • 1 ventricle
  38. 38. • Fish Heart
  39. 39. • Amphibian’s Heart
  40. 40. • Reptiles • Four-chambered heart but, the dividing wall(septum) of the ventricles are incomplete • 2 atrium • 2 ventricles• Birds and Mammals • Four-chambered heart • 2 atrium • 2 ventricles
  41. 41. • Reptile’s Heart
  42. 42. • Mammalian Heart
  43. 43. heartbeat
  44. 44. HEARTBEAT• The heart beats in a rhythmic manner, endlessly and without rest during the entire life of a person. Contraction of the walls of the atria pushes blood to the ventricles. Contraction of the ventricles pushes blood out of the heart and into the arteries.
  45. 45. 5 Major Stages of Cardiac Cycle• Early Diastole  Semilunar (SL) valves are closed  Atrioventricular (AV) Valves are open  Whole heart is relaxed• Atrial Systole  Atrium Contracts  AV Valves open  Blood flows from atrium to ventricles
  46. 46. • Isovolumic Ventricular Contraction  Ventricles begin to contract  AV an semilunar valves are closed• Ventricular Ejection  Ventricles are empty and contracting  SL Valves are open• Isovolumic Ventricular Relaxation  No blood enters the ventricles  Ventricles stop contracting and begins to relax  SL Valves are closed
  47. 47. CirculatorySystem:Problems andDiseases
  48. 48. There are two types ofcirculatory systemproblems, namely,congenital (present atbirth) and acquired(developed after birth).
  49. 49. AorticAneurysm
  50. 50. Aortic aneurysm is bulging in thewall of the aorta, the largest artery ofthe body. Aortic aneurysm is due toaortic dissection (tear in the aorticwall) or defect in the aortic wall. Arupture of the bulging may causeheavy bleeding or hemorrhage.Aortic aneurysm can be developed asa complication of certain otherdiseases such as obesity,atherosclerosis and high bloodpressure.
  51. 51. Angina
  52. 52. Angina is pain or discomfort inthe chest area, due to blockagein the blood vessels leading tothe heart. The symptoms ofangina are observed when thereis insufficient supply of oxygenand blood to the heart. Chestpain may last for about 10minutes.
  53. 53. Arrhythmia
  54. 54. Arrhythmia is a heartproblem, characterized byirregularity in the heart rhythm.Symptoms may vary from veryslow to fast heart rhythm.Arrhythmia can be a congenitalor an acquired problem. In caseof acquired arrhythmia, it canoccur at any stage of life.
  55. 55. Atherosclerosis
  56. 56. Atherosclerosis is hardening ofthe arterial wall (usually mediumand large arteries) due toformation of plaque or atheroma.The plaque may be composed ofcholesterol, calcium and fattydeposits. Atherosclerosis mayhamper the blood circulation orat times, it can even stop theblood flow. A person sufferingfrom this problem experiencessharp pain in the affected area.
  57. 57. High Blood Pressure
  58. 58. High blood pressure orhypertension is acondition, when the systolicpressure exceeds 140 mmHgand diastolic pressure exceeds90 mmHg. It is mostly causeddue to hereditary reasons orunhealthy lifestyle habits suchas heavy drinking andsmoking.
  59. 59. Thank You foryour Cooperation!!  Renz Carmelo Ibay Fatima Nurmie Ninting Allan Christopher Vega Claire TalicticAny Questions?

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