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  1. 1. Atlanta, November 18 Transparency in theArabworld HowjournalistsfromEgypt and the UAE deal withinstrumentscreatingjournalistictransparencyAndreas StraeterDepartment of JournalismDortmund University of Technology
  2. 2. Agenda Transparency in theArabworldS transparency in general and in journalismS transparencyinstrumentrsS researchdesignS resultsS literatureS further links
  3. 3. Whatistransparency (in general)? „ (...) availability of information and as a disclosure of it (...)“ (Craft/Heim 2009: 219) „ (...) the accessibility of information tostakeholders of institutions, regarding matters that effect their interests (...)“ (Tapscott/Ticoll 2003: 22) „Secrecy means deliberately hiding your actions, transparency means deliberately revealing them” (Florini 2002: 14) S
  4. 4. TransparencyS In all disciplines, transparency has taken up a high place value: politics economics consumerism journalism financial world …S engines: globalization, Internet, first generation of digital nativesS Transparency as a business selling argumentS Transparency creates accountability and reliance (in all areas)
  5. 5. Transparency in journalism journalism-internal journalism-externalS Transparency, which is created S Media journalism by journalists themselves S Information on the editorial S academic research department and its general S blogs framework S Information on journalistic S online comments work processes and sources S Information on editorial S Media criticism in Social Networks decision processes S …
  6. 6. Transparency InstrumentsS Simple transparency- S Innovative transparency- instruments instruments S byline, Information on the S Internet transfers of editorial authors background conferences („open newsroom“) S editorial blogs S Publishing guidelines and codes of ethics S media journalism (as a department) S deep links S error section, mistake button S direct accessibility of S ombudsmen, „reader lawyer“ authors S cyber/ombudsmen S social media connections S participation of the reader in the S possibility to comment process of investigation S … S making the process of news decision public S …
  7. 7. • Country recruitment: Research design •Empirical survey instrument: semi-structured qualitative interview guides •Sampling: twelve journalists and media professionals have been interviewed at spot, between November 2011 and May 2012 •Survey form: interviews Face-to- Face or via telephone and skype •Key question: How doUAE versus journalists deal with instruments creating journalistic transparency?Egypt (four Hypotheses)
  8. 8. Results „I thinkthatArab media has learnt a lot of lessonsfromtheArab Spring.“ Journalist, Al Arabiya (Dubai)S Initial signs suggest that both, Emirati and Egyptian media, have drawn first findings from the political and social upheavels of the „Arab Spring“. S People want their voices to be heart, so they want to comment media content and they want to have content as transparent as possible S Media in both countries, they allow comments and create openness S In a digital world, it seems almost impossible to supressdiscussions, but there are no or very few innovative instruments to be found
  9. 9. Results „TV, thereyoucanactuallyseemuch more of theold, crustystrutures. Thisismore a one-way-communication.“ TV-Journalist, KairoS Print media is more transparent than TV and broadcasting outlets. S General statement is hard to find in this context, each medium should be analyzed on its own in terms of transparency S But: media have to be transparent to stay within the market
  10. 10. Results „Theyarenotusingthesetoolswiththeirfullpotencial s and onlyusingthem (...) as window-dressing.“ Media Professional.Egypt Media DevelopmentProgram, KairoS Social media tools and connections have a slightly illusionary show-effect S In some cases, they were only installed because of marketing and business reasons stabilizing the media brand S Social media tools tend to contribute to transparency by its very nature, although this is not intended
  11. 11. Results „Of course, because, whatyouhide, isgoing to bethere.“ „People want to havecommunication, so they start to communicate.“ Journalist, Al-Ahkbar, KairoS Theflap-up of transparencycanbeseen in thepoliticalcontext of theimpact of the „Arab Spring“ S People want to theirvoices to beheart – even in a supressivesphere S Journaliststry to transparent as theycan
  12. 12. Literature I• Ayish, Muhammad I. (2009): Das Mediensystem der Golfstaaten Bahrein, Katar, Kuwait, Saudi-Arabien und der Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate. In: Internationales Handbuch Medien. Hans-Bredow-Institut. Baden-Baden.• Bardoel, Jo / D’Haenens, Leen (2004): Media responsibility and accountability: New conceptualizations and practices. In: Communications 29, pp. 5-25.• Craft, Stephanie / Heim, Kyle (2009): Transparency in Journalism. Meaning, Merits, and Risks. In. Wilkins, Lee / Clifford, G. (eds): TheHandbook of Mass Media Ethics. New York, London.• El Gody, Ahmed (2009): Das Mediensystem in Ägypten. In: Internationales Handbuch Medien. Hans-Bredow-Institut. Baden- Baden.• Florini, Ann (2002): The End of Secrecy. In: Finel, Bertrand I. / Lord, Kristin M.: Power and Conflict in the Age of Transparency. New York.
  13. 13. Literature II• Bettels, Tina / Fengler, Susanne / Sträter, Andreas / Trilling Mariella (2011): Mogelpackung im WWW. Wie europäische Medien ihr Publikum online an redaktionellen Prozessen teilhaben lassen – Ergebnisse einer international vergleichenden Studie. Dortmund.• Fengler, Susanne (2011):FromSelf-Regulation to Crowd-Criticism: Media Accountability in the Digital Age. Im Review-Verfahren Central European Journal of Communication. Dortmund.• Meier, Klaus / Reimer, Julius (2011): Transparenz im Journalismus. Instrumente, Konfliktpotenziale, Wirkung. In: Publizistik. Wiesbaden.• Seib, Philip (Hrsg.) (2007a): New Media and the New Middle East. New York [u.a.].• Tapscott, Don / Ticoll, David (2003): TheNakedCooperation. Howthe Age of Transparency Will Revolutionize Business. Toronto.• Zweiri, Mahjoob / Murphy, Emma C. (Hrsg.) (2011):The New Arab Media. Technology, Image and Perception. Bodmin / Kings Lynn.
  14. 14. ContactS Andreas StraeterS Dortmund University of Technology, GermanyS Department of JournalismS Contact me:S andreas.straeter@uni-dortmund.deS My work: www.andreasstraeter.deS ++49 160 98654815