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Copernicus theory


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Copernicus theory

  1. 1. COPERNICUS THEORY By: Marcos Arellano, Alberto Torres and Jesús Baos
  2. 2. COPERNICUS LIFE • Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a heliocentric model of the universe which placed the Sun, rather than the Earth, at the center. • Copernicus was born in a merchant rich family on the 19 February 1473, but at the age of 10 he became an orphan and his maternal uncle took care of him, which was a priest of Frauenberg cathedral and then bishop of Warmia • In 1491 Copernicus entered in the Cracovia University, following the indications of his uncle and tutor.
  3. 3. • In 1496 he went to Italy to complete his formation in Bologna, where he did canon law and receive influence from the italian humanism ; which revived the study of the classics, Greece and Rome, and which influence Copernicus on his later astronomic works. • However there is no proofs that show that he was interested on astronomy then. • After studying medicine in Padua Copernicus doctorate on canon law by the Ferrara University in 1503. • That same year he returned to his country, where he had been granted a sinacure thanks to the influence of his uncle, and he joined the episcopal court in the Lidzbark Castle, acting as their trusted advisor. • When this bishop died in 1512, Copernicus took up residence in Frauenburg and devoted himself to the administration of the property of the council for the rest of his days, always kept empleoeclesiastic canon, but without reciving holy orders.
  4. 4. • He became interested in economic theory, and in particular studied monetary reform, a subject on which he published a treatise in 1528. • Meantime he practised medicine, and cultivated his humanistic interests. Copernicus´ maternal uncle, Lucas Watzenrode the Younger • Around 1507, Copernicus developed his first exhibition of a heliocentric system of astronomy in which the Earth orbited the Sun, as opposed to the traditional Ptolemaic system, in which the movements of all celestial bodies had centered our planet.
  5. 5. • A limited number of handwritten copies of the scheme circulated among scholars of astronomy, and because of that Copernicus began to be considered a notable astronomer, however, his research is mainly based on the study of texts and data provided by their predecessors, as they hardly exceed fifty observations on record who performed throughout his life. • In 1513 Copernicus was invited to participate in the reform of the Julian calendar in 1533 and his teachings were exposed to Pope Clement VII by his secretary, in 1536, Cardinal Schönberg wrote to Copernicus from Rome urging him to make public their findings. • By then, he had completed writing his great work, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, an astronomical treatise that defended the heliocentric hypothesis .
  6. 6. Thorvaldsen´s Copernicus Monument in Warsaw Nicolaus Copernicus Monument in Krakow Collegium Magius, Krakow
  7. 7. • The text was structured according to the formal model of the Almagest of Ptolemy , which retained the traditional idea of ​a finite universe , spherical , and the principle that the circular movements were the only suitable to the nature of the heavenly bodies , but contained a series of theses that were in contradiction with the old conception of the universe , whose center , for Copernicus ceased to be coincident with the Earth , nor exist in your system, a single common center of all the celestial motions . • Finally he died on 24 May 1543.
  8. 8. Claudius Ptolemy • Claudius Ptolemy who was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer and geographer of Alexandria. • He was born in 90 A.D and died in 168 A.D. • He theorized the Ptolemaic model or also known as geocentric model.
  9. 9. Ptolemaic model or geocentric model • Was a refinement of previous models developed by Greek astronomers. • Ptolemy´s model could so accurately explain the motions of heavenly bodies, it became the model for understanding the structure of the solar system. • It is beyond the scope of this course to discuss all the complex social and historical implications of an Earth-centered versus a Sun-centered model of the solar system.
  10. 10. Continuation (ptolemaic model) • But nearly all the early models, including Ptolemy’s version of the solar system, assumed that the Earth was the center of not only the solar system, but the entire universe. • Ptolemaic model accounted for the apparent motions of the planets in a very direct way, by assuming that each planet moved on a small sphere or circle, called an epicycle, that moved on a larger sphere or circle, called a deferent.
  11. 11. • The stars, it was assumed, moved on a celestial sphere around the outside of the planetary spheres.
  12. 12. The heliocentric model is a theory that places the Sun as the center of the universe, and the planets orbiting around it. The heliocentric model replaced geocentrism, which is the belief that the Earth is the center of the universe. The geocentric model was the prevailing theory in Ancient Greece, throughout Europe, and other parts of the world for centuries. It was not until the 16th century that the heliocentric model began to gain popularity because technology progressed enough to gain more evidence in its favor. Although heliocentrism did not gain popularity until the 1500′s, the idea had existed for centuries throughout the world. Heliocentrism
  13. 13. In the 16th century, the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus devised his version of the heliocentric model. Like other before him, Copernicus built on Atistarchus’ work, mentioning the Greek astronomer in his notes. Copernicus’ theory became so well known that when most people discuss the heliocentric theory today, they are referring to Copernicus’ model. Copernicus published his theory in his book On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies. Copernicus placed the Earth as the third planet from the Sun, and in his model, the Moon orbits the Earth not the Sun. Copernicus also hypothesized that the stars do not orbit the Earth; the Earth rotates, which makes the stars look like they have moved in the sky. Through the use of geometry, he was able to turn the heliocentric model from a philosophical hypothesis to a theory that did a very good job predicting the movement of the planets and other celestial bodies.
  14. 14. One problem facing the heliocentric model was that the Roman Catholic Church, a very powerful organization in Copernicus’ time, considered it heretical. This may have been one of the reasons why Copernicus did not publish his theory until he was on his deathbed. After Copernicus died, the Roman Catholic Church worked even harder to suppress the heliocentric view. The Church arrested Galileo for promoting the heretical heliocentric model and kept him in house arrest for the last eight years of his life. Around the same time that Galileo created his telescope, the astronomer Johannes Kepler was refining the heliocentric model and trying to prove it with calculations.