• Georgia has rich and still vibrant traditional music, which is primarily known as arguably the earliest polyphonic tradition of the Christian world. Georgian performers are well represented in World’s
Folk Music• Folk music of Georgia consists of fifteen regional styles, known in Georgian musicology and ethnomusicology as "musical dialects". According to Edisher Garaqanidze, there are sixteen regional styles in Georgia. These sixteen regions are
Traditional vocal polyphony• Georgian folk music is predominantly vocal and is widely known for its rich traditions of vocal polyphony. It is widely accepted in contemporary musicology, that polyphony in Georgian music predates the introduction of Christianity in Georgia (beginning of the 4th century AD. All regional styles of Georgian music have traditions of vocal acappella polyphony, although in the most southern regions (Meskheti and Lazeti) only historical sources provide the information about the presence of vocal polyphony until the 20th century.• Both east and west Georgian polyphony is based
Social setting• Singing is mostly a community activity in Georgia, and during big celebrations• all the community is expected to participate in singing. The tradition of "trio" (three singers only) is very popular in western Georgia, particularly in Guria.• Georgian folk songs are often centered around banquet-like feasts called supra, where songs and toasts to God, peace, motherland, long life, love, friendship and other topics are proposed.
• Traditional feast songs include "Zamtari" (“Winter”) , which is about the transient nature of life and is sung to commemorate ancestors, and great number of "Mravalzhamier" songs Work songs are widespread in all regions. The orovela, for example is a specific solo work song found in eastern Georgia only. Extremely complex three and four part working song naduri is characteristic for western Georgia. There are great number of healing songs, funerary ritual songs, wedding songs, love songs, dance songs, lullabies, traveling songs. Many archaic songs are connected to round dances.
Performance practices• Georgian vocal polyphony was maintained for centuries and millennia by village singers, mostly local farmers. Despite the poor technical quality of the old recordings, they often serve as the model of high mastery of the performance of Georgian traditional songs for contemporary ensembles. During the Soviet period folk music was
• From the 1970s Georgian folk music was introduced to a wider audience in different countries of the World. Ensembles Rustavi and later Georgian Voices were particularly active in presenting rich polyphony of various regions of Georgia to western audiences. Georgian Voices performed alongside Billy Joel, Rustavi Choir was featured on the soundtrack to Coen Brothers film, The Big Lebowski . During the end of the 1960s and the 1970s an innovative pop-ensemble
Study of Georgian folk music• Th e 1861 a r t i c l e b y J a m b a k u r - Or b e l i a n i a n d 1864 a r t i c l e b y Ma c h a b e l i a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e f i r s t p u b l i s h e d w o r k s w h e r e s o me a s p e c t o f Ge o r g i a n f o l k mu s i c we r e d i s c u s s e d .• Di mi t r i A r a k i s h v i l i a n d Za k a r i a Pa l i a s h v i l i a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e mo s t i n f l u e n t i a l f i g u r e s o f s t u d y o f Ge o r g i a n f o l k mu s i c . Ar a k i s h v i l i p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l s t a n d a r d b o o k s a n d a r t i c l e s o n Ge o r g i a n s i n g i n g
• Hi s t o r i a n I v a n e J a v a k h i s h v i l i p u b l i s h e d a n i n f l u e n t i a l wo r k o n t h e h i s t o r y o f Ge o r g i a n mu s i c , wh i c h i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e mo s t c o mp r e h e n s i v e wo r k o n h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s o n Ge o r g i a n mu s i c . O t a r Ch i j a v a d z e , Va l e r i a n Ma g r a d z e , Ka k h i Ro s e b a s h v i l i , Mi n d i a J o r d a n i a , Ku k u r i Ch o k h o n e l i d z e we r e t h e f i r s t Ge o r g i a n s c h o l a r s t h a t we r e e d u c a t e d i n
• I n t h e 21s t c e n t u r y Ge o r g i a h a s b e c o me o n e o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c e n t r e s o f t h e s t u d y o f t h e p h e n o me n o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l p o l y p h o n y . I n 2003 t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Re s e a r c h Ce n t r e f o r Tr a d i t i o n a l Po l y p h o n y wa s e s t a b l i s h e d (d i r e c t o r
Traditional musical instruments• Rich variety of musical instruments are known fromGeorgia.• SoinariGeorgian panpipe• Stviri flute• Gudastviribagpipe• Sting instruments changiharp• Chongurifour stringed unfretted long neck lute• Pandurithree stringed fretted long neck lute• Dimitri Arakishvili and particularly MananaShikaladze contributed to the study of musicalinstrument in Georgia
• Wind instruments: larchemi- soinari, salamuri, pilili, gudastviri and stviri• Brass wind instruments: sankeri• String instruments: panduri, chonguri, chunir, chianuri and changi• Percussion instruments: doli, daira and diplipito• Chuniriused to describe two types of three- stringed bowed musical instruments: a bottle-shaped lute and a pear-shaped bowl lyre• Chibonidroneless, double-chantered, horn-belled bagpipe• ChangiTurkish harp• Panduria medium or long-necked lute with a small resonating chamber.
• Chonguria plucked string musical instrument• Salamurichromatic end-blown flute• Dudukia traditional woodwind instrument indigenous to Armenia• Dolidrum• Dairamedium-sized frame drum• Tsintsilaancient Georgian percussion instrument that represents a couple of oval plates with handholds.• Gudastviria musical instrument, a form of bagpipe• Zurnaa multinational outdoor wind instrument