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Hybrid seed production okra


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Hybrid seed production okra

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. Submitted To : Dr. B.R. Patel Research Scientist Department of Biotechnology A.A.U. ,Anand - Gujarat Submitted By: Sangram Singh Ph.D. SST Reg No.-04-2188-2013 Dept. of GPB , A.A.U. ,Anand - Gujarat
  3. 3.  Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) is commonly known as‘bhendi’ or lady’s finger in India. It is the choicest fruit vegetable grown extensively in the tropical, subtropical and warm area of the temperate zones of the world.  It’s native of tropical Africa, it is widely cultivated in India. Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra, and Gujarat are important okra producing states.  In India, it is grown in an area of 0.36 million hectares with annual production of 3.5 million tonnes and productivity of 9.72 tonnes per hectare.  Okra belongs to family Malvaceae with 2n=8x=72 or 144 chromosomes and is polyploidy in nature.  There are 30 species under genus Abelmoschus in the old world and four in the new world. Out of them Abelmoschus esculentus is the only species known to be cultivated extensively. It is self pollinated crop, occurrence of out crossing to an extent of 20 per cent by insects has made an often cross-pollinated crop, which renders considerable genetic diversity.
  4. 4.  The green tender fruits of okra are highly nutritious containing 66 mg of calcium and 0.2 mg of iodine for every 100 g of edible portion and fair amount of vitamins viz., A, B and C.  The most productive and desirable hybrid seed obtained from the female parent when there is a perfect coincidence of stigma receptiveness and pollen viability.  Obviously, time of pollination plays a crucial role in hybrid seed production of bhendi. Since bhendi is a mainly often cross pollinated crop, pollination is done usually on the day of flower opening itself and can be continued till noon hours, though peak anthesis is seen at 8.30am to 10.30 am.  But success rate of pollination varies from 30 to 50 per cent in bhendi hybrid seed production since transfer of male pollens to the female flowers during crossing period is the most sensitive aspect in large scale production.
  5. 5.  The viable pollens deposited early on stigma may lead to poor seed setting due to non receptive stigma and similar is the case if pollens are deposited very late on stigma due to drying of stigma and loss of pollen viability.  In addition to this, the amount of F1 hybrid seed is also decided by the quantity of the male pollens depositing on the receptive stigma of the female parent.  In case, if more pollens are deposited on the stigma, there may be more chances of poor seed setting due to competition between germinating pollens. Similar is the case with deposition of inadequate viable pollens. The quantity of pollens depositing on stigma can be manipulated by adjusting the crossing ratio of female to male flower.  Therefore, time of pollination and ratio between female to male flower crossing is to be optimized to get increased seed set and yield in female parent of bhendi. However, research work pertaining to time of pollination and crossing ratio between male and female flowers is very meagre and inconclusive.
  6. 6.  Land requirement : Select field on which bhendi crop was not grown in the previous season, unless the crop was of the same variety and certified. Field should be free from wild bhendi (Abelmoschus sp.) The land was brought to the fine tilth by ploughing with mould board plough and repeated blade harrowing after the harvest of previous crops. The plots were laid out by fixing wooden pegs at all corners of the plots.  Isolation requirement: Okra is self and cross pollinated crop. The extent of natural cross pollination varies from 4-19 %. The seed fields must be isolated from fields of other varieties and fields of same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements of certification and from wild Abelmoschus species by at least 400 and 200 m for foundation and certified seed production respectively. Cultural practices
  7. 7.  Sowing time : the crop can be grown round the year but care should be taken that harvesting does not coincide with heavy rains. Further rabi sown crop is heavily infested by insects and pests. Hence, early kharif sown crop or summer sown crop is good for seed production.  Method of sowing: sowing should be done in rows by following a spacing of 60 x 30-45cm for kharif season and 45 x 30 cm for summer season.  Seed rate : Varieties : 8-10 kg/ha Hybrids : 8 kg/ha (Female) 4 kg/ha (Male)  Planting ratio: For hybrid seed production, female and male parents are normally planted in the ratio of 8:1in Block system.  Thinning: The thinning operation was carried out by removing weak and diseased plants and maintaining only one healthy and vigorous seedling per hill.
  8. 8.  Weeding and inter cultivation: Four hand weeding (at 30, 45, 60 and 75 DAS) were carried out during the crop growth period. Inter cultivation with entire blade hoes were carried out at an interval of 15 days starting from 20 to 30 days after sowing. The earthing up was done manually at 30 days after sowing.  Manuring: Apply 12.5 tons of FYM/ha before ploughing. Apply 150:75:75 kg NPK/ha, of which 50% of the N should be applied as top dressing in two split doses at flowering and 10 days later.  Roguing: Minimum of three inspections for varieties and 4 inspections for hybrids, one at vegetative, two at flowering and one at fruit maturity stages. The rouging should be based on the plant characters, hairiness, fruit character like fruit colour, number of ridges, fruit length etc., and the off type and mosaic attacked plants should be removed from the seed field. Wild bhendi if present should be removed before flowering.
  9. 9.  Irrigation The protective irrigations of 5-6 were given during the experimental period depending upon the weather condition.  Plant protection measures To control the pest and diseases necessary plant protection measures were taken as and when required.  Pest and disease management: The major pest attacking bhendi are jassids, aphids and white fly, which can be controlled by spraying Rogar or Dimecron or Endosulphon. The pod borer and red spider mites can be controlled by spraying Endosulphon and Kelthane, respectively. The diseases such as yellow vein mosaic and powdery mildew can be controlled by spraying systemic insecticides and Karathane, respectively.  Field Inspection : A minimum of three inspections shall be made, the first before flowering, the second during peak flowering and fruiting stage and the third at mature fruit stage and prior to harvesting
  10. 10.  Harvesting: Fruits should be harvested when they have dried (30-35 days after crossing). The pods which expose hairline crack and turn to brown colour on drying alone are cut using sickle manually.  Threshing: The pods are dried and threshed using pliable sticks. Separated seeds are winnowed to remove plant debris and dried over a tarpaulin to 10% moisture content. Dried seeds are subject to water floatation in which, good seeds sink while poor seeds float. The floaters are removed, while sinkers are dried under shade followed by sun drying. Then the seed are cleaned, dried and treated with Captan/ Thiram.  Processing: Seeds are to be processed with BSS 7 wire mesh sieve.  Seed Yield: 1000-1200 Kg/ha
  11. 11. INSECT/PESTS OF OKRA i) Shoot and fruit bore: (Earias sp) ii) Fruit Borer: (Helicoverpa armigera)
  12. 12. iii) Sucking Pests Jassids: (Amrasca biguttula biguttula) Whiteflies: Bemisia tabaci Green peach aphid: Myzus persicae
  13. 13. Ants iv) Red Spider Mites v) Root-knot nematodes
  14. 14. MAJOR DISEASES OF OKRA Okra Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) Causative agent: Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus Cercospora Leaf Spot Causative agent: Cercospora abelmoschi, C. Malayensis, C. hibisci Soucre: Soucre:
  15. 15. Fusarium Wilt Causative agent: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum Powdery Mildew Causative agent: Erysiphe cichoracearum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea Root-decaying disease Enation Leaf Curl of Bhendi Damping Off Causative agent: Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp.
  16. 16. Method of seed production  Seed to seed Breeder seed Foundation seed Certified seed Stages of seed production
  17. 17. Distance between male and female: 5 metres
  18. 18. Morphogenetic Charecters of bhendi hybrid parents
  19. 19.  Materials required for emasculation and pollination For emasculation of flower bud, forceps and needles are required, while plastic container, pollen ring, scissors and brush are needed for pollen extraction from anthers and for pollination work.  Hand emasculation The removal of androecium (stamens) from bisexual flower is called as emasculation. The buds opened next day, were selected in female parent and emasculation was carried out by removing the androecium along with the corolla. These emasculated buds were covered with butter paper pockets to avoid cross pollination and also for easy identification of emasculated flower for pollination. The emasculation was carried out daily from 2-00 to 6-00 pm (Plate 3). Care was also taken to remove the unemasculated flowers as per treatment and during emasculation to avoid genetic contamination in the crossed ones. Hand emasculation and Hand pollination
  20. 20. The transfer of pollen from male parent to female parent is called as pollination. The just opened flowers were picked from the male parent in a separate brown paper pockets and used for crossing of emasculated flowers. One male flower was used to pollinate four, six, eight and ten female emasculated buds as par the treatments and after crossing different colour thread was tied to the pedicel of the crossed buds for easy identification of the crossed bud. Pollination was carried out daily between 8-00 am to 4-00 pm depending upon the treatments (Plate 4). The crossing was carried out for a period of eight weeks from the initiation of flowering. The buds and flowers that appeared subsequently after the stopping of crossing programme were manually removed to facilitate better development of the crossed fruits and to avoid the selfed seeds in the hybrid. Pollination
  21. 21.  Taja:- Taja offers fruits of exceptional quality with good yield. The first picking starts from 45 – 47 days after sowing and the fruits are slender,shiny dark green in colour. The fruits also keep well for 12-15 days. The hybrid is moderately tolerant to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus.  Nazuk:- Nazuk is a high yielding hybrid with moderate tolerance to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus. The first picking starts from 45-50 days and the fruits are tender, dark green, 12 – 14 cm long. Some okra hybrid variety
  22. 22.  Purna:- Purna is highly tolerant to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus(YVMV) disease. The hybrid is a high yielder with shorter internodes and produces long (13 cm), green, five ribbed fruits and is suitable for cultivation across the country.  Jaya:- Jaya is a high yielding, tall vigourous hybrid. The fruits are medium long green, tender with five ridges. It is tolerant to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus(YVMV) and can be grown all over India.  Subha:- An early high yielding hybrid, with tall plants, medium branching and narrow leaves. The first fruit matures in 38 – 40 days. The fruit are dark green, tender, of medium girth, 18 – 20 cm in length, five ribbed, smooth and with good keeping quality. This hybrid is tolerant to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) disease.
  23. 23.  Arka Anamika:- A Government Notified Variety and is recommended for all India cultivation. The fruits are 15 – 20 cm long, lush green, cylindrical tapering with light reddish shades, coarse surface with 5 ridges. It is a good yielder.  Dhaanya Selection Saloni:- Saloni is a high yielding, moderately tolerant to yellow vein mosaic virus variety and is recommended for all India cultivation. The fruits are long, tender, and green with five ridges.  Hybrids:CO2 (AE 180XPUSASEWANI)CO3 (PRABHARIKRANTI X MDU1),Mahyco hybrid, Shoba and Prabhanikranti.  Varieties : Co.1, MDU.1, Parbhani Kranti, Arka Anamika, Pusa A-4, Pusa Sawani
  24. 24. A. General requirements B. Specific requirements Field Standards Sources: IMSCS
  25. 25. THANK YOU