Intent: Following IEP development, all those involved in implementation work together to develop a written action plan that provides detailed information about how the AT will be used in specific educational settings, what will be done, and who will do it.Key QuestionsHow can an AT implementation plan be developed collaboratively?Who, in addition to IEP team members, needs to participate in the development of the implementation plan in order to address all areas critical to the student’s progress?What additional information, if any, is needed to develop the AT implementation plan?What environments should be addressed in the plan?What needs to be done and who will be responsible?Who will review the success of the implementation plan?
Intent: Assistive technology is used when and where it is needed to facilitate the student’s access to, and mastery of, the curriculum. Assistive technology may facilitate active participation in educational activities, assessments, extracurricular activities, and typical routines.Key QuestionsIn what ways will the AT use relate to the course objectives, daily activities, and critical elements of the curriculum for this student?Is AT being used in the environments where tasks for which it is needed occur?Are additional tools or strategies needed?
Intent: All persons who work with the student know their roles and responsibilities, are able to support the student using assistive technology, and are expected to do so.Key questions for the teamHow will responsibilities be shared among team members?How will the implementation plan be made available to all team members?What strategies will the team members use to communicate success, challenges and the need for possible changes?How will each team member be held accountable for appropriately supporting the student?
Intent: When and where appropriate, students are encouraged to consider and use alternative strategies to remove barriers to participation or performance. Strategies may include the student’s natural abilities, use of assistive technology, other supports, or modifications to the curriculum, task or environment.Key questions for the teamWhat tools and strategies will be available for the student to use to overcome barriersHow will the environment be structured so that the student has opportunities to use a variety of strategies, including AT?How will the teacher encourage the student to use a variety of appropriate tools and strategies?How will the team determine which tools the student will use for specific tasks?How will the student be taught to choose an appropriate tool or strategy for a specific setting or activity? How will the student’s independence in tool selection and use be developed?
Intent: Determination of the training needs of the student, staff, and family is based on how the assistive technology will be used in each unique environment. Training and technical assistance are planned and implemented as ongoing processes based on current and changing needs.Key questions for the teamWho needs to be trained and how much training will they need?Who is the contact person to ensure that the training plan is completed?When/where will the training occur? What are the timelines for starting and completion?What will the training cover?How will follow-up and on-going training be addressed?How will effectiveness of the training be measured?
Intent: Formal and informal assessment data guide initial decision-making and planning for AT implementation. As the plan is carried out, student performance is monitored and implementation is adjusted in a timely manner to support student progress.Key questions for the teamWhat did the AT assessment data reveal about the student’s current performance on the identified task(s)?What kind of performance data will show whether the student’s use of AT is making the expected difference?Who will collect implementation data?When and how often should the data be reviewed and the plan adjusted?How will the implementation plan be adjusted in response to the data about the student’s performance?
Intent: For technology to be useful it is important that equipment management responsibilities are clearly defined and assigned. Though specifics may differ based on the technology, some general areas may include organization of equipment and materials; responsibility for acquisition, set-up, repair, and replacement in a timely fashion; and assurance that equipment is operationalKey questions for the TeamWho is the case manager or primary contact for management and maintenance of equipment?Who is responsible for ensuring that the AT is maintained? What is the contingency plan if a team member changes jobs or moves?Who will pay for needed materials such as batteries, ink cartridges and paper?What is the contingency plan if a device is damaged or lost?What system will be used for back-up when a device is unavailable?What additional information and resources are needed?
This involves collecting evidence of performance from baseline thru implementation.Strategies to collect data:Periodic Work samplesUtilize data collection features of software / apps
For many years – this was the only type of information we collected on our AT service delivery. Johnny liked this tool; it made him smile.Susie seems to not understand how to use this tool. As funding shrinks, the need to show data beyond the anecdotal is critical.Anecdotal evidence has several definitions, which usually relate to how certain types of evidence cannot be used to logically conclude something. We see examples of this type of evidence all the time in commercials. A person tells us how their breath feels fresher after using a certain brand of toothpaste, or people testify to the clearing of their acne as a result of special products. Anecdotal evidence is often used in place of clinical or scientific evidence, and may completely ignore research or harder evidence that points to an opposite conclusion.Types of anecdotal evidence include claiming non-factual information based on the experiences of a few people, stories that would seem to contradict factual information, and word of mouth recommendations. This type of information isn’t always poorly intended or untrue, and we base a lot of decisions on anecdotes. For instance, you might want to find the best dry cleaner in town and ask a few friends to recommend someone. You usually don’t have time to perform true scientific testing on this by looking at a range of data.
Education: Graded papers, projects, report cardsEmployment: annual reviews, projects, assignmentsCommunity living: level of independence with skills
Get some resources and post them to site!Data collection sheets
PDSA Model – Search the web for details about this plan – resource for citationWhat is it and how can it help me?You can use plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles to test an idea by temporarily trialing a change and assessing its impact. This approach is unusual in a healthcare setting because traditionally, new ideas are often introduced without sufficient testing. The four stages of the PDSA cycle:Plan - the change to be tested or implemented Do - carry out the test or change Study - data before and after the change and reflect on what was learned Act - plan the next change cycle or full implementationStage 1: PlanIdentify an opportunity, and plan for improvement.A) Assemble the TeamYou want to choose people who have knowledge about the problem or opportunity for improvement.It's important to consider the strengths that each team member is bringing to the table. You really don't want prisoners on your team--you want champions, or people who want to be there. Having engaged members will increase productivity by 70% (Source: Passionwerx: Workforce Engagement Solutions). Once team members are selected, identify roles and responsibilities, set a time line, and establish a regular meeting scheduleB) Create an Aim StatementAn aim statement should describe what you want to accomplish, and can change as the process proceeds; the focus of the aim statement can become more specific and will be modified as you learn. An aim statement isn't set in stone.The aim statement should answer those three fundamental questions: What are we trying to accomplish? How will we know that a change is an improvement? What change can we make that will result in improvement? C) Examine the Current ApproachExamine your current process or process flow. Start by asking the team these basic questions: What are we doing now? How do we do it? What are the major steps in the process? Who is involved? What do they do? What is done well? What could be done better? You might have already answered the last two questions if you have performed a SWOT Analysis. Creating a process flow or at least depicting the current process can be very useful. If your team runs into road blocks, you might have found where the problem is occurring--or maybe the right person for identifying a missing step is not at the table. Once the general structure is completed, these can be some more helpful questions to ask: How long does the process currently take? Is it efficient? Is there a variation of methods of completing the process? Are we doing the right steps in the right way? What is the cost? (Cost doesn't just include money, but could also include time or resources)Does someone else do this same process in a better way? Let's not re-create the wheel if we don't need to! Are we meeting our goals? This list of questions is by no means complete, but may be a good point at which your team starts. In the end, your team is trying to find the root cause of a problem, and might benefit from assessing the problem with a tool like a fishbone diagram. Once you find the root cause, reexamine your aim statement, and perhaps revise it based on the root cause and/or baseline information. D) Identify Potential SolutionsBe creative and innovative! If appropriate, spend some time reviewing models or best practices to help identify potential solutions.This is the area where using your internal and external customers and stakeholders becomes important. The team might have innovative ways to solve the problem. This process really is all about the discussion, so encourage all ideas. Narrow potential solutions to those within the team's control or influence. Again, ask three fundamental questions: What are we trying to accomplish? How will we know that a change is an Improvement? What changes can we make that will result in an improvement? If the Aim Statement needs to be refined further, make sure that a numerical measure is listed for the future target. When ready, choose the best solution--that is, the one most likely to fulfill your Aim Statement. E) Develop an Improvement TheoryStart with a hypothesis: What will the data show?What outcome are we looking for? Can we define the outcome we want?Try brainstorming with the statement: "If we do _____, then _____ will happen." Develop a approach to test the theory. The approach you choose should specify what will be tested and how. Ask yourself when the test will occur, and who needs to be involved. What risks could occur during the test, and how can we prevent them from occurring? Again, adjust the aim statement if appropriate. Stage 2: DoStart carrying out your plan:Test the theory for improvement Carry out the plan you've developed Collect, chart, and display data Document problems, unexpected observations, side effects Some tools that might be useful in this process: Check SheetsFlowchartsRun ChartsStage 3: StudyExamine your results: Use data to study results of the test Did the results match the theory/predictions? Are there trends? Unintended side effects? Is there an improvement? You might want to test the improvement under other conditions. You can use visual aids to interpret and understand the data you've collected. Some useful tools to accomplish this include: Pareto Charts: Examine problem frequency to determine places for most potential improvementControl Charts: Determine whether a problem is in a state of statistical controlRun Charts: Determine trends by displaying data over timeStage 4: ActContinue to examine and re-examine your process using the PDSA cycle, by standardizing the improvement or developing a new theory, and establishing future plans.Standardize the Improvement, or Develop a New TheoryIf your improvement was successful on a small scale, test it on a wider scale. Continue testing until an acceptable level of improvement is achieved Make plans to standardize the improvements If your change was not an improvement, develop a new theory and test it. Often, several cycles are needed to produce the desired improvementEstablish Future PlansCelebrate your success!Communicate your accomplishments to internal and external customers Take steps to preserve your gains and sustain your accomplishmentsMake long term plans for additional improvementsConduct iterative PDSA cycles when needed
Guiding Document AT Implementation1. Assistive technology implementation proceeds according to a collaboratively developed plan. Key Questions for the Team
Guiding Document AT Implementation2. Assistive technology is integrated into the curriculum and daily activities of the [PERSON] across environments. Key Questions for the Team
Guiding Document AT Implementation3. Persons supporting the [PERSON]across all environments in which the AT is expected to be used, share responsibility for implementation of the plan. Key Questions for the Team
Guiding Document AT Implementation4. Persons supporting the [PERSON] provide opportunities for the [PERSON] to use a variety of strategies-including assistive technology and learn which strategies are most effective for particular circumstances and tasks. Key Questions for the Team
Guiding Document AT Implementation5. Learning opportunities for the [PERSON], family and staff are an integral part of implementation. Key Questions for the Team
Guiding Document AT Implementation6. Assistive technology implementation is initially based on assessment data and is adjusted based on performance data. Key Questions for the Team
Guiding Document AT Implementation7. Assistive technology implementation includes management and maintenance of equipment and materials. Key Questions for the Team
Outcomes Measurement Create an Action Plan for WHAT to Study Decide HOW you will collect Data Determine HOW you will analyze the Data
Outcomes Measurement Developing Your Assistive Technology Leadership: Best Practices for Success Bill Reader, Dr. Cheryl Temple, Jennifer Carr, Mary Beth Flemming, Meghan Tracy
How do we measure success? Progress Monitoring
What are the potential outcomes? AT is working and continues to be needed AT is not working and continues to be needed AT is no longer needed
Formulate Recommendations When making recommendations, include: Device (s) - what and why Services - what, why and for whom Supports Training - Content and for whom Follow-up Other needs or considerations