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Kenya Higgs 2.9.2016

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ASTMH President Stephen Higgs' slides for his keynote speech at ASTMH in Kenya, Feb. 9, 2016.

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Kenya Higgs 2.9.2016

  1. 1. ASTMH in Kenya 6th KEMRI Annual Scientific and Health (KASH) Conference Nairobi, Kenya. February 9, 2016 Stephen Higgs, PhD, FRES, FASTMH President American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Director, Biosecurity Research Institute, Kansas State University
  2. 2. Thank you! Dr. Gerald Mkoji Dr. Pauline Mwinzi KASH Organizing Committee Serap Aksoy
  3. 3. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene: Past, Present and Future
  4. 4. ASTMH: The Past A Rich History of Global Impact
  5. 5. Why did the United States need a society focusing on tropical medicine and hygiene?
  6. 6. 18th-19th Centuries • Yellow fever epidemics in US and Europe linked to colonial development and the slave trade • Most dreaded disease in North America • 500,000 cases, 100,000 deaths total • Texas to New England affected • Napoleon abandons conquests after 23,000 troops die in Haiti
  7. 7. Vera Cruz, 1699, 1725 Albany, 1734 VirginiA, 1741, 1743 New Haven, 1747 Massachusetts, 1801 New orleans 1811, 1817, 1819, 1820, 1821, 822, 1824, 1827, 1828, 1829, 1837, 1841, 1847, 1854, 1856, 1867, 1873, 1878, 1905 Galveston, 1839, 1843, 1853, 1867, 1870 Alabama, 1821, 1854, 1873 Mississippi, 1821, 1843, 1855, 1873, 1878 Mobile, 1825, 1827, 1829, 1837, 1839, 1843, 1847,1854, 1867 Memphis, 1828, 1873, 1879 South carolina, 1877 Florida, 1811, 1823, 1829, 1841, 1867 Norfolk, 1801 Washington, 1825 Baltimore 1783, 1817, 1819, 1821 New Jersey, 1811 Charleston, 1690, 1693, 1699, 1703, 1728, 1732, 1745, 1748, 1792, 1807, 1817, 1819, 1821, 1824, 1839, 1843, 1852, 1854, 1856, 1858, 1876 PhiladelphiA 1668, 1693, 1694, 1699, 1751, 1778, 1791, 1793, 1802, 1803, 1805, 1819, 1820, 1821, 1867 Mexico  WHO 2005. All rights reserved. New York, 1668, 1694, 1702, 1734, 1743, 1745, 1751, 1791, 1801, 1819, 1821, 1822, 1870 Boston, 1691, 1693, 1694, 1803, 1821 Source: WHO Historical YF Epidemics
  8. 8. Carlos Juan Finlay (1833 - 1915) Son of a Scottish doctor and a Parisienne, born in Cuba but received early schooling in France Jefferson Medical College Graduate Practiced medicine and ophthalmology in Havana Became fascinated with the transmissibility of yellow fever, and that the agent of disease was in the air
  9. 9. Aedes aegypti & Carlos Finlay Finlay hypothesizes that the common house mosquito transmits Yellow Fever by directly injecting the blood from an infected person. Does not appreciate need for extrinsic incubation period in mosquito after taking an infected blood meal. In retrospect, at most only 1 of his 104 experiments from 1881-1898 demonstrates mosquito transmission of Yellow Fever. Many thought Finlay disproved his hypothesis.
  10. 10. Spanish American War, 1898 Casualties • 260 die in battleship Maine explosion • 968 die in combat • 5000+ die of disease, mostly yellow fever
  11. 11. United States Army Yellow Fever Commission- 1900 -1901 • Mosquito (Ae. aegypti) transmission (volunteer studies) • Incubation period 3-6 days • Extrinsic incubation period in mosquito required (12 days) • Filterable virus • Not transmissible by air, contact, fomites
  12. 12. Panama Canal
  13. 13. 1904 1905
  14. 14. William Crawford Gorgas letter to Henry Rose Carter, Dec 13, 1900 “Evidence seems to point very strongly to the mosquito being the transmitter of the disease.”
  15. 15. William Crawford Gorgas 1854-1920 1904: Gorgas’ team arrives in Panama—within a month all contracted malaria— Gorgas’ urgent requests are ignored by Canal authorities March 1905: Yellow fever outbreak causes a panic in Panama, most American canal workers flee and work is virtually halted July 1905: Stevens arrives as new Chief Engineer in Panama and Gorgas’ public health efforts are given top priority Dec 1905: Yellow fever eliminated from Panama
  16. 16. Mosquito control gangs working on Panama Canal, 1905 Spraying oil in a ditch Panama, 1906
  17. 17. WPA malaria control project, Savannah, 1936
  18. 18. Women laboratory workers, malaria control program Kentucky, 1935
  19. 19. The ASTMH was originally founded as the Society of Tropical Medicine of Philadelphia - by 28 physicians on March 9, 1903 Twelve days later name was changed to the American Society of Tropical Medicine March 21, 1904 First meeting held at the College of Physicians in Philadelphia
  20. 20. ASTMH: Evolution 1903 1916 Am. Soc. Trop. Med (1903) 1942 National Malaria Committee (1916) 1952 Renamed National Malaria Society Soc. Trop. Med. Philadelphia (1903)
  21. 21. Thomas H. Fenton (May 28, 1856 – February 23, 1929) 1st President, American Society of Tropical Medicine “Dr. Thomas H. Fenton,” by Thomas Eakins, 1905 Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington, Delaware “My Father, Thomas H. Fenton, M.D.” by Beatrice Fenton (1887 – 1983)
  22. 22. William Crawford Gorgas (1844 – 1920) 4th President, American Society of Tropical Medicine
  23. 23. 1900: Graduated MS A&M, Bachelor of Science in Agriculture; 1901: Master of Arts in Botany 1904: Lecturer on mosquitoes and disease at Army Medical Museum, Washington, DC 1908: received Doctor of Philosophy. Dissertation entitled “The Mosquitoes of the Philippine Islands: The Distribution of Certain Species and Their Occurrence in Relation to the Incidence of Certain Diseases” 1908: was elected to ASTM, being the 1st female and 1st non-physician member 1916-1920: anatomist at Army Medical Museum of Health and Medicine, Washington DC First woman known to have published extensively on the taxonomy of mosquitoes . Clara Southmayd Ludlow 1908: 1st Female Member, 1st Non-Physician Scientist Member
  24. 24. Total membership in the ASTM 1903 - 1951 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 Year Members WWII
  25. 25. Some Distinguished ASTMH Members
  26. 26. Varicella-zoster virus Thomas Huckle Weller (1915-2008) Thomas H. Weller (1915-2008) Discovery of varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) Development of cell cultures for polio and attenuation by serial passage for vaccine
  27. 27. Max Theiler (1899-1972) Development of mouse model and of YFV vaccine
  28. 28. Albert B. Sabin (1906-1993) Discovery of orthoreoviruses
  29. 29. Albert B. Sabin (1906-1993) Development of attenuated live virus for polio vaccine
  30. 30. Carleton Gajdusek (1929-2008) Transmission of etiologic agent of kuru to non- human primates The kuru prion
  31. 31. LuAnne Elliott in first positive pressure maximum containment suit, invented by Karl Johnson CDC, 1977 Karl M. Johnson Development of civilian high-containment virology laboratories
  32. 32. Karl Johnson Patricia Webb (1925-2005) Frederick Murphy Discovery of Ebola virus
  33. 33. Scott B. Halsted Description of antibody-dependent enhancement
  34. 34. ASTMH: The Journal
  35. 35. ASTMH: The Journal 1903 1913 1916 1921 Am. Soc. Trop. Med (2003) 1942 National Malaria Committee (1916) Am. J. Tropical Med. Southern Medical J. 1952 Renamed National Malaria Society Am. J. Trop. Med. & Hyg. Am J Trop Dis & Preventative Med. J. Nat. Malaria Soc. Southern Med. Assoc. (1906) 1908
  36. 36. Today American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
  37. 37. AJTMH Manuscripts Submitted & Published The acceptance rate for 2015 is 48.6%. 401 453 393 383 409 423 455 800 739 817 742 767 847 933 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 manuscripts accepted manuscripts submitted
  38. 38. US 31% Other 29% 65 countriesBrazil 8% China 7% India 5% Thailand 3% Malaysia 3% France 3% Japan 3% Canada 2% UK 2% Colombia 2% Australia 2% Manuscripts submitted in 2015 by country of corresponding author
  39. 39. Forty six manuscripts submitted in 2015 with corresponding author from Africa Burkina Faso 1 Chad 1 Guinea 1 Swaziland 1 Tanzania 1 Tunisia 1 Zambia 1 Zimbabwe 1 Gabon 2 Ghana 2 Mozambique 2 Senegal 2 Kenya 3 Mali 3 Rwanda 3 Sudan 3 Egypt 4 Nigeria 6 Ethiopia 8
  40. 40. AJTMH website traffic 2015 Country Visits United States 194,941 India 42,860 UK 42,438 Brazil 35,635 Australia 20,151 Canada 18,763 China 14,979 Thailand 15,371 Indonesia 13,095 France 13,552
  41. 41. ASTMH: The Present Strong and Growing
  42. 42. The ASTMH is the largest international scientific organization of experts dedicated to reducing the worldwide burden of tropical infectious diseases and improving global health.
  43. 43. · American Committee on Arthropod-Borne Viruses (ACAV) · American Committee of Medical Entomology (ACME) · American Committee on Clinical Tropical Medicine and Travelers' Health (ACCTMTH) · American Committee of Molecular, Cellular and Immunoparasitology (ACMCIP) · ASTMH Committee on Global Health (ACGH) ASTMH’s 5 Subgroups (specialized interest areas)
  44. 44. ASTMH Council 2015 Not all members pictured
  45. 45. ASTMH Membership: 1 October 2015 23%: Pre & Post Doctoral 11%: Low/Low-Mid Income 35%: International (non-US) All segments are growing
  46. 46. African Representation in ASTMH* Angola Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Cote d'Ivoire Democratic Republic of the Congo Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Kenya Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mozambique Nigeria Rwanda Samoa Senegal Sierra Leone South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe • 11% of ASTMH members are from Africa • 35 members from Kenya • 39 African Travel Award Recipients in 2015; 7 from Kenya *as of 28 January 2016 New in 2014 $25 US -- membership dues for Low/Low-Middle Income Countries
  47. 47. ASTMH 2015 Annual Meeting Kenyan presenters: 39 presentations (oral and posters) 3 by travel awardees
  48. 48. “We can look forward with confidence to a considerable degree of freedom from infectious diseases at a time not too far in the future. Indeed… it seems reasonable to anticipate that within some measurable time… all major infections will have disappeared.” ~Aidan Cockburn The Evolution and Eradication of Infectious Diseases (1963) Premature Declaration of Victory Over Infectious Diseases
  49. 49. Almost 2 billion people travel on commercial aircraft every year
  50. 50. Morens et al Nature 430,242 (2004) Figure 1 Global examples of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, some of which are discussed in the main text. Red represents newly emerging diseases; blue, re-emerging/ resurging diseases; black, a 'deliberately emerging' disease. Adapted, with permission, from ref. 23. Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases
  51. 51. Numbers in millions Infectious Diseases (14.9) Cardiovascular conditions (16.7) Neoplastic diseases (7.1) Injuries (5.2) Asthma and COPD (3.0) All others causes of death (57.0) Infectious Disease: The Toll on Human Health Infectious diseases cause ~ 26% of all deaths worldwide Source: WHO 2006
  52. 52. ASTMH: The Future You Can Make a Difference
  53. 53. “As a society, we should engage international scientific and professional organizations to develop more opportunities for training, education, advocacy, and collaboration.”
  54. 54. “Our more junior members, and young clinicians and scientists, are the future of ASTMH and it is our responsibility to help them develop contacts and collaborations in the field that are beneficial to their careers. We should expand our reach to attract younger members by providing opportunities for them to participate in career development programs and training.”
  55. 55. ASTMH.org
  56. 56. Zika Virus in Brazil, May 2015
  57. 57. Zika Virus in Brazil, January 2016
  58. 58. Rosemary Sang
  59. 59. The Standard February 9, 2016
  60. 60. The Standard February 9, 2016
  61. 61. For Members
  62. 62. Annual Meeting
  63. 63. Awards and Fellowships
  64. 64. Awards, Honors, Scholarships
  65. 65. Honorary International Fellows
  66. 66. Fellowships
  67. 67. Travel Awards
  68. 68. Young Investigator Awards
  69. 69. Education and Training
  70. 70. Career Center
  71. 71. Subgroups
  72. 72. · American Committee on Arthropod-Borne Viruses (ACAV) · American Committee of Medical Entomology (ACME) · American Committee on Clinical Tropical Medicine and Travelers' Health (ACCTMTH) · American Committee of Molecular, Cellular and Immunoparasitology (ACMCIP) · ASTMH Committee on Global Health (ACGH) ASTMH’s 5 Subgroups (specialized interest areas)
  73. 73. About ASTMH
  74. 74. Leadership
  75. 75. Join ASTMH
  76. 76. Join ASTMH
  77. 77. Annual Meeting • International forum for exchange of latest tropical medicine/global health advances; 4,000+ attendees from almost 100 countries. Networking • Connect with respected leaders in the field in person at the Annual Meeting; stay connected through the Society’s five subgroups; engage via social media American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene • Among top-ranked tropical medicine journals in world; 2/3 of submissions from outside US; average 65,000+ monthly website visits ASTMH: Your Professional Home
  78. 78. Striving for Excellence • Update Course in Clinical Tropical Medicine and Travelers’ Health; CTropMed®; Fellow of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (FASTMH) Making the Case to US Congress for Strong Funding for Tropical Medicine/Global Health • Providing expert testimony; Hill events and visits with Members of Congress; collaboration with coalition partners; advocating for strong US funding for tropical medicine/global health ASTMH: Your Professional Home
  79. 79. • Run for elected positions* of Councilor and President • Annual Meeting Travel Award - qualified students, early career investigators and scientists actively working in the tropical medicine field • Young Investigator Award • Honorary International Fellow of ASTMH (non-U.S. citizens only) • Apply for Certificate of Knowledge in Clinical Tropical Medicine and Travelers' Health Examination (CTropMed®) • Apply for Fellow of ASTMH* (FASTMH) International Opportunities* * Open only to members
  80. 80. You! A Future Leader of ASTMH
  81. 81. “I really do believe that malaria will be eradicated in my lifetime.” Bill Gates ASTMH Keynote, 2014

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