Higher Education in Nepal Roundtable Discussion March 7, 2013


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Speaker: Dr. Dil Bahadur Gurung, Executive Director, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Nepal

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Higher Education in Nepal Roundtable Discussion March 7, 2013

  1. 1. NARC’s Role in Agricultural Research for Development in Nepal Dil B. Gurung, PhD Executive Director Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) Kathmandu, Nepal www.narc.gov.np March 2013
  2. 2. Overview • Agriculture in Nepal • Major Institutions for Agricultural R&D • NARC and its Mandate – Major Achievements – Challenges and Issues – Priorities and Strategies • Areas of Potential Collaboration
  3. 3. Agriculture in Nepal• Backbone of Nepalese Economy• Contributes 35% to GDP• 65% of the population dependent on agriculture (Total population: 27 million) Cultivated land 21% Others Water 18% 3% Cultiviable land Pasture 7% 12% Forest 39% Total area: 147,181 sq.km
  4. 4. Total Population and Agriculture Produces over the Years Population (000) @1.4 Principal agric. production (000 mt) @5.9 Livestock products (000 mt) @2 Population engaged in agriculture, % 30000 100 90 25000 80 70mt and number 20000 60 15000 50 % 40 10000 30 5000 20 10 0 0 1961 1981 1991 2012
  5. 5. Nepal’s Share in Total Biodiversity of the World Land share of Nepal in earth: 0.1% 8.50% 4.20% 4% 2.20% 2.20% 1.40% Flowering Reptiles Fish Birds Butterflies Mammals plants
  6. 6. Agro-eco-zones in Nepal High Hill Mid Hill TaraiAsia • 3.6 M population (out of 27 million) suffer from food insecurity (Mountain and Hill districts) China • Poverty level is at 25% based on Nepal Living Standard Survey, 2011
  7. 7. Major Institutions for Agriculture R&DResearch Institutions • Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) • Nepal Agriculture Research & Development Fund (NARDF) • NGOs (LIBIRD, FORWARD, CEAPRED)Academic Institutions • Agriculture and Forestry University • IAAS, Tribhuvan University • Kathmandu University • HICAST, Purvanchal University • Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT)Extension Institutions • Department of Agriculture • Department of Livestock Services • INGO/NGOs
  8. 8. Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC)• An apex body for agricultural research in the country with the goal of poverty alleviation through the development of appropriate technologies• Established at 1991 as autonomous organizationMandate• Generate technologies in agriculture• Solve problems related to agriculture• Advice policies to the Government of Nepal on agriculture R&D 8
  9. 9. Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) Council (16 members) Chaired by Minister of Agriculture Executive Board (8 members) NARC Head Quarter NARI & NASRI, Cross Cutting Regional Commodity ResearchDisciplinary Divisions Divisions Directorates Programs (18) (5) (5) (16) Agricultural Research Stations (13)NARI: National Agriculture Research InstituteNASRI: National Animal Science Research Institute
  10. 10. Research Stations of NARC across the Country 10
  11. 11. Commodity Research Program: 15 Sheep & Goat Ginger Fishery Potato Hill Crops Wheat Citrus Commercial crop Rice Jute
  12. 12. Prioritized Areas for Agriculture Research Horticulture and Major food crops: specialized commodities: Rice, wheat, maize and Citrus, apple, off-season potato vegetables, vegetable seeds, mushrooms Natural resource management and Commercial crops: climate change: Ginger, tea, Biotechnology, soil, coffee,cardamom, water, biodiversity, sugarcane, jute climate Livestock and fishery: Agricultural policy, Cattle, buffalo, sheep, socio-economics, goat, swine, avian, gender, agriculture pasture and fish marketing
  13. 13. Research Projects and Manpower • Number of research projects: ca. 450 annually 1277 • Number of collaborative projects: ca. 40 • Annual Budget: USD 12 million in 2011 • 0.3% of total national budget and less than 10% of the total agricultural budget 365 322 286 243 61Scientists Technical Technicians Finance Administrative Total Officers 13
  14. 14. Funding Sources (July, 2012 – June,2013) Grants from International Institutions Government of Nepal 74.5%Norwegian, Donors Funding Sources USAID, JICA, etc 25.3% 0.2% Development Banks Others (Private Sectors)
  15. 15. Institutional Partners Department Department of of Livestock Agriculture Services CG Centers University(CIMMYT, IRRI, (AFU, TU, CIP, ICRISAT, KU, Kyu Shu ICARDA, NTU, PU, Bioversity) MSU…) Private I/NGOs sectors
  16. 16. NARC Linkage with Universities• NARC has visualized a critical role of Research- Education linkage in agriculture technology• development and transfer• NARC has some form of linkage with Universities (AFU, TU, KU, NTU, PUs) for higher academic trainings (MSc,• PhD)• NARC is in the process for developing formal program level linkage with Agriculture and Forestry• University (AFU) and other Universities• NARC has already envisioned and made initiative to establish Deemed to be University under NARI/NASRI
  17. 17. Contribution of Agricultural Research in Nepal• NARC has made significant contributions in developing and delivering new technologies for enhancing food security, income generation, climate change adaptation and reducing cost of production•• Investment in wheat research in Nepal in the past (1960-1990) has generated an internal rate of return (IRR) ranging from 75% to 84%. The internal rate of return from research investment in rice, maize and wheat from 1995-2004 ranged from 84-105% in Nepal
  18. 18. Contribution of Agricultural Research in Nepal• NARC developed and promoted varieties in major crops (rice, wheat, maize) are being adopted in more than 80% of the crop area• Apart from these, several crops, livestock, fisheries and horticultural technologies are developed, promoted and adopted by the farmers (viz. stress tolerant and disease resistant (eg Ug99) varieties, trout fish, plastic house for off season vegetable cultivation, Srijana hybrid, Pakhribas pig, QPM, RCTs, coffee & millet processing machines, etc)
  19. 19. 1. Food SecurityPercent Increase in Area, Production and Productivity ofMajor Food Crops over 25 Years (1984-2010) Area Production Productivity 496.1 227.1 178.6 152.1 114 92.6 64.651.4 56.5 69.8 33.2 28.9 24 8.6 3.9 Rice Maize Wheat Barley Potato
  20. 20. Growth Rate (%) per Year for Key Crops (1984/85-2009/10) 8 7.22 Area Prod Yield 7 6 5.33 5 3.86 3.94 % Year 4 3.68 3.11 3.28 3 2.85 2.58 2.51 2.39 1.99 1.85 1.84 2 1.78 1.49 1.32 1.27 1.31 1.08 1 0.5 0 Rice Maize Wheat Potato Lentil Oilseeds Vegetable
  21. 21. Total Varieties of 46 Crops with Complete PoP 25069 47 34 36 24 18 6 3 9 4
  22. 22. Recent Achievements: Maize• Rampur Hybrid-2 for Tarai and KYM33 × KYM35 for Hills• QPM varieties S99TLYQ-AB, S01SIWQ-3, S99TLYQ-B are developed and ready for release
  23. 23. Finger MilletRelease of GE-5016 (bold grain andquality straw), GE 5176, Acc. 2827,533 / 2311 (for high hills)BuckwheatRelease of first buckwheat varietyof Nepal IR13 (for mid hills)RapeseedRelease of Morang local and ICJ9704
  24. 24. Pigeon PeaBageswori 2(Sadabahar) ICP 7035
  25. 25. Potato: Late Blight Resistant Varieties Ready for ReleaseReady for Release TPS Variety
  26. 26. 2. Income Generation Cowpea Malepatan-1TomatoSirjana Hybrid• Seed production through public private partnership• 3.8 kg of hybrid seed produced in 2011
  27. 27. Potato Variety for Chips PRP 25861.1Cucumber Hybrid: K1F1Seed production throughprivate farms
  28. 28. Spur typeKiwi: A new high- Top Red demanded fruit in Nepal Introduced from New Zealand Yield 40-50 kg/tree
  29. 29. Sweet OrangeWashington Navel Fruit Valencia Late• Suitable for low altitude • Seedless• Seedless • Matures in April• Matures in Nov-December • Leading variety of the world
  30. 30. Large CardamomChhirke & Phurkey ( Viral )DiseaseTolerant Seedlingsproduction through TissueCultureSeedlings from seeds
  31. 31. Biscuit prepared from Underutilized Crops Biscuits from Proso Millet Biscuits from Foxtail Millet Composition ratio: 30% millet + 70% wheat flour
  32. 32. Hybrid Boer Kids
  33. 33. Boer Goat Dual purpose popular back yard poultry breed
  34. 34. Black Pig: Hurrah, Nagpuri and Saddle Back (2nd Generation)Low Cost Pig Fattening• 50% Brewers residue with local byproducts to fattening pigs for economic production•• On farm result: Net profit of 1977 Rs/pig in 36 weeks of fattening period
  35. 35. Promising effect of Pentasulfates in Khari disease in buffaloes
  36. 36. Buffaloes after Medication Before medication After medication
  37. 37. Improved breed of aBuffalo (Murrah) formeat, milk and draft inTaraiIndigenous Buffaloesfor milk and meat inmid hillsCross breedingprogram is under wayto improve theproductivity
  38. 38. Grass Varieties in Process for Release White clover (Laxmi): 30-40 t/haJai Grass (Ganesh): 60-70 t/ha Jai Grass (Parbati) 38
  39. 39. Year roundforageproductionin someparts ofNepal 39
  40. 40. Fish Seed Production Technology DevelopedRewa (Chagunius chaguni) Hade (Labeo pangusia)Gardi (Labeo dero) Biodiversity conservation by maintaining several indigenous fish species in Kaligandaki
  41. 41. Rainbow Trout Technology for Mid and High Hills• Fish production technology package developed• Frys production at farmers level and commercialized the technology• Technology exported to Thailand and Pakistan
  42. 42. Tilapia Pond CultureHarvesting sizeMax: 200-300 gMasculined 400-500 gProductionMax: 3.5 m ton/haMasculined: 6.5m ton/haSurvival: 85%Sex change technology in Tilapia developed (92% Male)
  43. 43. Breeding technique for cold waterlocal fishes (Sahar, Asala, Gardhi, Hade, Phaketa, Katle) developed Sahar Gardi Breeding technology for ornamental fish developed
  44. 44. 3. Climate Resilient Varieties/TechnologiesA. Drought Tolerant Rice Varieties 1. Sukhha dhan-1 2. Sukhha dhan-2 3. Sukhha dhan-3 4. Tarahara-1 5. Hardinath-2 Sukhha Dhan-1 Sukhha Dhan 3 Sukhha Dhan 2 44
  45. 45. B. Submergence Tolerance Rice Varieties 1. Swarna sub-1 2. Samba Masuli sub-1 • Improved through Marker Assisted Backcrossing • Submergence tolerance (up to 15 days) Swarna sub-1 Samba Masuli Sub-1• Nearly 50 MT seeds of these varieties produced and distributed to the farmers of eastern to mid and far-western Tarai during 2011
  46. 46. Climate Resilient Maize VarietiesReleased Varieties1. Deuti ( Drought tolerant)2. Poshilo Makai-1 (QPM)Promising Genotypes1. 05SADVI (GLS tolerant)2. 07SADVI (GLS tolerant)3. ZM 401 (GLS tolerant)4. ZM 627 (GLS tolerant)5. TLBR S07F16 (Drought, heat tolerant)6. BLSBR S07F12 (Drought, heat tolerant)7. RML-4 X NML-2 (Released Hybrid)
  47. 47. Gray Leaf Spot Tolerant Maize Varieties 1. Manakamana-3 2. Ganesh-1 3. Shitala 4. Deuti 5. ZM627 6. TL03AS2 7. CLA87/C Local vs Manakamana-3
  48. 48. Ug99 Resistant Wheat Variety (Vijay) BL 3063 NL 1064 Spot Blotch tolerant: Vijay, Gautam, NL1073 Heat tolerant (terminal heat stress): Gautam 48
  49. 49. g]kfn s[lif cg;Gwfg kl/ifbsf j}1flgsx? qmdzM dbg/fh e§, ;/nf zdf{, lbks e08f/L, w|aaxfb/ yfkf / gtg/fh uf}tdn] klxnf] Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI) Gene Stewardship Award k|fKt ug{ ;kmn ePsf 5g . of] cGt/fli6«o:t/sf] Award uxFafnLdf nfUg] sfnf] l;Gb/] -Ug99 _ nufot l;Gb/] /f]ux? cj/f]ws hftx? -ljho / cGo kfOknfOgdf ePsf_ sf] ljsf; / ltgsf] lj:tf/ u/L g]kfnsf] vfB ;/Iffdf 7"nf] 6]jf k¥ofPjfkt lbOPsf] xf] .A team of Nepali wheat scientists have received Borlaug Rust InitiativeGene Stewardship First Global Award in 2 September 2012 in Beijingfor developing and out scaling of Rust resistant varieties including Ug99,killer disease of wheat 49
  50. 50. Climate Resilient Technology Urea Molasses Mineral Block (UMMB) reduces methane gas in the rumen by more than two times (7 Vs 17%)
  51. 51. National Agriculture Genetic Resource Centre (Genebank)Established in 2010Area: 2.5 hectareTotal collection: >9000 accessions of 70 different cropsFacilities• Short -term storage (Seed Bank)• Field Gene bank• Tissue Bank• DNA Bank• Molecular Research Lab
  52. 52. 4. MechanizationCorn Sheller: Roller type coffee pulper: Capacity 15 kg maize Capacity is 60 kg/ hr. shelling per hour where as Technology transferred to private sector manually a women can shell More than 120 pulpers commercialized 5-8 kg per hour
  53. 53. Millet Thresher cum Pearler Low cost Solar Dryer• Capacity of threshing and pearling • Appropriate to dry apple, is 40-50 kg/hr vegetables, fish ,meat• Threshing efficiency is 97% and • Temperature ranges between 35-55 pearling efficiency 98 % degree Celsius • Capacity 12 kg/ batch (24-48 hr)
  54. 54. Challenges and Issues• Yield gap between experimental plots and farmers fields• Increasing youth migration from rural area resulting in labor scarcity and feminization of agriculture• Food Safety and Pesticide Hazards Issues• Production uncertainty brought by climate changes• High cost of labor and key inputs (fertilizer, fuel) resulting in less profitability of farming• Lack of interest in agricultural profession among young and educated professionals• Poor incentives in public research to attract, motivate and retain high caliber dedicated scientists
  55. 55. Yield Gap of Maize in Nepal 9 7 6.7 1.0 6 5.7 5 4.5 3.5 4 Yield in ton 3 2.2 2 1 0 Experimental National Attainable Hybrid Yield (OPVs) Average Yield
  56. 56. Priorities and Strategies of NARCA. Food and Nutrition Security at National and Regional Level Development of improved varieties and breeds employing modern tools • Thrust on hybrid development • Conservation of Genetic Resources • Niche Specific Technology DevelopmentB. Income and Employment Generation Technology development and transfer (offseason vegetable, seed production, livestock for milk and eat, fisheries, ginger, tea, cardamom, honey, mandarin orange, etc)
  57. 57. Strategy of NARC…C. Commercialization and Import Substitution  Development/identification of appropriate agricultural mechanization technology  Focus of crops for import substitution viz. sugarcane, vegetables, seed, fruits, meat, fish, vegetables, flower etc.  Linkage with private entrepreneurs and industriesD. Climate SMART Agriculture and NRM • Technology development for stress condition • Technology Development for Integrated Pest Management and Resource Conservation • Conservation, utilization and maintenance of soil, water and biodiversity • Development and promotion of Resource Conservation Technologies
  58. 58. Current status of Collaborative Research on Livestock Climate Change• Project initiation workshop• Work plan developed• Site visits: Site selection• Farmers selected• Farmer’s field selected• Baseline data collected Inception workshop Training• Training of farmers in forage production• Forage crops and– supply chain established• Forage crop research• Reproduction studies• Breeding and AI continued Fodder Demonstration AI and Animal Breeding Training
  59. 59. Research Location
  60. 60. Areas for Strengthening Collaboration with MichiganState University & Other Universities & Research InstitutesA. Collaboration in Agriculture and NRM Research• Collaborative research in developing modern technologies for food security: – Integrated Pest Management and Organic Agriculture – Biotechnology and food safety – Climate change research in crops, horticulture, livestock, fishery – Conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources – Conservation agriculture – Agricultural mechanization• Socioeconomic, foresight and policy research
  61. 61. B. Collaboration in Capacity Building • Exchange of researchers between NARC and MSU • Research Fellowships (Two-Way) • Post-graduate and on-job training of NARC scientists • Technical supervisory guidance and facilities for PhD and MS field research of MSU students in Nepal • Research Internships for MSU students • Partnerships in R&D at different levels
  62. 62. Potential Areas of Collaboration• Developing policy guidelines to establishing/enable linkages with teaching, extension/outreach, and research• Guidance in basic and applied research—crops, livestock, forests and people• Collaboration in further development of research laboratories, training of laboratory scientists and technicians• Further development of NARC’s capacity through in- country training in collaboration with AFU, DOA and DLSand international partners
  63. 63. Think for future generation