Digital Games as Tools for Designing and Implementing Pedagogical Innovations

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Digital Games as Tools for Designing and Implementing Pedagogical Innovations

  1. 1. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Digital Games as Tools for Designing and Implementing Pedagogical Innovations Demetrios G. Sampson Senior Member IEEE Department of Digital Systems, University of Piraeus & Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research and Technology HellasThis work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs-NonCommercial License. To view a copy of thislicense, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd-nc/1.0 or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA. D. G. Sampson 1/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  2. 2. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) “Digital Games – New Skills and Educational Tools” Onassis Culture Center, Athens, Greece October 17th, 2012Jesper Juul (Visiting Professor at the NYU Game Center)Tim Luft (Serious Game Institute, UK / Director Serious Games International)Katie Salen (Professor of Design and Technology at Parsons the New School for Design, USA / Director Institute of Play)Demetrios G Sampson (Professor of Digital Systems in Education and Learning, University of Piraeus) D. G. Sampson 2/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  3. 3. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Presentation Outline Emerging Challenges for Pedagogical Innovations in Higher Education Digital Games as Tools for Designing and Implementing Pedagogical Innovations Digital Games Research @ Dept Digital Systems, Univ Piraeus Conclusions D. G. Sampson 3/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  4. 4. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) #1Emerging Challenges for Pedagogical Innovations in Higher Education D. G. Sampson 4/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  5. 5. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Challenges:Student Learning in a Globally Interconnected WorldRe-think and Re-Define•Learning Outcomes – TargetedCompetences (PersonalDevelopment – Global Citizenship –Professional Qualifications)•Methods of Teaching and Learning(Active Student-centered)•Methods of Assessment (AuthenticReal-life Situations – Portofolios) D. G. Sampson 5/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  6. 6. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Challenge #1: Learning Outcomes – Targeted CompetencesMove from reproduction-directedlearning objectives (memorizeexternally regulated knowledge) tomeaning-directed learning objectives(deep understanding – self-regulatedknowledge construction based onpersonal interests and responsibility)and application-based objectives(dynamic use knowledge in real lifecontext aware conditions) D. G. Sampson 6/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  7. 7. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Challenge #2: Teaching to Foster Quality Student LearningMove from traditional lecture-basedteaching to problem-based andproject-based learning stimulatingactive student participationcombined with work-based learning. Connect the University with the World outside the classroom. D. G. Sampson 7/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  8. 8. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Challenge #3: Align Assessment Methods to Learning Objectives•Move from traditional exam papersto multiple, integrated means ofassessment preferably supported bytechnology – individual students andgroups portofolios.•Build powerful learning assessmenttools that fostermotivation, engagement, self-confidence, reflective thinking. D. G. Sampson 8/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  9. 9. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) #2 Digital Games as Tools for Designing and Implementing Pedagogical InnovationsD. G. Sampson 9/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  10. 10. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Defining (Digital) Games Characteristics Definition Competition The goal is to achieve an outcome that is superior to others Challenge Tasks require effort and are non-trivial Exploration There is a context-sensitive environment that can be investigated Fantasy Existence of a make-believe environment, characters or narrative Goals The are explicit aims and objectives Interaction An action will change the state of play and generate feedback Outcome There are measurable results from game play (e.g. scoring) People Other individuals take part Rules The activity is bounded by artificial constraints Safety The activity has no direct consequence in the real worldNicola Whitton (2009), Learning with Digital Games: a Practical Guide to Engaging Students in Higher Education, Routledge D. G. Sampson 10/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  11. 11. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Why Digital Game-based Learning?• The increasing popularity of digital games. (ISFE, 2010)• Structural characteristics and affordances of digital games that make them motivating and engaging. More specifically, digital games:  are rule-based and goal-oriented  have rich narrative elements and storyboards  present players with challenges  allow for interaction  offer players with opportunities to experience the outcomes of their performed actions (Klopfer, 2008; Prensky, 2007) Interactive Software Federation of Europe (2010). Video Gamers in Europe 2010: Prepared for the Interactive Software Federation of Europe (ISFE) by GAmeVision Europe. Retrieved May 12, 2012 from http://www.isfe.eu/content/video-gamers-europe-2010-gamevision-study. Klopfer, E. (2008). Augmented Learning: Research and design of mobile educational games. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Prensky, M. (2007). Digital Game-Based Learning. Minnesota: Paragon House D. G. Sampson 11/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  12. 12. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Digital games as facilitators of active learning processesThe “probe, hypothesize, reprobe, rethink cycle”The player: explores the game world formulates a hypothesis as a result of reflection tests the validity of the formulated hypothesis accepts or rejects the hypothesis” and re-engages in this sequence of actions Gee, J.P. (2007), What videogames have to teach us about learning and literacy. New York: Palgrave McMillanThe “Input-Process-Output Game Model” Making judgements about the game world Undertaking specific actions as manifested by observable behaviour Refinement of judgements and actions with the help of provided feedback Garris, R., Ahlers, R. & Driskell, J.E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation and Gaming, 33(4) D. G. Sampson 12/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  13. 13. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) How can learning take place with the support of digitalLearners are presented with complex games? Digital games can be consideredand ill-defined problems. as environments for “safe”(Gee, 2007; Prensky, 2007; Whitton, 2010) experimentation since performed actions have no real-lifeLearners can: consequences.• adopt different roles (Kirriemuir &• interact with virtual objects McFarlane, 2004, Whitton, 2010)• discuss and negotiate with other (virtual) characters• investigate cause and effect relations By applying trial-and-error• resolve conflicts approaches, users are able to• search for relevant information digital games experiment and learn from their• make decisions with respect to the mistakes. problem at hand (Prensky, 2007)(Gee, 2007; Kim, Park, & Baek, 2009)Kim, B., Park, H. & Baek, Y. (2009). Not just fun but using strategies: Using meta- Kirriemuir, J. & McFarlane, A. (2004). Literature reviewcognitive strategies in game-based learning. Computers and Education, 52(4) in games and learning. Bristol: Futurelab. D. G. Sampson 13/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  14. 14. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) The rise of serious gamesSerious games are defined as games “in which education -inits various forms- is the primary goal, rather thanentertainment” Michael & Chen (2006, p. 10)Serious games target at providing users withinteractive learning environments within which there ispotential for developing a range of higher-order cognitiveskills and applying knowledge related to a number ofdisciplines. Klopfer (2008) Klopfer, E. (2008). Augmented Learning: Research and design of mobile educational games. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Michael, D.R. & Chen S.L. (2006). Serious Games: Games that Educate, Train and Inform. Cincinnati, Ohio: Muska & Lipman/ Premier-Trade. . D. G. Sampson 14/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  15. 15. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Aims of provided education at different educational levels the context of higher education the context of secondary education Provide both general education and career-  Impart in a holistic way the knowledge, skills and specific targeted education. attitudes that will enable young people to be effective in life and work. Help students develop ethical values and  Provide effective preparation for those proceeding to competences that will allow them to: post-secondary education or entering the world of work.  exercise active citizenship,  Balance between academic disciplines and generic  be able to respond to changing conditions, practical and social skills.  be able to respond to professional demands,  Consolidate literacy, numeracy, life skills and learning-to-  to become lifelong learners. learn skills. Facilitate the acquisition of skills, UNESCO (2005). Secondary Education Reform: Towards a convergence of knowledge acquisition and skills development competences and abilities for: the context of technical & vocational education &  communication, training  Employment is the immediate goal.  analysis and evaluation,  independent thinking,  Integral component of lifelong learning.  team working in multicultural contexts.  Help individuals and countries to achieveUNESCO (1998). World Declaration on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century: sustainable development and social cohesion. Vision and Action/ Framework for Priority Action for Change and Development in UNESCO (2002). Technical and Vocational Education and Training in the 21 st Higher Education. Century: New Roles and Challenges for Guidance and Counseling D. G. Sampson 15/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  16. 16. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Utilizing digital games at different educational levels the context of higher education the context of secondary education Use of digital games should target at  Need for alignment between the content of the digital game facilitating the development of higher- and the curriculum. order cognitive skills.  Focus on the achievement of subject-specific educational Need to see the real-world relevance of objectives. digital games.  The use of games should fit to existing time scheduling and constraints. Greater flexibility in the employment of assessment methods.  Assessment of produced outcomes should be immediate and easy to be conducted. The use of digital games should become  Motivation is one of the main reasons for introducing digital accepted by all the involved stakeholders  games. (Ulicsak & Wright, 2010) need for a clear pedagogical rationale. the context of technical and vocational education and training Appropriateness of the digital game as perceived by the game users.  Focus on learning procedures (not content).  Used for training employees. Motivation is not the main reason for introducing digital games in higher  Used as part of blended-learning approaches. (Ulicsak & Wright, 2010) education contexts. Whitton (2010) Ulicsak, M. & Wright, M. (2010). Games in Education – Serious games: A Futurelab literature review. Futurelab, Bristol, UK. D. G. Sampson 16/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  17. 17. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Alignment of digital game types with potential learning Learning objective outcomes Description of objective Game types Drill and practice gamesMemory, repetition, retention Factual knowledge Quiz games, Puzzle games Apply knowledge into new contexts. Sport games Using information, methods, Action gamesApplying concepts, rules concepts, and theories Driving games in new situations. Drill and practice Evaluation of existing knowledge, Strategic gamesDecision making, devising making predictions, Adventure gamesstrategies and problem- solving drawing conclusions, making choices Role-playing games and develop reasoned arguments. Simulation games Strategic gamesSocial interaction, values, Understanding the social Role play gamescultures environment Simulation gamesDondi, C. & Moretti, M. (2007). A methodological proposal for learning games selection and quality assessment. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(3) D. G. Sampson 17/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  18. 18. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Game-based learning efforts in higher education contexts (1/3) Game: “Marketplace” (web-based game) Context of use: a university marketing course Educational activities: engagement in group work with the aim to establish virtual companies, undertake actions related to performing market analysis, devising marketing strategies, and designing appropriate products for The “Marketplace” game development. http://www.marketplace-simulation.com/ Assessment: through presentations held by students, worksheets and individual assignments What students reported: opportunity to apply theoretical concepts to a real-life situation, immediate feedback on performed actions, limited feedback that did not facilitate links between actions and consequences. (Whitton, 2010) Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012 D. G. Sampson 18/32
  19. 19. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Game-based learning efforts in higher education contexts (2/3) Game: The “Retail Game” (web-based game) Context of use: a university retail marketing course Educational activities: adopting roles, handling data regarding a virtual store’s status and market needs, make decisions with respect to their store’s management, and provide a rationale for each of their The “Retail Game” decisions. http://www.retail-game.com/ Assessment: game output, short reports and oral presentations Learning potential: opportunities to develop an understanding of marketing principles and retail operational issues, as well as apply communication and interpersonal skills. (Whitton, 2010) D. G. Sampson 19/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  20. 20. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Game-based learning efforts in higher education contexts (3/3) Game: “PeaceMaker” Context of use: a university course on politics and international relations Educational activities: adopting the role of either the Israeli Prime Minister or the Palestinian President, investigating the interplay between ethical concerns and international politics, and becoming familiar with the Israeli-Palestinian “PeaceMaker” problem. http://www.peacemakergame.com/ Assessment: through presentations and reflection activities Learning potential: a deeper understanding of the problem at hand, with the students seeming to be able to understand the complexities of the issue and the barriers to finding a final solution. (Whitton, 2010) D. G. Sampson 20/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  21. 21. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) #3Digital Games Research @ DeptDigital Systems, University PiraeusD. G. Sampson 21/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  22. 22. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) PhD Students Hercules PanoutsopoulosGame-based Learning in School Education Sofia Mysirlaki Simulation Games as Digital Tools for Supporting School Education D. G. Sampson 22/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  23. 23. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) An experimental study in school math educationGame employed: “Sims 2 – Open for Business”Context of study: secondary educationAim of study: Investigate the effectiveness of the gamewith respect to: achieving learning objectives related to the subject of Mathematics, achieving general learning objectives related to the upper levels of Bloom’ s taxonomy, developing (more) positive attitudes toward the subject of Mathematics.Users adopted the role of a business manager and gotengaged in activities requiring datamonitoring, strategic thinking, decisionmaking, planning, and performing actions related tokeeping customers satisfied. Panoutsopoulos & Sampson (2010; 2012) D. G. Sampson 23/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  24. 24. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK)Implementation of the game-based learning activities D. G. Sampson 24/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  25. 25. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Enhancing entrepreneurship education with the support of digital gamesEntrepreneurship is considered as one of the keycompetences for “personal fulfillment anddevelopment, active citizenship, social inclusion andemployment”. (Commission of the European Communities, 2005, p. 18)Digital games constitute an example of a technologicalfacilitator that has the potential to enhanceentrepreneurship education. business simulation games  Offer opportunities for developing theoretical understandings and establishing connections between theory and its application .  Offer opportunities for learning by doing in an authentic management situation.  Facilitate the development of analytical decision making skills. Ben-Zvi, T. (2007). The efficacy of business simulation games in creating Decision Support Systems: An experimental investigation. Decision Support Systems, 49(1), 61–69. D. G. Sampson 25/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  26. 26. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) The context of our currently conducted researchThe purpose of our currently conducted research is to investigate the effectiveness of digitalgames as learning tools that can enhance entrepreneurship education.More specifically what we intend to do is to: Investigate the impact of digital games on achieving learning outcomes and developing (more) positive attitudes toward entrepreneurship. Focus on specific affordances that games provide and can potentially affect their learning effectiveness. Define indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of digital games based on the proposed game affordances. Measure the effect of the proposed game affordances on the achievement of reported results. Panoutsopoulos, Lykourentzou, & Sampson (2011) D. G. Sampson 26/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  27. 27. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Related Publications• I. Panoutsopoulos, D. Sampson and A. Mikropoulos, "Digital Games as Tools for Designing and Implementing Innovative Pedagogical Approaches: A Review of Literature", in Maree Gosper and Dirk Ifenthaler (Eds), Models for the 21st Century. Using Learning Technologies in Higher Education, Springer, October 2012• I. Panoutsopoulos and D. Sampson, "A Study on Exploiting Commercial Digital Games into School Context", Educational Technology & Society Journal (ISSN 1436-4522), vol. 15(1), January 2012• I. Panoutsopoulos, M. A. Lykourentzou and D. Sampson, "Business Simulation Games as Digital Tools for Supporting School Entrepreneurship Education", in Proc. of the 11th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2011), Athens, Georgia, USA, IEEE Computer Society (ISBN:9781612842097), 6-8, July 2011• I. Panoutsopoulos and D. Sampson, "Integrating Digital Games into School Curriculum: a field experiment in math education", in Proc. of the IADIS International Conference Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA 2010), Timisoara, Romania, IADIS Press (ISBN 978-972-8939-28-1), 15-17, October 2010 D. G. Sampson 27/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  28. 28. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) #4 ConclusionsD. G. Sampson 28/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  29. 29. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Current Research Trends in TeL (1/3) One Year or Less  Mobile Apps  Tablet Computing Two to Three Years  Game-Based Learning  Learning Analytics Four to Five Years  Gesture-Based Computing  Internet of ThingsJohnson, L., Adams, S., & Cummins, M. (2012). The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition. Austin, Texas: The NewMedia Consortium D. G. Sampson 29/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  30. 30. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Current Research Trends in TeL (2/3) User Modeling Mobile Tools Networking Tools Serious Games Intelligent Environments Educational Data Mining Rich InterfacesWoolf, B. P., Shute, V. J., VanLehn, K., Burleson, W., King, J., Suthers, D., Bredeweg, B., Luckin, R., & Tonkin, E. (2010). A roadmap foreducation technology. Computing Community Consortium, Washington, DC D. G. Sampson 30/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  31. 31. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Current Research Trends in TeL (3/3) Cloud Computing Mobile Learning Technologies Game-based Learning (GBL) eBooks Learning Analytics Context-sensitive Services Augmented Reality Gesture RecognitionLearning Frontiers (2012), TEL-Map Coordination and Support Action. Available at: http://www.learningfrontiers.eu/?q=page/emerging-technologies D. G. Sampson 31/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012
  32. 32. University of Piraeus Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) Department of Digital Systems Information Technologies Institute (I.T.I.) Advanced Digital Systems and Services for Education and Learning (ASK) Issues for further Research and Investigation Can Digital Games offer a suitable environment to teachers for students continuous assessment that facilitate identification of problems and misunderstandings and, thus, support re-design learning activities so as to achieve well-defined intended learning outcomes ? Investigate which Digital Games’ affordances can be used in game-based assessment particularly in assessing complex problem-solving processes and outcomes in a digital game-based learning environment, through the continuous monitoring and analysis of meaningful learner game activities by the teacher. Digital Games as a facilitator for Learning Analytics. D. G. Sampson 32/32 Digital Games @ Onassis Culture Center, 17 Oct 2012

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