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- 1. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 64 UNIT – IV – ENERGY STORING ELEMENTS AND ENGINE COMPONENTS PART – A 4.1) What is a spring? 4.2) What is the use of springs? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008] 4.3) Give some of materials used for spring [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008] 4.4) Give a list of the different types of springs 4.5) Mention any four types of springs. [AU, May / Jun - 2012] 4.6) Distinguish between close coiled and open coiled springs. [AU, Nov / Dec –2014] 4.7) Explain the following terms of the spring. (a) Free length (b) Spring index [AU, April / May – 2011] 4.8) Define (a) Spring Index (b) Spring rate. [AU, Nov / Dec –2011] 4.9) Define spring rate. [AU, May / Jun – 2016] 4.10) Define spring index and spring constant. [AU, Nov / Dec –2012] 4.11) What are the functions of springs? In which type of spring is the behavior non - linear? 4.12) Write the formula for natural frequency of spring. [AU, Nov / Dec –2012] 4.13) What are the different materials used for manufacturing springs? 4.14) What is the difference between open coiled and close coiled springs? 4.15) Explain helical spring. What are its types? 4.16) What is stiffness of spring? [AU, Nov / Dec – 2015, May / Jun – 2016] 4.17) Obtain the expression for stiffness of helical spring. [AU, May / Jun - 2012] 4.18) Two springs of stiffness K1 and K2 are connected in series. What is the stiffness of the connection [AU, April / May – 2010] 4.19) For a springs in series, the spring rate ( stiffness) add reciprocally prove [AU, April / May – 2010] 4.20) How will you find whether the given helical spring is a compression or tension spring? 4.21) What is Whal’s factor? Why it is used? [AU, April / May – 2011] 4.22) Why is Wahl’s factor to be considered in the design of helical compression springs? [AU, April / May – 2010]
- 2. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 65 4.23) What is the effect of change in spring index on Whal’s factor and on the stress induced in a helical compression spring? [AU, Apr / May – 2015] 4.24) What are the different styles of end for helical compression spring? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009] 4.25) What type of spring is used to maintain an effective contact between a cam and a reciprocating roller or flat faced follower? [AU, Nov / Dec – 2015] 4.26) What are conical springs? 4.27) Explain torsion spring. 4.28) On what basis are the materials for helical springs selected? Give some of the materials used for spring. 4.29) What is the effect of increase in wire diameter on the allowable stress value? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010] 4.30) Define solid length and free length of the helical spring. 4.31) Define the terms stiffness and spring index. 4.32) What is pitch? 4.33) On what concepts are helical springs designed? 4.34) What are the different types of stresses induced in coil springs? 4.35) Why is Wahl's factor to be considered in the design of helical compression springs? 4.36) A helical spring of rate 10 N/mm is mounted on top of another spring of rate 8 N/mm. Find the force required to give a total deflection of 45 mm. 4.37) A helical spring of rate 12 N/mm is mounted on the top of another spring of rate 8 N/mm. Find the force required to give a deflection of 50mm. [AU, Nov / Dec –2013] 4.38) What is meant by eccentric loading of springs? 4.39) The extension springs are in considerably less that the compression springs. Why? [AU, Nov / Dec –2011] 4.40) Explain buckling of compression springs. 4.41) What is meant by surge in springs? [AU, Nov / Dec – 2008, 2012] 4.42) What is surge in springs? [AU, May / Jun - 2013] 4.43) Explain surge in coil springs. 4.44) Estimate the equivalent stiffness of springs in parallel and in series.
- 3. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 66 4.45) What are the purposes of using concentric springs? [AU, Apr / May – 2015] 4.46) What are the applications of concentric springs? [AU, Apr / May – 2010] 4.47) When two concentric springs of stiffness 100 N/mm and 50 N/mm respectively are subjected to an axial load of 750 N, what will be the deflection of each spring? [AU, Nov / Dec – 2007] 4.48) Explain briefly leaf springs. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009] 4.49) What are the advantages of the leaf springs? 4.50) What is semi - elliptical leaf springs? 4.51) What is meant by semi elliptical leaf springs? [AU, May / Jun – 2014] 4.52) What is meant by nipping in leaf springs? 4.53) What is nipping of leaf spring? [AU, Nov / Dec – 2015, May / Jun – 2016] 4.54) What is master leaf and how are the lengths of various leaves determined? 4.55) Why are leaf springs made in layers instead of a single plate? 4.56) What is a lever? [AU, Nov / Dec –2011] 4.57) What is a flywheel? For what purpose is it used? 4.58) What is the use of flywheel? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008, May / Jun - 2012] 4.59) What is the function of a flywheel? [AU, Apr / May – 2011, Nov / Dec –2012] 4.60) What is the main function of a flywheel in an engine? [AU, Nov / Dec –2011] 4.61) What is the purpose of flywheel that is used in an IC engine? [AU, Nov / Dec –2013] 4.62) How does the function of flywheel differ from that of governor? [AU, May / Jun – 2012, Nov / Dec –2012] 4.63) What is the purpose of the flywheel? [AU, Nov / Dec – 2015] 4.64) Write the difference between flywheel and governor. 4.65) Specify the types of flywheel. 4.66) Define co-efficient of fluctuation of speed. [AU, Nov / Dec –2011] 4.67) Define Co-efficient of fluctuation of speed in flywheel. [AU, May / Jun - 2013] 4.68) Define (a) Coefficient of fluctuation of speed (b) Coefficient of fluctuation of energy. [AU, Nov / Dec –2014] 4.69) Define the term 'fluctuation of speed' and 'fluctuation of energy'. [AU, May / Jun – 2016] 4.70) Define the term co-efficient of steadiness. [AU, Nov / Dec – 2009, 2011]
- 4. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 67 4.71) Define the term "fluctuation of energy". [AU, May / Jun – 2014] 4.72) Define co-efficient of fluctuation of energy. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009] 4.73) What type of stresses is produced in a disc flywheel? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010] 4.74) Explain briefly the stresses induced in a flywheel. 4.75) Explain how the size of the flywheel can be determined. 4.76) At what angle of the crank the twisting moment is maximum in the crankshaft? [AU, Nov / Dec –2011] 4.77) What is the use of connecting rod? 4.78) Why is I-section preferred for the connecting rod? 4.79) Why I section is chosen for the connecting rod of I.C engines? [AU, Nov / Dec – 2015] 4.80) Sketch the cross section of connecting rod at mid-span. 4.81) Why is piston end of a connecting rod kept smaller than the crank pin end? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010] 4.82) Under what force, the big end bolts and caps are designed? [AU, Nov / Dec –2011] 4.83) What type of external forces act on connecting rod? [AU, Nov / Dec –2012] PART - B 4.84) Design a spring for a balance to measure 0 to 1000 N over a scale of length 80 mm. The spring is to be enclosed in a casting of 25 mm diameter. The approximate number of turns is 30. The modulus of rigidity is 85 KN/mm2. Also calculate the maximum shear stress induced. 4.85) One helical spring is nested inside another; the dimensions are as tabulated below. Both the springs have the same free length and carry a total load of 2500 N. Outer spring Inner springs Number of active coils 6 10 Wire diameter 12.5 mm 9mm Mean coil diameter 100 mm 70 mm Determine the i) Maximum load carried by each spring
- 5. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 68 ii) Total deflection of each spring iii) Maximum stress in each spring TakeG = 83 GPa. 4.86) Design a spring for a spring loaded safety valve for the following conditions. Operating pressure 10 bar. Diameter of the valve seat 100mm. Design shear stress for the spring material is 400 N/mm2. Modulus of rigidity is 8.00 x 104N/mm2. The spring is to be kept in a casing of 120 mm inner diameter and 350mm long. The spring should be at maximum lift to 6mm, when the pressure is 11 bar. 4.87) A spring loaded safety valve for a boiler is required to blow-off at a pressure of 1.5 N/mm2. The diameter of the valve is 60 mm. Design a suitable compression spring for the safety valve, assuming the spring index to be 6 and 25 mm initial compression. The maximum lift of the valve is 15 mm. The shear stress in the spring material is to be limited to 450 MPa. Take G = 0.84 * 105MPa. 4.88) A spring for a spring balance is to elongate 100mm, when subjected to a load of 20Kgf. Assume that the mean diameter of the coil is to be 6 times the diameter of the wire and the maximum stress to be induced is limited to 40 Kgf/mm2. Determine the diameter for the wire, for the coil and the number of coils required and length of spring. Modulus of rigidity G.=0.8 x104Kgf/mm2. 4.89) Design and draw a valve spring of a petrol engine for the following operating conditions: Spring load when the valve is opened = 400 N Spring load when the valve is closed = 250 N Maximum inside diameter of spring = 25 mm Length of the spring when the valve is opened = 40 mm Length of the spring when the valve is closed = 50 mm Maximum permissible shear stress = 400 MPa 4.90) Design a helical spring for a spring loaded safety valve of the following conditions:
- 6. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 69 Diameter of valve seat = 65mm Operation pressure = 0.7N/mm2 Maximum pressure when the valve blows freely = 0.75N/mm2 Maximum lift of the valve when the pressure rises from 0.7 to 0.75N.mm2 = 3.5mm Maximum allowable stress = 550MPa Modulus of rigidity = 84kN/mm2 Spring index = 6 Draw a neat sketch of the free spring showing the main dimensions. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012] 4.91) A safety valve of 60 mm diameter is to blow off at a pressure of 1.2 N/mm2 . It is held on its seat by a closed coil helical spring. The maximum lift of the valve is 10 mm. Design a suitable compression spring of C = 5 and providing an initial compression of 35 mm. = 500 MPa, G = 80 KN/mm2 . Calculate the a) Diameter of the spring wire b) Mean coil diameter c) Number of active turns d) Pitch diameter of the coil. [AU, May / Jun – 2013, 2016] 4.92) Design a helical tension spring for a spring loaded safety valve for the following conditions. Diameter of valve seat = 65 mm. Operating pressure = 0.7 N/mm2 Maximum pressure = 0.75 N/mm2 . Maximum lift of the valve when the pressure ranges from 0.7 to 0.75 N/mm2 is 3.5 mm. = 550 MPa , G = 84 KN/mm2 , C = 6 4.93) Design a close-coiled helical spring of silicon-manganese steel for the valve of an IC engine capable of exerting a net force of 65N when the valve is open and 54N
- 7. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 70 when the valve is closed. The internal and external diameters are governed by space limitations, as it has to fit over bushing of 19 mm outside diameter and go inside a space of 38 mm diameter. The valve lift is 6 mm. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010] 4.94) A helical compression spring is used to absorb the shock. The initial compression of the spring is 30 mm and it is further compressed by 50 mm while absorbing the shock. The spring is to absorb 250 J of energy during the process. The spring index can be taken as 6. The spring is made of patented and cold drawn steel wire with ultimate strength of 1500 N/mm and modulus of rigidity of 81370 N/mm2 . The permissible shear stress for the spring wire should be taken as 30% of the ultimate tensile strength. Design the spring and calculate [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009] 4.95) A helical compression spring is used to absorb the shock. The initial compression of the spring is 30 mm and it is further compressed by 50 mm while absorbing the shock. The spring is to absorb 250 J of energy during the process. The spring index can be taken as 6. The spring is made of patented and cold drawn steel wire with ultimate strength of 1500 N/mm and modulus of rigidity of 81370 N/mm2 . The permissible shear stress for the spring wire should be taken as 30% of the ultimate tensile strength. Design the spring and calculate : [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009] (i) Wire diameter (ii) Mean coil diameter (iii) Number of active turns (iv) Pitch of the turns 4.96) A close-coiled helical compression spring has plain ends and is to fit over a 25 mm diameter rod. When a compressive force of 100 N is applied to the spring it compresses by 50 mm. If the spring has a preferred wire diameter of 4 mm, and the spring material has a maximum allowable shear stress of 180 MN/m2 and a modulus of rigidity of 81 GN/m2 , determine [AU, May / Jun – 2014] (i) The mean coil diameter of the spring. (ii)The diametrical clearance between the spring and the rod. (iii) The number of coil in the spring (iv) The solid length of the spring.
- 8. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 71 4.97) Design a compression spring for a static load for the given data; the spring thrust must give a minimum force of 455 N and maximum force of 682 N over an adjustment range of 18.75 mm deflection. Use the least expensive, unpeened, cold drawn spring wire since the load is static. Ultimate strength = 1318 MPa, Modulus of Rigidity G = 79.6 GPa. Mass density = 8300 kg/m3 [AU, Apr / May – 2010] 4.98) A helical valve spring is to be designed for an operating load range of approximately 90 to 135 N. The deflection of the spring for the above load range is about 7.5mm. Assuming severe service and spring index of 10, determine the size of wire, size and number of coils and pitch recommend [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008] 4.99) Design a closed coiled helical spring subjected a tensile load of magnitude varying from 2500 N to 3000 N and the axial deflection of spring for this range of load is 6.5 mm. Design the spring, taking the spring index as 6 and safe shear stress for material equal to 465 MPa. [AU, Nov / Dec –2014] 4.100) At the bottom of a mine shaft, a group of 10 identical close coiled helical springs are set in parallel to absorb the shock caused by the falling of the cage in case of failure. The loaded cage weighs 75 KN, while the counterweight has a weight of 15 KN. If the loaded cage falls through a height of 50 m from the rest, find the maximum stress induced in each spring if it is made of 50 mm diameter steel rod. The spring index is 6 and the number of active turns in each spring is 20. Take G = 80 KN / mm2 . 4.101) A rail wagon of mass 20 tonnes is moving with a velocity of 2 m/sec. It is brought to rest by two buffers with spring of 300 mm diameter. Maximum deflection is 250 mm. Take = 60 MPa. Design the spring for buffer. 4.102) A railway wagon moving at a velocity of 1.5 m/s is brought to rest by bumper consisting of two helical springs arranged in parallel. The mass of the wagon is 1500 kg. The springs are compressed by 150 mm in bringing the wagon to rest. The spring index can be taken as 6. The springs are made of oil-hardened and tempered steel wire with ultimate tensile strength of 1250 MPa and modulus of rigidity of 81.37 GPa. The· permissible shear stress for the spring wire can be taken as 50% of the ultimate tensile strength. Design the spring and calculate (i) wire diameter (ii) mean coil diameter (iii) number of active coils (iv) total number of coils (v) solid length (vi) free length and (vii) pitch of the coil. [AU, Nov / Dec – 2015]
- 9. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 72 4.103) A loaded narrow gauge car of mass 1800 kg and moving at a velocity 72 m/min, is brought to rest by a bumper consisting of two helical steel spring of square section. The mean diameter of the coil is 6 times the side of the square section. In bringing the car to rest, the springs are to be compressed 200 mm Take = 365 MPa and C = 6. 4.104) A helical compression spring made of oil tempered carbon steel, is subjected to a load which varies from 600 N to 1600 N. Take C = 6 and FOS = 1.25. If the yield shear stress is 770 MPa and endurance stress in shear is 350 MPa, the compression at the maximum load is 30 mm. Assume G = 80 GPa. Find the size of the spring wire and the mean diameter of the spring coil, no of turns, pitch and free length. [AU, May / Jun – 2016] 4.105) A helical compression spring made of oil tempered carbon steel is subjected to a load which varies from 400 N to 1000 N. The spring index is 6 and the design factor of safely is 1.25. If the yield stress in shear is 770 MPa and endurance stress in shear is 350 MPa, find: (i) Size of the spring wire, (ii) Diameter of the spring. (iii) Number of turns of the spring, and (iv) Free length of the spring. The compression of the spring at the maximum load is 30 mm. The modulus of rigidity for the spring material may be taken as 80 kN/mm2 . [AU, Nov / Dec –2013] 4.106) A helical spring is to support a load of 1000 N. The spring is guided by a rod of 50 mm diameter. The spring undergoes a deflection of 40 mm under the load. Determine the diameter of the wire and the number of turns required. Use C - 60 steel with a factor of safety of 2. 4.107) Derive the stress equation for a helical spring. [AU, Nov / Dec – 2007] 4.108) Design a helical compression spring for a maximum load of 1500 N for a deflection of 30 mm using the value of spring index as 5. The maximum permissible shear stress for spring wire is 420 MPa and modulus of rigidity is 84 kN/mm2 . [AU, Apr / May – 2011] 4.109) Design a helical compression spring for a maximum load of 4000 N for a deflection of 80 mm using the value of spring index as 6. The maximum permissible shear stress for spring wire is 350 MPa and modulus of rigidity is 81 kN/mm2 . [AU, Apr / May – 2015]
- 10. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 73 4.110) Design a helical compression spring for a maximum load of 1000 N for a deflection of 25 mm using the value of spring index as 5. The maximum permissible shear stress for spring wire is 420 MPa and modulus of rigidity is 84 kN/mm2 . [AU, Nov / Dec – 2007] 4.111) Design a closed coiled helical compression spring for a service load ranging from 2.5 KN to 3KN. The deflection for this load range is 6mm. Use a spring index of 5. Take the shear yield strength as 700 N/mm2 and modulus of rigidity as 8 x 104N/mm2. Factor of safety is not to be less than 1.3. Also check the spring of buckling. 4.112) Design a closed coiled helical compression spring for a service load ranging from 2.5 KN to 3KN. The deflection for this load range is 6mm. Use a spring index of 5. Take the shear yield strength as 700 N/mm2 and modulus of rigidity as 8 * 104 N/mm2 . Factor of safety is not to be less than 1.3. Also check the spring of buckling. 4.113) Design a closed coiled helical compression spring for a service load ranging from 2.25 KN to 2.75KN. The deflection for this load range is 6mm. Use a spring index of 5. Take the permissible shear stress intensity as 420 N/mm2 and modulus of rigidity as 84 x 103 N/mm2. Neglect the effects of stress concentration. Draw a fully dimensioned sketch of the spring, showing the details of the finish of the end coils. [AU, Nov / Dec – 2012] 4.114) Design and draw a valve spring of a petrol engine for the following operating conditions: Spring load when the valve is open = 400 N Spring load when the valve is closed = 250 N Maximum inside diameter of the spring = 25 mm Length of the spring when the valve is open = 40 mm Length of the spring when the valve is closed = 50 mm Maximum permissible shear stress = 400 MPa. [AU, Apr / May – 2011]
- 11. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 74 4.115) A helical spring is made from a wire of 6mm diameter and outside diameter of 70mm. the spring has 6 numbers of active coils. If the permissible stress in shear is 300N/mm2 and the modulus of the rigidity is 80kN/mm2 , find the axial load which the spring can take and the deflection produced. [AU, May / Jun - 2012] 4.116) A helical spring is made from a wire of 8 mm diameter and is of outside diameter 75 mm. The spring has 6 numbers of active coils. If the permissible stress in shear is 350 N/mm2 and the modulus of rigidity is 84 kN/mm2 . Find the axial load, which the spring can take and the deflection produced. [AU, Nov / Dec – 2015] 4.117) A helical torsion spring of mean diameter 600 mm is made of a round wire of 6 mm diameter. If a torque of 6 Nm is applied on the spring, find the bending stress induced and the angular deflection of spring in degrees. Take C = 10, E = 200 KN/mm2 . The number of effective turns may be taken as 5.5. 4.118) A concentric spring for an aircraft engine valve is to exert a maximum force of 5 KN under a axial deflection of 40mm. Both the springs have the same free length, same solid length and are subjected to equal maximum shear stress of 500 N/mm2. If the spring index for both the springs is 6, find the (a) load shared by each spring (b) main dimensions of both the springs, and (c) number of active coils of each spring. Assume G = 0.8 x 105N/mm2 and diametral clearance to be equal to the difference between the wire diameters. 4.119) A concentric spring is used as a valve spring in a heavy duty engine. It consists of two helical compression springs having the same free length and same solid length. The composite spring subjected to a maximum force of 6000N and the corresponding deflection is 50mm. The maximum torsional shear stress induced in spring is 800 N/mm2 . The spring index of each spring is 6. Assume the same material for two springs and the modulus of rigidity of the spring is 8137 N/m2 . The diametral clearance between the coils is equal to the difference between the wire diameters. Calculate [AU, April / May – 2010] (i) The axial force transmitted by the spring. (ii) Wire and mean coil diameters of each springs (iii) Number of active coils in each springs
- 12. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 75 4.120) A truck spring has 10 leaves and is supported at a span length of 100 cm, with a central band of 80 mm wide. A load of 6 KN is applied at the center of spring whose permissible stress is 300 N/mm2. The spring has a ratio of total depth to width of about 2.5. Determine the width, thickness, deflection and length of all leaves. 4.121) A load of 10 tones is supported on a 4 leaf springs, each consisting of 10 leaves. The span of each spring is 80cm and the material of the spring is having permissible tensile stress of 6 N/mm2 and E = 2*105 N/mm2 . The maximum deflection allowed is 80cm. Design a spring. [AU, Nov / Dec – 2008] 4.122) A truck spring has 12 numbers of leaves, two of which are full length leaves. The spring supports are 10.5 m apart and the central band is 85mm wide. The central load is to be 5.4 kN with a permissible stress of 280 MPa. Determine the thickness and width of the steel spring leaves. The ratio of the total depth to the width of the spring is 3. Also determine the deflection of the spring. [AU, May / June – 2009] 4.123) A truck spring has 12 numbers of leaves, two of which are full lengthy leaves. The spring supports are 1.05 m apart and the central band is 85 mm wide. The central load is to be 5.4 kN with a permissible stress of 280 MPa. Determine the thickness and width of the steel spring leaves. The ratio of the total depth to the width of the spring is 3. Also determine the deflection of the spring. [AU, Nov / Dec – 2007, 2011] 4.124) A locomotive spring has an overall length of 1.5 m and sustains a load of 85 KN at its center. The spring has 3 full - length leaves and 15 graduated leaves with a central band of 120 mm wide. All the leaves are stressed to 430 N/mm2when fully loaded. The ratio of spring depth to width is 3. Take E = 2.1 x 105N/mm2. (i) Find the width and thickness of the leaves (ii)Find the initial space that should be provided between the full - length leaves and (iii)Graduated leaves before the band load is applied. (iv) When will the load be exerted on the band after the spring is assembled? 4.125) A locomotive spring has an overall length of 1.1m and a sustained load of 75 KN at its center. The spring has 3 full length leaves and 15 graduated leaves with a central band of 100 mm wide. All leaves are to be stressed to 420 N/mm2 . When
- 13. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 76 fully loaded, the ratio of the spring depth to width is to be approximately 2. Take E = 2.1 X 105 N/mm2 . (i) Determine the width and thickness of leaves (ii)Determine the initial space that should be provided between the full length and graduated leaves before the band load is applied. (iii) What load is exerted on the band after the spring is assembled? 4.126) A Belleville spring is made of silicon steel. The spring compresses completely flat when it is subjected to axial force of 4500N. The corresponding maximum stress is 1375 *106 N/m2. Assume do/di = 1.75 and h/t 1.5. Calculate (i) Thickness of washer (ii) Free height of washer minus thickness (h) (iii) Outer diameter of washer (iv) Inner diameter of washer [AU, April / May – 2010] 4.127) A semi-elliptic leaf spring consists of two extra full-length leaves and eight graduated length leaves, including the master leaf. The centre-to-centre distance between the two eyes of the spring is 1m. The maximum force acting on the spring is 10KN and the width of each leaf is 50 mm. The spring is initially preloaded in such a way that when the load is maximum, the stresses induced in all the leaves are equal to 350N/mm2 . The modulus of elasticity of the leaf material is 207 KN/mm2 . Determine the i) thickness of leaves and ii) deflection of the spring at the maximum load. 4.128) A locomotive semi-elliptical laminated spring has an overall length of 1 m and sustains a load of 70 kN at its centre. The spring has 3 full length leaves and 15 graduated leaves with a central band of 100 mm width. All the leaves are to be stressed to 400 MPa, when fully loaded. The ratio of the total spring depth to that of width is 2. Take young modulus is 210 kN/mm2 . Determine (i) the thickness and width of the leaves (ii) the initial gap that should be provided between the full length and graduated leaves before the band load is applied and (iii) the load exerted on the band after the spring is assembled. [AU, Nov / Dec –2011]
- 14. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 77 4.129) A semi - elliptic spring has an overall length of 1.1m and sustains a load of 70 KN at its center. The spring has 3 extra full length leaves and 13 graduated leaves with a central band of 100mm wide. All the leaves are to be stressed equally without exceeding 420 N/mm2 when fully loaded. The total depth of spring is twice the width. If the Young’s modulus is 2.1 x 105N/mm2, determine the (i) Thickness and width of leaves (ii) Nip to be provided for prestressing. (iii) Load exerted on the clipping bolts after the spring is assembled. [AU, Nov / Dec – 2006] 4.130) A semi - elliptic leaf spring is of 1 m long and is required to resist a load of 50 KN. The spring has 15 leaves, of which three are full length leaves. The width of the central band is 100 mm. All the leaves are to be stressed to 420 MPa. The ratio of the total depth to width is 3. Take E = 2.1 X 105MPa. Determine the (i) Thickness and width of the leaves (ii) Initial gap that should be provided between the full length and graduated leaves before assembly and (iii) Load exerted on the band for the assembly. 4.131) A semi - elliptic laminated truck spring to carry a load of 6000 N is to consist of seven leaves 65 mm wide, two of the leaves extending the full length of the spring. The spring is to be 1.1 m long and attached to the axle by two U - bolts 80mm apart. The bolt holds the central portion of the spring so rigidly that they may be considered equivalent to a band having a width equal to the distance between the bolts. Assume a design stress for spring material as 350N/mm2. Determine the (i) thickness of leaves, (ii) deflection of spring (iii) diameter of the eye, (iv) initial bending radius of the leaves and (v) length of leaves. [AU, May / June – 2007] 4.132) Design a leaf spring for a truck to the following specifications: Maximum load on the spring = 140 kN Number of springs = 4
- 15. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 78 Material = Chromium vanadium steel Permissible tensile stress = 600 N/mm2 . Maximum number of leaves = 10 Span of spring = 1000 mm Permissible deflection = 80 mm Young’s modulus of the spring = 2 *105 N/mm2 [AU, Nov / Dec – 2008, 2012, April / May – 2011] 4.133) Design a leaf spring for a truck to the following specifications: Maximum load on the spring = 100 kN Factor of safety = 2 Number of springs = 4 Material = Chromium vanadium steel Permissible Ultimate stress = 1380MPa. Maximum number of leaves = 8 Full length leaves = 2 Graduated leaves = 6 Span of spring = 1000 mm Width of the central band = 150 mm Permissible deflection = 100 mm Young’s modulus of the spring = 206 *103 MPa [AU, Apr / May – 2015] 4.134) A leaf spring for a small trailer is to support a load of 10kN. The spring has 6 graduated leaves and 2 extra full length leaves of spring steel of safe stress 360MPa. The overall length is 1.2m and the central band is 75mm wide. Taking the ratio of total depth of leaves to width as, design the spring. [AU, May / Jun - 2012] 4.135) A disc spring made up of sheet steel with outer diameter 125mm and inner diameter 50mm the spring is dished to a height of 4.5mm. The maximum stress 550MPa. Determine the load and deflection of spring. 4.136) The flywheel of a punching machine must be capable of supplying 2600 Nm of energy in order to punch a hole. The flywheel is 1.25 mm in mean diameter and
- 16. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 79 rotates at 150 rpm when running at a normal speed. Determine the cross sectional area required for the rim of the cast iron flywheel if the co-efficient of fluctuation of speed limit to 0.15. 4.137) A multi cylinder engine is to run at a constant load with a speed of 600 rpm. On drawing the crank effort diagram to scale of 1cm = 2500 Nm and 1cm = 300 , the area above and below the mean torque line in sq. cm are as follows. +1.6, -1.72, +1.68, -1.91, +1.97, - 1.62. The speed is to be kept within 1 % of the mean speed of the engine. Find suitable dimensions of a cast-iron flywheel rim assuming suitable proportions. [AU, Nov / Dec – 2006] 4.138) Design a cast-iron flywheel having six arms for a four stroke engine developing 70 KN at 300 rpm. The mean diameter of the flywheel may be taken as 1.2m. The fluctuation of speed is 2.5% of the mean speed. The work done during power stroke is 1.4 times the average work done during the whole cycle. The peripheral speed is limited to 30 m/sec. Allowable shear stress for shaft and key material is 40N/mm2 and tensile stress for cast-iron is 20 N/mm2 . Take the width of the rim to be twice its thickness and the major axis of the elliptical arms to be twice the minor axis. 4.139) The torque developed by the engine is given by following equation T = 14250+2200sin2θ-1800cos2θ Where T is the torque in Nm and θ is crank angle from inner dead center position. The resisting torque of the machine is constant throughout the work cycle. The coefficient of fluctuations is 0.01. The engine speed is 150rpm. A solid circular steel disk 50mm, thick is used as a flywheel. The mass density is 7800kg/m3 . Calculate the diameter of the flywheel disk. [AU, Apr / May – 2011] 4.140) Design and draw suitable flywheel for a four stroke four cylinder 133 Kw engine running at 375 rpm. Due to space restriction the flywheel diameter should not exceed 1.2m [AU, Nov / Dec – 2010] 4.141) Rimmed flywheel made of grey cast-iron (mass density = 7100 kg/m3 ) is used on a punching press running at a mean speed of 200 rpm. The punching operation consists of one quarter revolution during which the flywheel is required to supply 3000Nm of energy. The co-efficient of speed fluctuation is limited to 0.2. The rim,
- 17. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 80 which contributes 90% of the required moment of inertia, has a mean radius of 0.5m due to space limitations. The cross section of the rim is square. Determine its dimensions. 4.142) A 5 kW induction motor, running at 960 rpm operates a riveting machine. The flywheel fitted to it, is of mass 120 kg, with radius of gyration equal to 0.35 m. Each riveting takes 1 second and requires 9 kW. Determine (i) the number of rivets formed per hour and (ii) the reduction in speed of the flywheel, after the riveting operation. [AU, Nov / Dec – 2015] 4.143) Design a C I flywheel for a four stroke engine developing 150KW at 200 rpm. Calculate the mean diameter of the flywheel if the hoop stress is not to exceed 4 MPa. The total fluctuation of speed is to be 4% of mean speed. The work done during the power stroke is 1.5 times the average work done during the cycle. Density of CI is 7200 kg/m3 . [AU, Nov / Dec – 2003, 2014] 4.144) Design a C.I rim type flywheel with six arms, for a four stroke diesel engine developing 100KN The peak torque may be assumed to be 12 times the mean torque and the maximum fluctuation of energy is 70% of the energy per cycle. The load of the engine is constant. The engine runs at the speed of 1000 rpm and the speed of fluctuation is limited to 20 rpm. Assume suitable stresses. 4.145) A punching machine makes 25 working strokes per minute and is capable of punching 25 mm diameter holes in 18 mm thick steel plates having ultimate shear strength of 300 MPa. The punching operation takes place during 1/10th of a revolution of the crankshaft. Estimate the power needed for the driving motor, assuming mechanical efficiency of 95%. Determine suitable dimensions for the rim cross-section of the flywheel, which is to revolve at 9 times the speed of the crankshaft. The permissible co-efficient of fluctuation of speed is 0.1. The diameter of the flywheel must not exceed 1.4 m owing to space restrictions. Check for the centrifugal stress induced in the rim. [AU, May / June – 2007] 4.146) A punching press pierces 35 holes per minute in a plate using 10kN-m of energy per hole during each revolution. Each piercing takes 40 per cent of the time needed to make one revolution. The punch receives power through a gear reduction unit which in tum is fed by a motor driven belt pulley 800 mm diameter and turning at 210 r.p.m. Find the power of the electric motor if overall efficiency of the
- 18. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 81 transmission unit is 80 per cent. Design a cast iron flywheel to be used with the punching machine for a coefficient of steadiness of 5, if the space considerations limit the maximum diameter to 1.3 m. Allowable shear stress in the shaft material = 50 MPa, Allowable tensile stress of cast iron= 4 MPa, Density of cast iron = 7200 kg/m3 . [AU, May / Jun – 2016] 4.147) A machine punching 38 mm holes in 32 mm thick plate requires 7 N-m of energy per sq. mm of sheared area, and punches one hole in every 10 seconds. Calculate the power of the motor required. The mean speed of the flywheel is 25 meters per second. The punch has a stroke of 100 mm. find the mass of the flywheel required, if the total fluctuation of speed is not to exceed 3% of the mean speed. Assume that the motor supplies energy to the machine at uniform rate. [AU, May / Jun - 2013] 4.148) A single cylinder double acting steam engine delivers 185 KW at 100 rpm. The maximum fluctuation of energy per revolution is 15% of energy developed per revolution. The speed variation is limited to 1% either way from the mean. The mean diameter of the rim is 2.4 m. Design a cast iron flywheel for the engine. [AU, April / May – 2001, May / Jun – 2012, 2016, Nov / Dec –2013] 4.149) Design a cast iron flywheel used for a four stroke I.C engine developing 180kW at 240rpm. The hoop or centrifugal stress developed in the flywheel is 5.2MPa, the total fluctuation of speed is to be limited to 3% of the mean speed. The work done during the power stroke is 1/3 more than the average work done during the whole cycle. The maximum torque on the shaft is twice the mean torque. The density of the cast iron is 7220kg/m3 [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012] 4.150) During one revolution of the crank of multi cylinder engine the area above and below the mean turning moment line in order are 36, 81, 75, 64, 92, and 58 sq.mm. the horizontal scale is 1cm = 45° and the vertical scale 1cm = 720N m. Find the area of the cross section of the rim of the fly wheel required to limit the total fluctuation of speed to 3% of mean speed which is 150 rpm. The mean speed of the rim is 1000m/min and density of the rim is 7260kg/m3 [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008] 4.151) A rimmed flywheel made of grey cast iron (mass density = 7100 kg/m3 ) is used on a punching press running at the speed of 200 rpm. The punching operation consist of one quarter revolution during which the flywheel is required to supply 3000 N-m of energy. The co efficient of speed fluctuation is limited as 0.2. the rim which
- 19. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 82 contributes 90% of the required moment of inertia has been mean radius of 0.5m due to space limitations. The cross section of the rim in square. Determine its dimensions. [AU, Apr / May – 2010] 4.152) A multi cylinder engine is to run at a constant load at a speed of 600 rpm. On drawing the crank effort diagram to scale of 1 mm = 250 N-m and 1 mm = 3o , the areas in square mm above and below the mean torque line were measured and found to be in order +160, -172, +168, -191, +197 and -162. The speed is to be kept within ± 1% of the mean speed of the engine. Determine the moment of inertia of the flywheel. [AU, May / June – 2009, Apr / May – 2011] 4.153) A multi cylinder engine is to run at a constant load at a speed of 600 rpm. On drawing the crank effort diagram to scale of 1 mm = 250 N-m and 1 mm = 3°, the areas in square mm above and below the mean torque line were measured and found to be in order +160, –172, +168, –191, +197 and –162. The speed is to be kept with in ±1% of the mean speed of the engine. Determine the moment of inertia of the flywheel. Also determine suitable dimensions for cast iron flywheel with a rim whose breadth is twice its radial thickness. The density of cast iron is 7250 kg/m3 , and its working stress in tension is 6 MPa. Assume that the rim contributes 92% of the flywheel effect. [AU, Nov / Dec –2011] 4.154) The turning moment diagram of a multi cylinder engine is drawn with a scale of (1mm - 1o ) on the abscissa and (1mm = 250 N-m) on the ordinate. The intercepted areas between the torque developed by the engine and the mean resisting torque of the machine, taken in order from one end are – 350 + 800 - 500 + 900 - 550 + 450 and - 650 mm2 . The engine is running at a mean speed of 750 rpm and the coefficient of speed fluctuations is limited to 0.02. A rimmed flywheel made of grey cast iron FG 200 ( = 7100 kg / m3 ) is provided. The spokes, hub and shaft are assumed to contribute 10% of the required moment of inertia. The rim has rectangular cross section and the ratio of width to thickness is 1.5. Determine the dimensions of rim. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009] 4.155) The areas of the turning moment diagram for one revolution of a multi cylinder engine with reference to the mean tuning moment, below and above the line, are - 32, +408, -267, +333, -310, +226, -374, +260 and -244 mm2 . The scale for abscissa and ordinate are: 1 mm=2.4º and 1 mm = 650 N-m respectively. The mean speed is
- 20. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 83 300 r.p.m. with a percentage speed fluctuation of ± 1.5%. If the hoop stress in the material of the rim is not to exceed 5.6 MPa, determine the suitable diameter and cross section for the fly-wheel, assuming that the width is equal to 4 times the thickness. The density of material may be taken as 7200 kg/m3 . Neglect the effect of the boss and arms. [AU, May / Jun – 2014] 4.156) An engine runs at a constant load at a speed of 480rpm. The crank effort diagram is drawn to a scale 1mm = 200 N-m torque and 1mm = 3.6˚ crank angle. The areas of the diagram above and below the mean torque line in mm2 are in the following order: +110, -132, +153, -166, +197, - 162. Design a flywheel if the total fluctuation of the speed does not exceed 10rpm and the centrifugal stress in the rim is not to exceed 5MPa. Assume that the rim breadth is approximately 2.5times the rim thickness and 90% of the moment of inertia is due to rim. The density of the material of the flywheel is 7250kg/m3 . Make a sketch of the flywheel giving the dimensions of the rim, the mean diameter of the rim and the other estimated dimensions of spoke, hub etc. [AU, May / Jun - 2012] 4.157) A single cylinder double acting steam engine delivers 185 kW at 100 rpm The maximum fluctuation of energy per revolution is 15 percent of the energy developed per revolution. The speed variation is limited to 1 percent either way from the mean. The mean diameter of the rim is 2.4 m. Design the suitable flywheel. [AU, Nov / Dec – 2007] 4.158) A single cylinder double acting steam engine delivers 187.5kW at 100rpm. The maximum fluctuation of energy per revolution is 15%. The speed variation is limited to 1% either way from the mean diameter of the rim is 2.4m. Design a cast iron flywheel for the engine. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008] 4.159) A single cylinder four stroke oil engine develops 20kW at 300rpm. The work done by the gases during the expansion stroke is 2.3 times the work done on gases during the compression and work done during the suction and exhaust strokes are negligible. The speed is to be maintained within ±1%. Determine the mass moment of inertia. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011] 4.160) A blanking press turns out 150 blanks per min. E ach operation starts with a peak torque of 9KNm and gradually reduces to 0 over a 30 of crank rotation of the ram. The flywheel of the press is mounted in a lay shaft rotating at 500rpm and max.
- 21. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 84 Permissible overall speed variation is 25rpm. Find the power requirement of the press and determine the C.S of CI flywheel. Assume suitable data. 4.161) A cast iron flywheel for a blanking press has a mean diameter of 1.5m. The normal operating speed of 275 rpm slows down to 250 rpm during the punching operation. The required energy Fluctuation is 6500 joules and the density of the cast iron is 7000 kg/m3 . Find the area of flywheel rim if the arms and hub provide 7% of the flywheel effect. [AU, Nov / Dec – 2015] 4.162) Design an overhang crankshaft for the following data maximum load on the crankpin for max torque position = 50 kN crank radius = 200 mm Distance between crank pin center and nearby bearing center = 300 mm Allowable stress in bending = 70 Mpa Shear = 50 Mpa Bearing = 7 Mpa 4.163) Design a plain carbon steel center crankshaft for a single acting 4 stroke single cylinder engine for the following data. Bore = 400 mm, stroke = 600 mm, engine speed = 200 rpm mean effective pressure = 0.5 N/mm2 , max combustion pressure = 2.5 N/m2 , Weight of flywheel used as a pulley = 50 kN, Total belt pull = 6.5 kN. 4.164) Design a plain carbon steel centre crankshaft for a single acting four stroke, single cylinder engine for the following data: Piston diameter = 200mm; Stroke = 400mm; Maximum Combustion Pressure = 2N/mm2 ; Weight of Flywheel = 15kN; Total Belt Pull 3N; Length of the Connecting Rod = 900mm. When the crank has turned through 30 o from top dead centre, the pressure in the piston is 1N/mm2 and the torque on the crank is maximum. Any other data for the design may be assumed. [AU, May / Jun - 2012] 4.165) When the crank turned through 35o from the top dead center, the pressure on the piston is 1 N/mm2 and the torque on the crank is maximum. The ratio of the connecting rod length to the crank radius is 5. Assume any other data required for the design. 4.166) Design a side (or) overhung crankshaft for a 250 mm * 300 mm gas engine. The weight of the flywheel is 30 kN and the explosion pressure is 2.1 N/mm2 . The gas pressure at the maximum torque is 0.9 N/mm2 , when the crank angle is 35o from IDC. The connecting rod is 4.5 times the crank radius.
- 22. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 85 4.167) The connecting rod of a petrol engine is to be designed for the following data. Piston diameter = 80 mm Stroke = 120 mm Weight of reciprocating parts = 15 N Length of connecting rod = 240 mm Speed (maximum) = 2800 rpm Explosion pressure corresponding to 10o of crank angle is 3 MPa. Factor of safety is 6.If the connecting rod is to be made of 40Crl steel, find the dimension of the I-section connecting rod. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010] 4.168) Design a suitable connecting rod for a petrol engine for the following details. Diameter of the piston = 100mm; weight of the reciprocating parts per cylinder = 20N; connecting rod length = 300mm; Compression ratio = 7:1; Maximum explosion pressure = 3N/mm2 ; Stoke = 140mm; speed of the engine = 2000rpm. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012] 4.169) Determine the dimension of an I-section connecting rod for a petrol engine for the following data. [AU, Nov / Dec –2013] Diameter of piston = 110 mm Mass of the reciprocating parts = 2 kg Length of the connecting rod from center to center = 325 mm Stroke length = 150 mm R.P.M = 1500 with possible over speed of 12500 Compression ratio = 4 : 1 Maximum explosion pressure = 2.5 N/mm2 . 4.170) A connecting rod is required to design for a high speed, four stroke I.C engine. The following data are available. Diameter of the piston = 88mm Mass of the reciprocating parts = 1.6kg Length of the connecting rod center - center = 300mm Stroke = 125mm Rpm (when developing 50kW) = 2200
- 23. R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ ME6503 / V / MECH / JUNE 2016 – NOV 2016 ME6503 – DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 86 Possible over speed = 3000 rpm Compression ratio = 6.8:1 Probable maximum explosion pressure (assumed shortly after centre, at about 3˚) = 3.5N/mm2 . Draw fully dimensional drawings on the connecting rod showing the provision for the lubrications. [AU, May / Jun - 2012] 4.171) Design a mild steel connecting rod with an I-section for a single cylinder IC engine from the following data. Diameter of the piston is 0.104 m; weight of reciprocating parts is 18.2 N; length of connecting rod-center to center is 0.314 m; stroke length is 0.14 m; speed of the engine is 1500 rpm; Maximum explosion pressure is 2.28 MPa. Assume that the maximum thrust takes place at TDC during the explosion stroke. Assume also any missing data. [AU, Nov / Dec –2011]