SYSTEM DESIGN•   ANALOG DATA IS DIGITIZED FOR TRANSMISSION, STORAGE,    PROCESSNG AND DISPLAY.•   DATA SHOULD BE DIGITIZED...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   MUX IS REQUIRED FOR HANDLING MORE THAN ONE SOURCE    OF DATA.•   TO INCREASE THE RATE AT WHICH THE INFO M...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   THOUGH THE ADVENT OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES HAVE    LED TO SMALLER, QUITE, COOL AND LOW-COST SYSTEMS AS   ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   ENVIRONMENT MAY GIVE RISE TO CONSIDERATIONS SUCH AS: ANALOG VS DIGITAL SIGNAL TRANSMISSION SIGNAL ACCUR...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   ACTIVE HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS ARE: PHYSICALLY: TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, ACCELERATION,  HUMIDITY, RADIATION, ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   SYSTEMS THAT WORK IN SUCH ENVIRONMENTS REQUIRE    ELECTRONIC DEVICES CAPABLE OF WIDE TEMPERATURE    RANGE...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   BESIDES ENVIRONMENT, WHICH ADDS MANY PRACTICAL PROBLEMS, THE    CHOICE OF CONFIGURATION AND CIRCUIT BUILD...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   THE OBJECTIVE ALWAYS IS TO OBTAIN THE LOWEST COST    CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION TO OBTAIN THE DESIRED OVERALL ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   FOR SIGNAL CONDITIONING, ONE USES: IN RATIOMETRIC CONVERSION: RANGE BIASING; AUTOMATIC  GAIN SWITCHING; ...
SYSTEM DESIGN• SINGLE CHANNEL CONVERSION SUBSYSTEMS: SIMPLEST IS THE FREE RUNNING A/D CONVERTER WHERE  THE CONV RATE IS D...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   THE ACTUAL VALUE OF THE INPUT THAT IS CONVERTED BY    AN INTEGRATING TYPE CONVERTER IS REPRESENTED BY    ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   THOUGH SLOW, IT IS USEFUL FOR TEMP CONVERSION, BATTERY    DISCHARGE, SLOWLY VARYING VOLTAGES PARTICULARLY...
SYSTEM DESIGN• USE OF SAMPLE HOLD: A CONVERTER CAN BE MADE TOMOPERATE AT  CONSIDERABLY GREATER ACCURACIES AT HIGH SPEED  ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   IF THE S/H RESPONDS INSTANTANEOUSLY AND    ACCURATELY, THE CONV CAN ACCURATELY CONVERT    SIGNALS HAVING ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   IN ORDER TO AVOID ERRORS DUE TO AN INSUFFICIENT NUMBER OF    SAMPLES, THE SAMPLING THEOREM TELLS US THAT ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   IF ANALOG SIGNALS AT HIGHER FREQ ARE PRESENT, THE    SAMPLING PROCESS WILL PRODUCE THE SUM AND DIFFERENCE...
SYSTEM DESIGN• PREAMPLIFICATION:o USUALLY, CONVERTERS ARE SINGLE ENDED W.R.T. POWER  COMMON ( SOME ARE DIFFERENTIAL AND HA...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   SOME A/D CONVERTERS HAVE ON-CHIP PREAMP (mV – V). THE ON-    CHIP PREAMP ALSO BUFFERS THE INPUT SOURCE FR...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   IF THE INPUT SIGNAL IS TO BE COMPLETELY ISOLATED    FROM THE SYSTEM THEN AN ISOLATION AMPLIFIER IS    REQ...
SYSTEM DESIGN• SIGNAL CONDITIONING:o CAN BE DONE BY ANALOG/DIGITAL TECHNIQUES.o eg., LINEARIZATION OF DATA FROM THERMOCOUP...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   ANALOG DIFFERENTIATION CAN BE USED TO MEASURE    CONTINUOUSLY THE RATE AT WHICH THE INPUT VARIES.•   INTE...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   RMS TO D CONVERTERS COMPUTE RMS DIRECTLY.•   ANALOG DIVIDERS ARE USED FOR COMPUTING RATIOS,    LOGS OF RA...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   ACTIVE FILTERS ARE USED TO MINIMIZE THE EFFECT OF NOISE,    CARRIER FREQS AND UNWANTED HF COMPS OF THE IN...
SYSTEM DESIGN• n-CHANNEL SYSTEM: HERE, THE ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM MAY BE SHARED BY 2  OR MORE INPUT SOURCES. THIS SHARING...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   WITH THE DECLINE IN THE COST OF THE DEVICE ONE CAN NOW    AFFORD THE PARALLEL CONVERSION PROCESS.•   FOR ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   DIGITIZING THE ANALOG SIGNAL AT THE SOURCE AND    TRANSMITTING SERIAL DATA HAS THE ADVANTAGE OF    CONSID...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   SO, LOGIC DECISION CIRCUITS OR LOCAL    MICROPROCESSOR CAN DECIDE WHEN AND WHICH DATA IS    TO BE FED TO ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   LINEAR TIME INVARIANT SYSTEM: A SYSTEM IS SAID TO BE LINEAR IF AND ONLY IF THE  SUPERPOSITION THEOREM IS...
SYSTEM DESIGN• SHANNON’S SAMPLING THEOREM: IT STATES THAT “ A FN OF TIME e(t) WHICH CONTAINS NO  FREQ COMPS GREATER THAN ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   SO, THE FOLLOWING SAMPLING FREQ CRITERION IS USED:    ωs > 2.ωc OTHERWISE OVERLAPING TAKES PLACE AND    A...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   BECAUSE OF THE FINITE WORD LENGTH, DECREASING T    INCREASES THE REQUIRED COMPUTATION TIME AS WELL AS    ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   THE IDEAL FILTER CHARACTERISTICS MAY BE APPROACHED BY    DECREASING THE SAMPLING TIME T•   DECREASING T I...
SYSTEM DESIGN•    THE nth ORDER HOLD DEVICE THEN PASSES WITHOUT     DISTORTION nth ORDER POLYNOMIAL. GENERALLY, ONLY     Z...
SYSTEM DESIGN1.   A GIVEN SYSTEM IS STABLE BUT ITS TRANSIENT     RESPONSE IS UNSATISFACTORY.3.   A GIVEN SYSTEM IS STABLE ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   A LAG NETWORK IS A LPF USED FOR SYSTEM IN CATEGORY    1.•   IT IS KNOWN AS A LAG NETWORK SINCE FOR A SINU...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   A LEAD NETWORK IS A HPF, USED FOR SYSTEMS WHOSE    PERFORMANCE FALLS INTO CATEGORY 2 OR 4.
SYSTEM DESIGN•   THE IMPROVEMENT ACHIEVED WITH THE HELP OF ABOVE    NETWORKS CAN BE OBTAINED WITH A SINGLE CIRCUIT KNOWN A...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   CONTROLLER:                                  M(s)             C(s)           R(s)   E(s)                 ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   A PROPORTIONAL TYPE FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM IS ONE    WHICH DEVELOPS A CORRECTING EFFORT PROPORTIONAL TO ...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   SO, TO MODIFY THE PERFORMANCE OF THE FEEDBACK    CONTROL SYSTEM, ONE ADOPTS EITHER•   DERIVATIVE CONTROL:...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   THE DERIVATIVE CONTROL ESSENTIALLY IS AN ANTICIPATORY    TYPE OF CONTROL. IT MEASURES THE INSTANTANEOUS S...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   THE HIGHER THE ORDER OF THE SYSTEM, THE MORE THE SYSTEM    TENDS TO BECOME UNSTABLE.•   PROPORTIONAL CONT...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   PROP. +DERIVATIVE CONTROL PROVIDES THE SMALLEST    MAXIMUM ERROR BECAUSE THE DERIVATIVE PART OF THE    RE...
SYSTEM DESIGN•   PROPORTIONAL CONTROL HAS A LARGER MAXIMUM DEVIATION    THAN CONTROLLER WITH DERIVATIVE ACTION BECAUSE OF ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

system design

498 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
498
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
19
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

system design

  1. 1. SYSTEM DESIGN• ANALOG DATA IS DIGITIZED FOR TRANSMISSION, STORAGE, PROCESSNG AND DISPLAY.• DATA SHOULD BE DIGITIZED RAPIDLY, FREQUENTLY, ACCURATELY, COMPLETELY AND CHEAPLY AS REQUIRED.• FOR ACCOMODATING THE INPUT VOLTAGE TO THE SPECIFIED CONVERSION RELATIONSHIP, SOME FORM OF SCALING AND OFFSETTING (SIGNAL CONDITIONING) IS NECESSARY.• ONE NEEDS AMPLIFIERS AND ATTENUATORS.
  2. 2. SYSTEM DESIGN• MUX IS REQUIRED FOR HANDLING MORE THAN ONE SOURCE OF DATA.• TO INCREASE THE RATE AT WHICH THE INFO MAY BE ACCURATELY CONVERTED, A S/H IS DESIRABLE.• A LOGARITHMIC AMPLIFIER IS USEFUL FOR COMPRESSING AN EXTRA WIDE ANALOG DYNAMIC RANGE.• THE PROPERTIES OF DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM DEPENDS UPON THE ANALOG DATA AND ITS PROCESSING.
  3. 3. SYSTEM DESIGN• THOUGH THE ADVENT OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES HAVE LED TO SMALLER, QUITE, COOL AND LOW-COST SYSTEMS AS THESE ARE LOW CURRENT DRAIN COMPONENTS BUT THE BASIC DESIGN PROBLEMS LIKE NOISE, EMI, GROUND LOOPS, POWER LINE PICK UP AND TRANSIENTS USED IN SIGNAL LINES FROM THE MACHINARY ARE TO BE CONFRONTED.• ONE HAS TO THINK ABOUT THE ENVIRONMENT AS USUALLY THE ANALOG DATA IS GENERATED IN HOT, NOISY ENVIRONMENT, PROCESSING IS DONE IN A QUIET CONTROL ROOM AND THE RESULTS ARE TRANSMITTED THROUGH A WORLD FULL OF INTERFERENCES.
  4. 4. SYSTEM DESIGN• ENVIRONMENT MAY GIVE RISE TO CONSIDERATIONS SUCH AS: ANALOG VS DIGITAL SIGNAL TRANSMISSION SIGNAL ACCURACY VS WAVEFORM RECOVERY ISOLATION VS DIRECT WIRING SIMPLE VS COMPLEX ARCHITECTURE INTEGRATED VS DISTRIBUTED APPROACHES LOCAL VS REMOTE PROCESSING CHOICE OF POWER SUPPLY AND OTHER HW
  5. 5. SYSTEM DESIGN• ACTIVE HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS ARE: PHYSICALLY: TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, ACCELERATION, HUMIDITY, RADIATION, ETC. CHEMICALLY: SALT SPRAY, BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS, DIRT, CHEMICALLY ACTIVE FLUID AND GAS. ELECTRICALLY: HIGH VOLTAGES AND MAGNETIC FIELDS, DC, AC TRANSIENT INTERFERENCE OVER THE WHOLE SPECTRUM.
  6. 6. SYSTEM DESIGN• SYSTEMS THAT WORK IN SUCH ENVIRONMENTS REQUIRE ELECTRONIC DEVICES CAPABLE OF WIDE TEMPERATURE RANGE OPERATION, EXCELLENT SHIELDING, CONSIDERABLE DESIGN EFFORT AIMED AT ELIMINATING COMMON MODE ERRORS, GOOD TRANSMISSION SYSTEM, REDUNDANT PATH FOR CRITICAL MEASUREMENT, ETC.• MEASUREMENT IN THE LAB WITH NARROWER TEMPERATURE RANGES AND ALMOST NO ELECTRICAL INTEFERENCE IS EASIER AND ITS COMMUNICATION IS ALSO EASIER BUT HIGHER ACCURACY REQUIRES MORE SENSITIVE DEVICES PLUS EFFORTS TO MAINTAIN THE APPROPRIATE S/ N RATIO.
  7. 7. SYSTEM DESIGN• BESIDES ENVIRONMENT, WHICH ADDS MANY PRACTICAL PROBLEMS, THE CHOICE OF CONFIGURATION AND CIRCUIT BUILDING BLOCKS IN ANY DAS DEPENDS UPON:o RESOLUTION AND ACCURACYo NO. OF CHANNELS TO BE MONITOREDo SAMPLING RATE PER CHANNELo THROUGHPUT RATEo SIGNAL CONDITIONING REQUIREMENTSo INTENDED DISPOSITION OF CONVERTED DATA ANDo THE COST FUNCTION
  8. 8. SYSTEM DESIGN• THE OBJECTIVE ALWAYS IS TO OBTAIN THE LOWEST COST CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION TO OBTAIN THE DESIRED OVERALL PERFORMANCE.• TYPICAL CONFIGURATIONS MAY BE: 1-CHANNEL: DIRECT CONVERSION; S/H & CONVERSION; PREAMPLIFICATION AND SIGNAL CONDITIONING. n-CHANNEL: MULTIPLEXING THE OUTPUT OF SINGLE CHANNEL CONVERTERS, MULTIPLEXING CONVERTER INPUTS, MULTIPLEXING THE INPUTS OF S/H, MULTIPLEXING THE OUTPUTS OF S/H.
  9. 9. SYSTEM DESIGN• FOR SIGNAL CONDITIONING, ONE USES: IN RATIOMETRIC CONVERSION: RANGE BIASING; AUTOMATIC GAIN SWITCHING; LOGARITHMIC COMPRESSION; LOGARITHMIC CONVERSION; DIGITAL CORRECTION OF ANALOG ERRORS FOR NOISE REDUCTION: FILTERING, INTEGRATING TYPE CONVERTERS, DIGITAL PROCESSING. WHILE MAKING TRADE-OFFS, ONE HAS TO ALWAYS KEEP IN MIND – HOW MUCH ERROR CAN BE TOLERATED AND THE SYSTEM RESPONSE TIME – ACCURACY AND TIMELINESS OF DATA.
  10. 10. SYSTEM DESIGN• SINGLE CHANNEL CONVERSION SUBSYSTEMS: SIMPLEST IS THE FREE RUNNING A/D CONVERTER WHERE THE CONV RATE IS DETERMINED BY THE TIME FOR COMPLETE CONVERSION. FOR DC AND LOW FREQ SIGNALS, THE CONV IS DUAL SLOPE TYPE AS IT IS INHERENTLY A LPF, CAPABLE OF AVERAGING OUT HF NOISE AND NULLING FREQS HARMONICALLY RELATED TO ITS INTEGRATING PERIOD. FOR THIS REASON, THE INTEGRATION PERIOD IS USUALLY MADE EQUAL TO THE PERIOD OF THE LINE FREQ. SINCE THE MAJOR PORTION OF SYSTEM INTERFERENCE USUALLY OCCURS AT THAT FREQ AND ITS HARMONICS.
  11. 11. SYSTEM DESIGN• THE ACTUAL VALUE OF THE INPUT THAT IS CONVERTED BY AN INTEGRATING TYPE CONVERTER IS REPRESENTED BY THE AVERAGE OVER THE SIGNAL INTEGRATION INTERVAL. SINCE THAT INTERVAL IS A FRACTION OF THE TOTAL TIME REQUIRED (~1/3) FOR THE CONVERSION CYCLE, ONE CAN SAY THAT THE DIGITAL OUTPUT REPRESENTS THE MOST PROBABLE VALUE DURING A SIGNIFICANT PORTION OF THE CONVERSION PERIOD.• THAT IS THE DUAL SLOPE INTEGRATING A/D CONV SPENDS ABOUT 1/3 OF ITS SAMPLING PERIOD IN PERFORMING THE INTEGRATION AND THE REMAINDER TIME IS SPENT IN COUNTING THE AV VALUE OVER THE INTEGRATION PERIOD AS A DIGITAL NUMBER, AND RESTTING TO INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR THE NEXT SAMPLE.
  12. 12. SYSTEM DESIGN• THOUGH SLOW, IT IS USEFUL FOR TEMP CONVERSION, BATTERY DISCHARGE, SLOWLY VARYING VOLTAGES PARTICULARLY IN THE PRESENCE OF THE NOISE.• THE MOST POPULAR CONVERTER IS SUCCESSIVE APPROX A/D CONV AS IT HAS HIGH RESOLUTION, HIGH SPEED (1 MICROSEC FOR 12 BIT CONV) AND REASONABLE COST.• ITS PROBLEM IS THAT AT HIGHER RATES OF CHANGE, IT GENERATES LINEARITY ERROR BECAUSE IT CAN NOT TOLERATE CHANGE DURING THE WEIGHING PROCESS. THE CONVERTED VALUE WILL BE AT SOME VALUE BETWEEN THE EXTREME VALUES OCCURING DURING CONVERSION AND THE TIME UNCERTAINTY APPROACHES THE MAGNITUDE OF THE CONVERSION INTERVAL.• EVEN FOR A SLOWLY VARYING SIGNAL, NOISE RATES OF CHANGE THAT ARE EXCESSIVELY LARGE WILL CAUSE ERRONEOUS READINGS THAT CAN NOT BE AVERAGED, BY EITHER ANALOG OR DIGITAL MEANS.
  13. 13. SYSTEM DESIGN• USE OF SAMPLE HOLD: A CONVERTER CAN BE MADE TOMOPERATE AT CONSIDERABLY GREATER ACCURACIES AT HIGH SPEED WITH PRECISE TIMING OF SAMPLES, IRRESPECTIVE OF THE TIME REQUIRED TO COMPLETE A CONVERSION BY INTRODUCING A S/H BETWEEN THE INPUT SIGNAL AND THE CONVERTER’S INPUT. BETWEEN CONVERSIONS, THE S/H DEVICE MAY ACQUIRE AND TRACK THE INPUT SIGNAL. JUST BEFORE A CONVERSION IS TO TAKE PLACE, IT IS SWITCHED TO HOLD AND REMAINS IN THAT STATE THROUGHOUT THE CONVERSION.
  14. 14. SYSTEM DESIGN• IF THE S/H RESPONDS INSTANTANEOUSLY AND ACCURATELY, THE CONV CAN ACCURATELY CONVERT SIGNALS HAVING RATES OF CHANGE OF ANY MAGNITUDE, AT SAMPLING RATES UP TO THE ADC’S MAXIMUM CONV RATE.• BUT PRACTICAL PROBLEMS ARE TIME RELATED ERRORS SUCH AS ACQUISITION TIME, TRACKING DELAY AND APERTURE TIME. TYPICAL VALUES ARE 5 MICROSEC ACQUISITION TIME TO 0.01%, 50 ns TRACKING DELAY AND 25 ns APERTURE TIME WITH 0.5 ns UNCERTAINTY.• APERTURE UNCERTAINTY CAN NOT BE TOTALLY REMOVED AND HENCE THE TIME RELATED ERROR WILL BE THERE.
  15. 15. SYSTEM DESIGN• IN ORDER TO AVOID ERRORS DUE TO AN INSUFFICIENT NUMBER OF SAMPLES, THE SAMPLING THEOREM TELLS US THAT REGULARLY SPACED SAMPLES MUST OCCUR AT LEAST AT THE NYQUIST RATE ie., TWICE THE FREQ OF THE HIGHEST FREQ SIGNAL OR NOISE COMPONENT.• THAT IS, EITHER A SUFFICIENTLY HIGH SAMPLING RATE MUST BE EMPLOYED OR ELSE ALL COMPONENTS OF SIGNALS AND NOISE AT FREQS EQUAL TO OR GREATER THAN THE NYQUIST FREQ ie., ONE- HALF THE SAMPLING RATE, MUST BE FILTERED OUT BEFORE SAMPLING.• SINCE PRACTICAL FILTERS REQUIRE A COMPROMISE BETWEEN ATTENUATION IN THE PASS BAND AND TRANSMISSION IN THE STOP BAND, THE SAMPLING RATE IS OFTEN 3 OR MORE TIMES THE FILTER CUT-OFF FREQUENCY.
  16. 16. SYSTEM DESIGN• IF ANALOG SIGNALS AT HIGHER FREQ ARE PRESENT, THE SAMPLING PROCESS WILL PRODUCE THE SUM AND DIFFERENCE FREQS WITH THE SAMPLING FREQ AND ITS HARMONICS• THE DIFFERENCE FREQUENCIES WILL PRODUCE SPURIOUS LOW FREQ SIGNALS OR ALIASES IN THE SIGNAL PASS BAND THAT CAN NOT BE DISTINGUISHED FROM THE SIGNAL.• SINCE S/H USUALLY OPERATES AT UNITY GAIN, SCALING OR PREAMPLIFICATION, SHOULD USUALLY OCCUR BEFORE THE SIGNAL IS APPLIED TO THE SAMPLE-HOLD.
  17. 17. SYSTEM DESIGN• PREAMPLIFICATION:o USUALLY, CONVERTERS ARE SINGLE ENDED W.R.T. POWER COMMON ( SOME ARE DIFFERENTIAL AND HAVE EVEN ISOLATED, FLOATING INPUTS) AND HAVE NORMALISED INPUT RANGES OF 5 OR 10 V, SINGLE ENDED OR BIPOLAR.o THE SIGNAL INPUT TO A/D CONV IS SCALED UP OR DOWN TO THE STANDARD CONVERTER INPUT LEVEL, TO MAKE FULLEST POSSIBLE USE OF THE CONVERTER’S AVAILABLE RESOLUTION.o THE PREAMPLIFIER SHOULD HAVE LOW DYNAMIC OUTPUT IMPEDANCE, BECAUSE THE INPUTS OF SME TYPES OF A/D CONVERTERS MAY HAVE LARGE CURRENT PULSES, WHICH WILL LOAD THE PREAMPLIFIER’S OUTPUT AND CAN CAUSE ERRORS.
  18. 18. SYSTEM DESIGN• SOME A/D CONVERTERS HAVE ON-CHIP PREAMP (mV – V). THE ON- CHIP PREAMP ALSO BUFFERS THE INPUT SOURCE FROM THE CONVERSION PROCESS.• IF THE SIGNALS ARE OF REASONABLE AMPLITUDE, AND ALREADY EXIST WITHIN A SYSTEM REFERENCED TO A GOOD QUALITY COMMON GROUND, THE SCALING MAY BE SIMPLY DONE WITH OP.AMPS. IN A SINGLE-ENDED OR DIFFERENTIAL CONFIGURATION.• IF THE SIGNALS ARE FROM OUTSIDE THE SYSTEM OR ARE QUITE SMALL OR HAVE AN APPRECIABLE COMMON MODE COMPONENT, THEN ONE SHOULD USE A DIFFERENTIAL INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER WITH CHARACTERISTICS THAT DEPEND ON THE GAIN REQUIRED, THE SIGNAL LEVEL, THE NEEDED CMR, BW, IMPEDANCE LEVELS AND COST TRADE-OFFS.
  19. 19. SYSTEM DESIGN• IF THE INPUT SIGNAL IS TO BE COMPLETELY ISOLATED FROM THE SYSTEM THEN AN ISOLATION AMPLIFIER IS REQUIRED TO BREAK ALL CONDUCTIVE SIGNAL PATHS.• IT IS REQUIRED IN ENVIRONMENTS WHERE COMMON MODE SPIKES ARE ENCOUNTERED OR IN APPLICATIONS WHERE THE SIGNAL SOURCE IS AT A HIGH OFF-GROUND POTENTIAL.
  20. 20. SYSTEM DESIGN• SIGNAL CONDITIONING:o CAN BE DONE BY ANALOG/DIGITAL TECHNIQUES.o eg., LINEARIZATION OF DATA FROM THERMOCOUPLES/ BRIDGES CAN BE PERFORMED BY ANALOG TECHNIQUES, USING EITHER PIECEWISE LINEAR APPROX. (BIASED DIODE CIRCUIT) OR SMOOTH SERIES APPROX.(ANALOG MULTIPLIERS).o IT CAN ALSO BE DONE DIGITALLY, AFTER CONVERSION, BY PERFORMING THE NECESSARY CALCULATIONS WITH A MICROPROCESSOR OR BY STORING THE INVERSE OR COMPLIMENTARY FN IN A ROM LOOK UP TABLE.
  21. 21. SYSTEM DESIGN• ANALOG DIFFERENTIATION CAN BE USED TO MEASURE CONTINUOUSLY THE RATE AT WHICH THE INPUT VARIES.• INTEGRATION COULD BE USED TO OBTAIN TOTAL DOSAGE FROM A RATE OF FLOW.• AN OP.AMP. , CONNECTED AS A SIMPLE ALL-PASS FILTER, CAN BE USED TO PROVIDE AN ARBITRARY PHASE SHIFT.• SUMS AND DIFFERENCES COULD BE USED TO REDUCE THE NUMBER OF DATA INPUTS.• ANALOG MULTIPLIERS CAN BE USED TO COMPUTE POWER BY SQUARING VOLTAGE OR CURRENT SIGNALS OR MULTIPLYING THEM TOGETHER.
  22. 22. SYSTEM DESIGN• RMS TO D CONVERTERS COMPUTE RMS DIRECTLY.• ANALOG DIVIDERS ARE USED FOR COMPUTING RATIOS, LOGS OF RATIOS OR SQ.ROOTS.• COMPARATORS ARE USED TO MAKE DECISIONS BASED ON ANALOG LEVELS (FOR EXAMPLE TO CONVERT ONLY WHEN THE INPUT EXCEEDS A THRESHOLD OR IS WITHIN A WINDOW)• LOG CIRCUITS ARE USED FOR RANGE COMPRESSION TO PERMIT THE CONVERSION OF SIGNALS HAVING WIDE DYNAMIC RANGES. CONVERTERS HAVING LESS RESOLUTION MAY BE EMPLOYED.
  23. 23. SYSTEM DESIGN• ACTIVE FILTERS ARE USED TO MINIMIZE THE EFFECT OF NOISE, CARRIER FREQS AND UNWANTED HF COMPS OF THE INPUT SIGNAL.• ANALOG FILTERS CAN BE EITHER FIXED OR DIGITALLY PROGRAMMABLE, USING D/A CONVERTERS.• BASIC POINT IS THAT IN ANY SYSTEM DESIGN, ALL DATA PROCESSING NEED NOT BE DIGITAL.• ANALOG CIRCUITS CAN PERFORM LOCAL OR REMOTE PROCESSING OR DATA REDUCTION RELIABLY, EFFECTIVELY AND ECONOMICALLY AND IS AN ALTERNATE WAY OF REDUCING SW COMPLEXITY, NOISE, BOARD SPACE AND COST.
  24. 24. SYSTEM DESIGN• n-CHANNEL SYSTEM: HERE, THE ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM MAY BE SHARED BY 2 OR MORE INPUT SOURCES. THIS SHARING MAY OCCUR IN SEVERAL WAYS, DEPENDING ON THE DESIRED PROPERTIES OF THE MULTIPLEXED SYSTEM. LARGE SYSTEMS MAY COMBINE SEVERAL TYPES OF MULTIPLEXING OR MAY HAVE CASCADED TIERS OF THE SAME TYPE. CONVENTIONAL METTHOD OF DIGITIZING DATA FROM MANY ANALOG SOURCES IS TO INTRODUCE THE TIME SHARING PROCESS AT THE ANALOG PORTION OF THE SYSTEM BY MULTIPLEXING THE INPUT OF A SINGLE A/D CONV AMONG THE VARIOUS ANALOG SOURCES IN SEQUENCE.
  25. 25. SYSTEM DESIGN• WITH THE DECLINE IN THE COST OF THE DEVICE ONE CAN NOW AFFORD THE PARALLEL CONVERSION PROCESS.• FOR A MODEST DATA RATE, WITH MORE CHANNELS AND FEWER CONVERSIONS PER CHANNEL, IT MAY BE POSSIBLE TO ELIMINATE THE S/H DEVICE.• FEWER CONVERSIONS ALSO MEAN THAT SLOWER CONVERTERS CAN BE AFFORDED.• THE BUS STRUCTURES USED BY THE PROCESSOR ENCOURAGE THE USE OF DIGITAL MUX, WITH ALL DEVICES CONNECTED TO THE BUS VIA TRI-STATE SWITCHES ENABLED SELECTIVELY BY CS LOGIC SIGNALS FROM DECODERS AND R/W CONTROL SIGNALS.(WRITE TO INITIATE CONVERSIONS AND READ TO OBTAIN RESULTS)
  26. 26. SYSTEM DESIGN• DIGITIZING THE ANALOG SIGNAL AT THE SOURCE AND TRANSMITTING SERIAL DATA HAS THE ADVANTAGE OF CONSIDERABLE IMMUNITY TO LINE FREQ PICK-UP AND GROUND LOOP INTERFERENCE.• THE DIGITAL SIGNALS CAN BE COUPLED OPTICALLY OR EVEN TRANSMITTED VIA FIBRE OPTIC LINKS FOR COMPLETE ELECTRICAL ISOLATION AND TOTAL INDIFFERENCE TO ELECTRICAL INTERFERENCE.• ANOTHER WAY IS TO USE V-F CONV FOR TRANSMITTING DATA GENERATED BY SLOWLY VARYING SIGNALS WITH DYNAMIC RANGES OF UPTO 106 AND REQUIRING ACCURACIES TO WITHIN 0.01%. THE OUTPUTS ARE TTL PULSE TRAINS WHICH MAY BE EASILY ISOLATED OPTICALLY. THE OUTPUT OF EACH V-F IN TURN IS COUNTED AND READ. THE COMPUTER CONTROLS THE MUX AND ACTS AS THE TIME BASE FOR THE COUNTER.
  27. 27. SYSTEM DESIGN• SO, LOGIC DECISION CIRCUITS OR LOCAL MICROPROCESSOR CAN DECIDE WHEN AND WHICH DATA IS TO BE FED TO THE HOST COMPUTER (MADE POSSIBLE BY DIGITAL MULTIPLEXING).• THE COMPUTER CAN’T MAKE DECISIONS ABOUT THE DATA SENT THROUGH ANALOG MUX UNTIL THE DATA HAS BEEN RECEIVED ie., REDUNDANT INFORMATION IS SORTED AT THE TRANSMITTING END ITSELF- BECOMES VERY USEFUL IN CASE OF CROWDED CHANNELS.
  28. 28. SYSTEM DESIGN• LINEAR TIME INVARIANT SYSTEM: A SYSTEM IS SAID TO BE LINEAR IF AND ONLY IF THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM IS SATISFIED WHICH STATES THAT THE OUTPUT RESPONSE OF A LTI SYSTEM TO A NUMBER OF SIMULTANEOUSLY APPLIED INPUTS IS EQUAL TO THE SUMMATION OF THE SYSTEM RESPONSES WHEN EACH INPUT IS APPLIED INDIVIDUALLY. A SYSTEM IS SAID TO BE TIME INVARIANT WHEN THE COEFFICIENTS OF THE DIFFERENTIAL OR DIFFERENCE EQUATION RELATING TO THE SYSTEM’S OUTPUT TO ITS INPUT DO NOT DEPEND UPON TIME. IN GENERAL, IF A SPECIFIED INPUT IS APPLIED TO A GIVEN SYSTEM AT ANY TIME Ti OR Tj, AND IF THE OUTPUT RESPONSES TO EACH APPLICATION OF THE INPUT ARE THE SAME, THE SYSTEM IS SAID TO BE TIME-INVARIANT.
  29. 29. SYSTEM DESIGN• SHANNON’S SAMPLING THEOREM: IT STATES THAT “ A FN OF TIME e(t) WHICH CONTAINS NO FREQ COMPS GREATER THAN ωc RAD/S CAN BE RECONSTRUCTED BY THE VALUES OF e(t) AT ANY SET OF SAMPLING POINTS THAT ARE SPACED APART BY T < Π/ ωc SEC.” THIS THEOREM GIVES THE MAXIMUM VALUE OF T PERMISSIBLE IN ORDER TO BE ABLE TO RECONSTRUCT THE ORIGINAL SAMPLED SIGNAL. IN OTHER WORDS, ONE CAN SAY THAT THERE EXISTS AN UPPER BAND THAT SPECIFIES THAT A SUFFICIENT NO OF IMPULSE SAMPLES BE TAKEN TO COMPLETELY CHARACTERISE e(t).
  30. 30. SYSTEM DESIGN• SO, THE FOLLOWING SAMPLING FREQ CRITERION IS USED: ωs > 2.ωc OTHERWISE OVERLAPING TAKES PLACE AND ALIASING OCCURS.• THE SELECTION OF THE SAMPLING RATE MUST ALSO CONSIDER NOISE, DATA ACQUISITION, SYSTEM RESONANT FREQUENCIES AND DESIGN TECHNIQUE. THESE FACTORS USUALLY DICTATE A NOMINAL VALUE OF SAMPLING FREQ AT LEAST 8 TIMES GREATER THAN ωc, DEPENDING UPON THE SPECIFIC VALUE OF DIFFERENT PARAMETERS.• THE SAMPLING SCHEDULE CAN BE UNIFORM RATE, MULTI- RATE, SKIP SAMPLING, VARIABLE SAMPLING OR RANDOM SAMPLING. MOSTLY, UNIFORM SAMPLING SCHEDULE IS PREFERRED.
  31. 31. SYSTEM DESIGN• BECAUSE OF THE FINITE WORD LENGTH, DECREASING T INCREASES THE REQUIRED COMPUTATION TIME AS WELL AS THE ROUND-OFF AND TRUNCATON ERRORS. SO, A TRADE- OFF IS REQUIRED AS INCREASING T GIVES RISE TO ALIASING OR FREQ FOLDING PROBLEMS.• AS THE SAMPLED SIGNAL e*(t) CONTAINS THE FREQ COMPS OF CONTINUOUS SIGNAL e(t) AND THE HIGH FREQ COMPS RESULTING FROM THE SAMPLING PROCESS, IN ADITION TO LPF ONE NEEDS THE SAMPLE/HOLD DEVICE WHICH EFFECTIVELY CONVERTS THE IMPULSE SIGNAL e*(t) INTO A CONTINUOUS SIGNAL m(t) EITHER BY MEANS OF INTERPOLATION OR EXTRAPOLATION OF THE INPUT IMPULSES WHOSE FORM APPROXIMATES THE FORM OF THE INPUT SIGNAL e(t).
  32. 32. SYSTEM DESIGN• THE IDEAL FILTER CHARACTERISTICS MAY BE APPROACHED BY DECREASING THE SAMPLING TIME T• DECREASING T INCREASES THE BW BUT DECREASES THE MAGNITUDE OF THE FREQ SPECTRUM. ALTHOUGH THE PRIMARY COMPONENT APPROACHES THE IDEAL FILTER CHARACTERISTICS THE BW INCREASES.• THIS INCREASED BW DEGRADES THE ZOH UNIT’S CAPABILITY TO MINIMIZE THE UNWANTED FREQS.• THE TERM ZERO ORDER REFERS TO THE CAPABILITY OF THE DEVICE TO PASS WITHOUT DISTORTION A CONSTANT ie., A ZERO ORDER POLYNOMIAL.• THEN, BY DEFINITION, A FIRST ORDER HOLD DEVICE PASSES WITHOUT DISTORTION A FIRST ORDER POLYNOMIAL SIGNAL. EFFECTIVELY, A FIRST ORDER HOLD IS A SIGNAL EXTRAPOLATOR USING THE FIRST DIFFERENCE EQUATION.
  33. 33. SYSTEM DESIGN• THE nth ORDER HOLD DEVICE THEN PASSES WITHOUT DISTORTION nth ORDER POLYNOMIAL. GENERALLY, ONLY ZERO ORDER HOLD DEVICE IS IMPLEMENTED THROUGH HW, HIGHER ORDER HOLD ALGOS ARE IMPLEMENTED IN SW.• THE PERFORMANCE OF A CONTROL SYSTEM BASED UPON A STEP INPUT, FALLS INTO THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES:5. A GIVEN SYSTEM IS STABLE AND ITS TRANSIENT RESPONSE IS SATISFACTORY, BUT ITS STEADY STATE ERROR IS TOO LARGE. SO THE GAIN MUST BE INCREASED TO DECREASE THE STEADY STATE ERROR WITHOUT APPRECIABLY REDUCING THE SYSTEM STABILITY.
  34. 34. SYSTEM DESIGN1. A GIVEN SYSTEM IS STABLE BUT ITS TRANSIENT RESPONSE IS UNSATISFACTORY.3. A GIVEN SYSTEM IS STABLE BUT BOTH ITS TRANSIENT RESPONSE AND STEADY STATE RESPONSE ARE UNSATISFACTORY.5. A GIVEN SYSTEM IS UNSTABLE FOR ALL VALUES OF GAIN.• IN ANY OF THE ABOVE CASES, ADDITIONAL COMPS ARE REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE THE DESIRED SYSTEM PERFORMANCE. IT IS REFERRED TO AS COMPENSATOR OR CONTROLLER – LAG, LEAD OR LAG-LEAD
  35. 35. SYSTEM DESIGN• A LAG NETWORK IS A LPF USED FOR SYSTEM IN CATEGORY 1.• IT IS KNOWN AS A LAG NETWORK SINCE FOR A SINUSOIDAL INPUT THE OUTPUT PHASE ALWAYS LAGS RELATIVE TO THE INPUT PHASE.
  36. 36. SYSTEM DESIGN• A LEAD NETWORK IS A HPF, USED FOR SYSTEMS WHOSE PERFORMANCE FALLS INTO CATEGORY 2 OR 4.
  37. 37. SYSTEM DESIGN• THE IMPROVEMENT ACHIEVED WITH THE HELP OF ABOVE NETWORKS CAN BE OBTAINED WITH A SINGLE CIRCUIT KNOWN AS LAG-LEAD NETWORK, USED FOR SYSTEMS IN CATEGORY 3.• THIS COMPENSATOR IS USED GENERALLY IN THE PROCESS CONTROL INDUSTRY AND IS KNOWN AS PID CONTROLLER. IT IS A THREE-TERM CONTROL.• ITS TRANSFER FN IS Gc(s) = Kp + Kd.s + Ki/s• IT IS GENERALLY USED BECAUSE IT REQUIRES VERY LITTLE KNOWLEDGE OF PLANT DYNAMICS AND THE METHOD OF DETERMINING THE CONTROLLER PARAMETERS ARE WELL KNOWN.
  38. 38. SYSTEM DESIGN• CONTROLLER: M(s) C(s) R(s) E(s) Gc(s) Gp(s) IT CAN ALSO BE EXPRESSED IN THE FORM Gc(s) = M(s)/E(s) = Kc.[1 + {1/(Ti.s)}.Td(s)] FOR IDEAL CASE WHERE Kc = CONTROLLER GAIN, Ti = INTEGRAL ACTION TIME AND Td = DERIVATIVE ACTION TIME. PRACTICALLY, Gc(s) = [Kc(1+Ti.s).(1 + Td.s)]/[Ti(s)(1 + α.Td.s)] αRANGES BETWEEN 1/6 TO 1/20. THE CONSTANT α ARISES BECAUSE THE NORMAL ANALOG CONTROLLER IS CONSTRUCTED BY ADDING A DERIVATIVE UNIT, BASED ON THE USE OF LAG-LEAD NETWORK TO A PI CONTROLLER. THE TRANSFER FN OF THE DERIVATIVE UNIT IS [Td.s + 1]/[α.Td.s + 1]
  39. 39. SYSTEM DESIGN• A PROPORTIONAL TYPE FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM IS ONE WHICH DEVELOPS A CORRECTING EFFORT PROPORTIONAL TO THE MAGNITUDE OF THE ACTUATING SIGNAL.• THE LIMITATION OR DISADVANTAGE OF THIS SYSTEM IS THAT A COMPROMISE IS NECESSARY IN SELECTING A FORWARD GAIN SO THAT THE SIZE OF THE STEADY STATE ERROR AND THE MAXIMUM OVERSHOOT OF THE OUTPUT RESPONSE ARE WITHIN THE ACCEPTABLE TOLERANCES.• BUT A COMPROMISE CAN NOT ALWAYS BE REACHED SINCE THE SYSTEM CORRESPONDING TO THE GAIN SELECTED TO REALIZE A MAXIMUM ACCEPTABLE STEADY STATE ERROR MAY HAVE EXCESS OVERSHOOT IN ITS TIME RESPONSE OR MAY EVEN BE UNSTABLE.
  40. 40. SYSTEM DESIGN• SO, TO MODIFY THE PERFORMANCE OF THE FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM, ONE ADOPTS EITHER• DERIVATIVE CONTROL: TO IMPROVE THE OVERSHOOT BUT NOT THE S S ERROR• INTEGRAL CONTROL: BETTER S S ACCURACY BUT IS LESS STABLE IN GENERAL.• RATE FEEDBACK CONTROL
  41. 41. SYSTEM DESIGN• THE DERIVATIVE CONTROL ESSENTIALLY IS AN ANTICIPATORY TYPE OF CONTROL. IT MEASURES THE INSTANTANEOUS SLOPE OF e(t), PREDICTS THE LARGE OVERSHOOT AHEAD OF TIME AND MAKES PROPER CORRECTING EFFORT BEFORE THE OVERSHOOT OCCURS.• THE DERIVATIVE CONTROL EFFECTS THE SS ERROR OF THE SYSTEM ONLY IF THE SS ERROR VARIES WITH TIME.• SS ERROR OF A FEEDBACK SYSTEM IS THE DIFF BETWEEN THE SS VALUES OF THE SYSTEM INPUT R(t) AND ITS OUTPUT C(t). THIS ERROR IS VERY SMALL FOR A STABLE SYSTEM.• SS ERROR OF A LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM IS CONTROLLED BY THE LOOP TR FN G(s).H(s) OF THE SYSTEM AND IT DEPENDS UPON THE TYPE OF THE SYSTEM. SO, SS ERROR IS CONTROLLED BY THE TYPE OF THE SYSTEM.
  42. 42. SYSTEM DESIGN• THE HIGHER THE ORDER OF THE SYSTEM, THE MORE THE SYSTEM TENDS TO BECOME UNSTABLE.• PROPORTIONAL CONTROL X=Kc.E WHERE X=CONTROLLER OUTPUT, Kc=GAIN = 1/PROP.BAND, E=ERROR SIGNAL• INTEGRAL CONTROL X=[1/Ti.s].E WHERE s=LAPLACE OPERATOR d/dt, Ti=INTEGRAL ACTION TIME• PROP+INTEGRAL: X=Kc[(1/Ti.s) + 1].E• PROP+DERIVATIVE X=Kc(1 + Td.s).E Td=DERIVATIVE ACTION TIME• PID: X=Kc[(1/Ti.s) +Td.s + 1].E
  43. 43. SYSTEM DESIGN• PROP. +DERIVATIVE CONTROL PROVIDES THE SMALLEST MAXIMUM ERROR BECAUSE THE DERIVATIVE PART OF THE RESPONSE ALLOWS THE PROPORTIONAL SENSITIVITY TO BE INCREASED TO A HIGH VALUE.• THE STABILIZATION TIME IS THE SMALLEST BECAUSE OF THE DERIVATIVE ACTION. OFFSET IS ALLOWED BUT IS ONLY HALF THAT EXPERIENCED WITHOUT DERIVATIVE ACTION.• PID CONTROL HAS THE NEXT SMALLEST MAXIMUM DEVIATION AND OFFSET IS ELIMINATED BECAUSE OF THE INTEGRAL ACTION. STABILIZATION TIME IS INCREASED.
  44. 44. SYSTEM DESIGN• PROPORTIONAL CONTROL HAS A LARGER MAXIMUM DEVIATION THAN CONTROLLER WITH DERIVATIVE ACTION BECAUSE OF THE ABSENCE OF THIS STABILIZING INFLUENCE. OFFSET IS ALSO LARGER.• PROP.+INTEGRAL CONTROL HAS NO OFFSET BECAUSE OF THE INTEGRAL ACTION. THE UNSTABILIZING INFLUENCE OF INTEGRAL RESPONSE IS REFLECTED IN THE LARGE MAXIMUM DEVIATION AND THE PERSISTING DEVIATION.• INTEGRAL CONTROL IS BEST SUITED FOR THE CONTROL OF PROCESSES HAVING LITTLE OR NO ENERGY STORAGE AND THE RESULTS OF THE COMPARISONS ARE NOT REPRESENTATIVE OF AN INTEGRAL CONTROL. IN THIS PROCESS, THE RESULTS INDICATE A LARGE MAXIMUM ERROR AND A LONG STABILIATION TIME.

×