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ICE CH1 2022-2023.pptx

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Introduction to
I.C Engines
CH. 1
1
2
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat
engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with
an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber
that is an integral part of the working fluid flow
circuit. In an internal combustion engine the
expansion of the high-temperature and high-
pressure gases produced by combustion apply
direct force to some component of the engine.
The force is applied typically to pistons. This force
moves the component over a distance,
transforming chemical energy into
useful mechanical energy.
3
The first modern internal combustion
engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus
Otto ( Otto engine).
The term internal combustion
engine usually refers to an engine in which
combustion is intermittent, such as the
more familiar four-stroke and two-
stroke piston engines, along with variants,
such as the six-stroke piston enginee
Engines
Four-Stroke Gasoline Engine, Two-Stroke Gasoline
Engines, Diesel Engine, Rotary Engine and Steam
Engine.
4
Turboshaft
All shaft work to drive propeller,
generator, rotor (helicopter)
Turbofan
Part shaft, part jet -
"ducted propeller"
Turbojet
All jet except for work needed to
drive compressor
Gas Turbine
Uses compressor and turbine,
not piston-cylinder
Ramjet
No compressor or turbine
Use high Mach no. ram effect for compression
Solid fuel
Fuel and oxidant are premixed
and put inside combustion chamber
Liquid fuel
Fuel and oxidant are initially separated
and pumped into combustion chamber
Rocket
Carries both fuel and oxidant
Jet power only, no shaft work
Steady
Two-stroke
One complete thermodynamic cycle
per revolution of engine
Four-stroke
One complete thermodynamic cycle
per two revolutions of engine
Premixed-charge
Fuel and air are mixed before/during compression
Usually ignited with spark after compression
Two-stroke
One complete thermodynamic cycle
per revolution of engine
Four-stroke
One complete thermodynamic cycle
per two revolutions of engine
Non-premixed charge
Only air is compressed,
fuel is injected into cylinder after compression
Non-steady
Internal Combustion Engines
5
Classification
• According to type of fuel used.
–Petrol engine.
–Diesel engine.
–Gas engine.
–Bi-fuel engine. Bi-fuel vehicles or otherwise
known as dual
fuel are vehicles with multifuel engines
capable of running on two fuels.
• According to number of strokes per cycle.
–4 – stroke engines.
–2 – stroke engines.
6
Classification
• According to method of ignition.
–Spark ignition, (SI)
–Compression ignition, (CI)
• According to the cycle of combustion.
–Otto cycle.
–Diesel cycle.
–Duel combustion. The dual combustion
cycle, like the ideal diesel cycle is a
mathematical model, but comes closer to
what actually happens in the cylinder of a
diesel engine.
• According to the number of cylinders.
–Single cylinder.
–Multi cylinder. 7
Classification according to the arrangement
of cylinders
• According to the arrangement of cylinders
–Vertical engine.
–Horizontal.
–Inline engine.
–Radial engine.
–V- engine.
• According to method of cooling
–Air cooled engine.
–Water cooled engine.
8
9
Engines
Parts
10
2. Piston
› Close fitting hollow –
cylinder plunger
moving to and from in
the cylinder.
› Function – power
developed by the
combustion of fuel is
transmitted by piston
to the crank-shaft
through the
connecting rod.
1. Cylinder
› Part of the engine
where fuel is burnt
and power is
developed.
› Inside diameter is
called as bore.
› Sleeve is fitted
tightly in the
cylinder to prevent
wearing of block.
11
4. Connecting rod
› Link that connects
the piston and
crankshaft by means
of pin joint.
› Function – it
converts the
rectilinear motion of
the piston into rotary
motion of crankshaft.
3. Piston rings
Metallic rings inserted
into groves provided at
top end of the piston.
Function – it maintains a
gas-tight joint between
the piston and the
cylinder.
12
7. Fly wheel
Mounted on crankshaft
to maintain uniform
rotation of
crankshaft.
8. Crankcase
Enclosure for
crankshaft and sump
for lubricating oil.
5. Crank and crankshaft
Crank is a lever that is
connects crankshaft
and piston rod.
6. Valves
These are devices
which control the
flow of intake and
exhaust gases.
13
Internal Combustion Engines Terminology:
1. Cylinder bore (B): The nominal inner
diameter of the working cylinder.
2. Piston area (A): the area of a circle diameter
equal to the cylinder bore.
3. Top Dead Center (T.D.C.): the extreme
position of the piston at the top of the
cylinder. In the case of the horizontal engines
this is known as the outer dead center
(O.D.C.).
14
Four stroke petrol engine
•Intake or Suction stroke
•Compression stroke
•Power stroke
•Exhaust stroke
15
Four stroke engine
16
17
SUCTION STROKE
Inlet is open exhaust is
closed.
Piston moves from TDC
to BDC.
Crankshaft revolves half
the rotation.
Cranking
Petrol air mixture drawn
into cylinder due to
pressure difference.
18
COMPRESSION STROKE
Both inlet and exhaust are
closed.
Piston moves from BDC to
TDC.
Crankshaft revolves half
the rotation.
Cranking
Petrol air mixture is
compressed to a ratio of 1:11.
This mixture is ignited by
spark plug.
19
POWER STROKE
•Piston moves from TDC
to BDC.
•Crankshaft revolves half
the rotation.
• burnt gases generate
energy and force the piston
to move down.
20
EXHAUST STROKE
exhaust is open and inlet is
closed.
Piston moves from BDC to
TDC.
crankshaft revolves half the
rotation.
energy for this stroke is
supplied by flywheel.
Burnt gases are expelled
out through outlet valve.
21
Two stroke petrol engine
• Performs two strokes to complete one working
cycle. Works on theoretical Otto cycle.
22
23
Parts
• Cylinder with one end
fitted with cover and
other end with a sealed
crankcase.
• Ports are provided one
below other on
circumference of the
cylinder.
• Lower one is the
admission port or inlet
port and upper port is
the exhaust port.
• Transfer port
diametrically opposite.
24
• Transfer port
– Function – transfer
of petrol air mixture
from crankcase to
cylinder.
• Spark plug, connecting
rod, crank.
25
26
First stroke or upward stroke
• Piston moves from
BDC to TDC.
• Air fuel mixture is
drawn in through
inlet.
• Supply of petrol air
mixture is cut off in
upward motion of
piston.
• Further piston will
compress the petrol
air mixture in
cylinder.
27
Second stroke or downward stroke
• At the end of
the first stroke
spark plug
ignites and
combustion
takes place,
i.e. the second
stroke.
28
29
six-stroke engine
term six-stroke engine has been applied to a number of
alternative internal combustion engine designs that attempt
to improve on traditional two-stroke and four-
stroke engines. Claimed advantages may include increased
fuel-efficiency, reduced mechanical complexity and/or
reduced emissions.
Think about a normal four-stroke engine. The piston moves
down to suck in air and fuel, then the fuel pushes up to
compress, then the spark plug fires and the burning gas
forces the piston down. Then the piston moves back up to
push up the exhaust. The six-stroke engine adds two
more strokes after the exhaust stroke.
The six stroke engine head uses a
piston and ports very much like a two
stroke engine to replace the over head
valve system that is found in four
stroke engines today. The four stroke
block, pistons and crankshaft remain
unaltered. This combination of two
stroke and four stroke technology has
given the engine its name – the “six
stroke engine” (2 + 4 = 6).
Working Principle
Fuel ignites
with piston
at the top
dead center.
Rotary valve
opens, allowing
exhaust to escape
33
Diesel Engine
S.No. Four stroke engine Two stroke engine
1. It has one power stroke for
every two revolutions of
the crankshaft.
It has one power stroke for
each revolution of the
crankshaft.
2. Heavy flywheel is required and
engine runs unbalanced
because turning moment on
the crankshaft is not even due
to one power stroke for every
two revolutions of the
crankshaft.
Lighter flywheel is required
and engine runs balanced
because turning moment is
more even due to one
power stroke for each
revolution of the crankshaft.
3. Engine is heavy Engine is light
4. Engine design is complicated
due to valve mechanism.
Engine design is simple due
to absence of valve
mechanism.
5. More cost. Less cost than 4 stroke.
6.
Less mechanical efficiency due
to more friction on many parts.
More mechanical efficiency
due to less friction on a few
parts.
34
35
More output due to full fresh
charge intake and full burnt gases
exhaust.
Less output due to mixing of
fresh charge with the hot burnt
gases.
Engine runs cooler. Engine runs hotter.
Engine is water cooled. Engine is air cooled.
Less fuel consumption and
complete burning of fuel.
More fuel consumption and fresh
charge is mixed with exhaust
gases.
Engine requires more space. Engine requires less space.
Complicated lubricating system. Simple lubricating system.
Less noise is created by engine. More noise is created by engine.
Engine consists of inlet and
exhaust valve.
Engine consists of inlet and
exhaust ports.
More thermal efficiency. Less thermal efficiency.
It consumes less lubricating oil. It consumes more lubricating oil.
Less wear and tear of moving
parts.
More wear and tear of moving
parts.
Used in cars, buses, trucks etc. Used in mopeds,
scooters, motorcycles etc.
36

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ICE CH1 2022-2023.pptx

  • 2. 2 An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high- pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy.
  • 3. 3 The first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto ( Otto engine). The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two- stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston enginee
  • 4. Engines Four-Stroke Gasoline Engine, Two-Stroke Gasoline Engines, Diesel Engine, Rotary Engine and Steam Engine. 4
  • 5. Turboshaft All shaft work to drive propeller, generator, rotor (helicopter) Turbofan Part shaft, part jet - "ducted propeller" Turbojet All jet except for work needed to drive compressor Gas Turbine Uses compressor and turbine, not piston-cylinder Ramjet No compressor or turbine Use high Mach no. ram effect for compression Solid fuel Fuel and oxidant are premixed and put inside combustion chamber Liquid fuel Fuel and oxidant are initially separated and pumped into combustion chamber Rocket Carries both fuel and oxidant Jet power only, no shaft work Steady Two-stroke One complete thermodynamic cycle per revolution of engine Four-stroke One complete thermodynamic cycle per two revolutions of engine Premixed-charge Fuel and air are mixed before/during compression Usually ignited with spark after compression Two-stroke One complete thermodynamic cycle per revolution of engine Four-stroke One complete thermodynamic cycle per two revolutions of engine Non-premixed charge Only air is compressed, fuel is injected into cylinder after compression Non-steady Internal Combustion Engines 5
  • 6. Classification • According to type of fuel used. –Petrol engine. –Diesel engine. –Gas engine. –Bi-fuel engine. Bi-fuel vehicles or otherwise known as dual fuel are vehicles with multifuel engines capable of running on two fuels. • According to number of strokes per cycle. –4 – stroke engines. –2 – stroke engines. 6
  • 7. Classification • According to method of ignition. –Spark ignition, (SI) –Compression ignition, (CI) • According to the cycle of combustion. –Otto cycle. –Diesel cycle. –Duel combustion. The dual combustion cycle, like the ideal diesel cycle is a mathematical model, but comes closer to what actually happens in the cylinder of a diesel engine. • According to the number of cylinders. –Single cylinder. –Multi cylinder. 7
  • 8. Classification according to the arrangement of cylinders • According to the arrangement of cylinders –Vertical engine. –Horizontal. –Inline engine. –Radial engine. –V- engine. • According to method of cooling –Air cooled engine. –Water cooled engine. 8
  • 9. 9
  • 11. 2. Piston › Close fitting hollow – cylinder plunger moving to and from in the cylinder. › Function – power developed by the combustion of fuel is transmitted by piston to the crank-shaft through the connecting rod. 1. Cylinder › Part of the engine where fuel is burnt and power is developed. › Inside diameter is called as bore. › Sleeve is fitted tightly in the cylinder to prevent wearing of block. 11
  • 12. 4. Connecting rod › Link that connects the piston and crankshaft by means of pin joint. › Function – it converts the rectilinear motion of the piston into rotary motion of crankshaft. 3. Piston rings Metallic rings inserted into groves provided at top end of the piston. Function – it maintains a gas-tight joint between the piston and the cylinder. 12
  • 13. 7. Fly wheel Mounted on crankshaft to maintain uniform rotation of crankshaft. 8. Crankcase Enclosure for crankshaft and sump for lubricating oil. 5. Crank and crankshaft Crank is a lever that is connects crankshaft and piston rod. 6. Valves These are devices which control the flow of intake and exhaust gases. 13
  • 14. Internal Combustion Engines Terminology: 1. Cylinder bore (B): The nominal inner diameter of the working cylinder. 2. Piston area (A): the area of a circle diameter equal to the cylinder bore. 3. Top Dead Center (T.D.C.): the extreme position of the piston at the top of the cylinder. In the case of the horizontal engines this is known as the outer dead center (O.D.C.). 14
  • 15. Four stroke petrol engine •Intake or Suction stroke •Compression stroke •Power stroke •Exhaust stroke 15
  • 17. 17
  • 18. SUCTION STROKE Inlet is open exhaust is closed. Piston moves from TDC to BDC. Crankshaft revolves half the rotation. Cranking Petrol air mixture drawn into cylinder due to pressure difference. 18
  • 19. COMPRESSION STROKE Both inlet and exhaust are closed. Piston moves from BDC to TDC. Crankshaft revolves half the rotation. Cranking Petrol air mixture is compressed to a ratio of 1:11. This mixture is ignited by spark plug. 19
  • 20. POWER STROKE •Piston moves from TDC to BDC. •Crankshaft revolves half the rotation. • burnt gases generate energy and force the piston to move down. 20
  • 21. EXHAUST STROKE exhaust is open and inlet is closed. Piston moves from BDC to TDC. crankshaft revolves half the rotation. energy for this stroke is supplied by flywheel. Burnt gases are expelled out through outlet valve. 21
  • 22. Two stroke petrol engine • Performs two strokes to complete one working cycle. Works on theoretical Otto cycle. 22
  • 23. 23
  • 24. Parts • Cylinder with one end fitted with cover and other end with a sealed crankcase. • Ports are provided one below other on circumference of the cylinder. • Lower one is the admission port or inlet port and upper port is the exhaust port. • Transfer port diametrically opposite. 24
  • 25. • Transfer port – Function – transfer of petrol air mixture from crankcase to cylinder. • Spark plug, connecting rod, crank. 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. First stroke or upward stroke • Piston moves from BDC to TDC. • Air fuel mixture is drawn in through inlet. • Supply of petrol air mixture is cut off in upward motion of piston. • Further piston will compress the petrol air mixture in cylinder. 27
  • 28. Second stroke or downward stroke • At the end of the first stroke spark plug ignites and combustion takes place, i.e. the second stroke. 28
  • 29. 29 six-stroke engine term six-stroke engine has been applied to a number of alternative internal combustion engine designs that attempt to improve on traditional two-stroke and four- stroke engines. Claimed advantages may include increased fuel-efficiency, reduced mechanical complexity and/or reduced emissions. Think about a normal four-stroke engine. The piston moves down to suck in air and fuel, then the fuel pushes up to compress, then the spark plug fires and the burning gas forces the piston down. Then the piston moves back up to push up the exhaust. The six-stroke engine adds two more strokes after the exhaust stroke.
  • 30. The six stroke engine head uses a piston and ports very much like a two stroke engine to replace the over head valve system that is found in four stroke engines today. The four stroke block, pistons and crankshaft remain unaltered. This combination of two stroke and four stroke technology has given the engine its name – the “six stroke engine” (2 + 4 = 6).
  • 31. Working Principle Fuel ignites with piston at the top dead center.
  • 34. S.No. Four stroke engine Two stroke engine 1. It has one power stroke for every two revolutions of the crankshaft. It has one power stroke for each revolution of the crankshaft. 2. Heavy flywheel is required and engine runs unbalanced because turning moment on the crankshaft is not even due to one power stroke for every two revolutions of the crankshaft. Lighter flywheel is required and engine runs balanced because turning moment is more even due to one power stroke for each revolution of the crankshaft. 3. Engine is heavy Engine is light 4. Engine design is complicated due to valve mechanism. Engine design is simple due to absence of valve mechanism. 5. More cost. Less cost than 4 stroke. 6. Less mechanical efficiency due to more friction on many parts. More mechanical efficiency due to less friction on a few parts. 34
  • 35. 35 More output due to full fresh charge intake and full burnt gases exhaust. Less output due to mixing of fresh charge with the hot burnt gases. Engine runs cooler. Engine runs hotter. Engine is water cooled. Engine is air cooled. Less fuel consumption and complete burning of fuel. More fuel consumption and fresh charge is mixed with exhaust gases. Engine requires more space. Engine requires less space. Complicated lubricating system. Simple lubricating system. Less noise is created by engine. More noise is created by engine. Engine consists of inlet and exhaust valve. Engine consists of inlet and exhaust ports. More thermal efficiency. Less thermal efficiency. It consumes less lubricating oil. It consumes more lubricating oil. Less wear and tear of moving parts. More wear and tear of moving parts. Used in cars, buses, trucks etc. Used in mopeds, scooters, motorcycles etc.
  • 36. 36