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2 4 method-validation-hplc-case-study

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method validation

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2 4 method-validation-hplc-case-study

  1. 1. Method and Validation basics —HPLC case study Hua YIN )Assessor(
  2. 2. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 2 | Outline HPLC methodology - Content of HPLC test procedure - System Suitability Testing (SST) - Relative Response Factor (RRF) Validation of HPLC method case study
  3. 3. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 3 | Information Sources FDA CDER reviewer guideline for validation of chromatographic methods (1994) WHO TRS 937 Appendix 4 “Analytical Method Validation 2006 ICH Q2(R1) 2005 Compendial General Chapters Methods and Validation presentation–Lynda Paleshnuik
  4. 4. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 4 | High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) HPLC is a separation technique based on a solid stationary phase and a liquid mobile phase. Separations are achieved by partition, adsorption, or ion-exchange processes, depending upon the type of stationary phase used.  Chiral  Ion--exchange  Ion--pair/affinity  Normal phase  Reversed phase  Size exclusion The reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection is most commonly used form of HPLC, is selected to illustrate the parameters of HPLC method and validation.
  5. 5. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 5 | A flow scheme for HPLC
  6. 6. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 6 | Content of HPLC test procedure Any analytical procedure submitted should be described in sufficient detail, includes: Preparation of mobile phase Chromatographic condition: – Column: type (e.g., C18 or C8), dimension (length, inner diameter), particle size (10μm, 5 μm) – Detector: wavelength – Injection volume – column T – flow rate,
  7. 7. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 7 | Content of HPLC test procedure Elution procedure: isocratic or gradient elution Preparation of standards and samples Operation procedure: sequence of injections System suitability testing (SST) and criteria Calculations QOS 2.3.R.2 analytical procedures and validation summaries
  8. 8. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 8 | Compendial methods When claim a compendial method, there should be no change in:  The type of column i.e the stationary phases  Detector wavelength  Components in Mobile phase  System suitability testing and criteria Adjustments to ratio of components in mobile phase, flow rate, column temp, dimension of column, particle size (reduction only), may be necessary to achieve the system suitability criteria. The allowable variations for each parameter, see Int.Ph 1.14.4 or USP general chapter <621>.
  9. 9. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 9 | System suitability testing (SST) Precision: – Assay: RSD ≤1% (API) or ≤ 2% (FPP), n ≥ 5 – Impurities: in general, RSD ≤ 5% at the limit level, up to 10% or higher at LOQ, n ≥ 6 Resolution (R): >2
  10. 10. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 10 | System suitability testing (SST) Tailing factor/peak asymmetry: (≤ 2)
  11. 11. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 11 | System suitability testing (SST)  Number of theoretical plates (N): column efficiency ≥ 2000  Gradient elution is one way to increase the N
  12. 12. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 12 | System suitability testing (SST) A SST should contain: For Assay: precision + one or more other parameter For impurity test: resolution + precision + one or more other parameter
  13. 13. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 13 | Relative Response Factor (RRF) Quantitation of Impurities Against impurity RS’s: when reference standard available Against API itself Relative response factor should be considered
  14. 14. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 14 | Relative Response Factor (RRF) Response factor: the response (e.g. peak area) of drug substance or related substances per unit weight. RF= peak area / concentration (mg/ml) Relative response factor (RRF): RRF=RF impurity / RF API, OR, RRF=slope impurity / slope API
  15. 15. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 15 | Relative Response Factor (RRF) Rifampicine: y =31.312 x + 4.963 Rifampicine Quinone: y = 26.198 x + 1.154 RRF= 26.198 / 31.312 =0.84
  16. 16. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 16 | Relative Response Factor (RRF) To review: a) RRF calculation, and b) if RRF is properly used in the final calculation for % impurity If RRF within 0.8-1.2, correction may not be necessay Correction factor= 1/RRF, the reciprocal of the RRF
  17. 17. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 17 | Review points for HPLC method  is the analytical procedure described in detail including all the parameters ?  is SST well defined to ensure the consistency of system performance?  The preparation of solutions: – assay: concentration of reference standard should be close to the sample solution – impurities: concentration of the reference standards should be close to the limit  The way of quantitation of impurities In case API is used as the reference, RRF should be used or justification of exclusion should be provided. To check the determination of RRF, check the correction of calculation of impurities  confirm/complete the QOS 2.3.R.2
  18. 18. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 18 | Validation – compendial methods Assay – API No validation generally required. Exception: specificity for major impurities not in the monograph. Assay – FPP Specificity, accuracy and precision (repeatability). Purity – API and FPP Full validation for specified impurities that are not included in the monograph (specificity, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, LOD/LOQ) Validation of the limit for individual unknowns, if tighter than that in the monograph: LOQ of the API should be below the limit for individual unknowns
  19. 19. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 19 | Non-compendial methods Full validation is required for purity, assay and dissolution methods (HPLC, UV) : Specificity Linearity Accuracy Repeatability Intermediate precision LOD/LOQ (not required for assay, dissolution) Robustness (recommended)
  20. 20. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 20 | Specificity  Blank solution to show no interference  Placebo to demonstrate the lack of interference from excipients  Spiked samples to show that all known related substances are resolved from each other  Stressed sample of about 10 to 20% degradation is used to demonstrate the resolution among degradation products – Check peak purity of drug substance by photodiode array detector (PDA): eg purity angle is lower than the purity threshold.  Representative chromatograms should be provided with time scale and attenuation indicated
  21. 21. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 21 | Linearity / Range The working sample concentration and samples tested for accuracy should be in the linear range (concentrations Vs. Peak areas) Minimum 5 concentrations Dilute of stock solution or separate weighings
  22. 22. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 22 | Linearity / Range Assay : 80-120% of the theoretical content of active Content Uniformity: 70-130% Dissolution: ±20% of limits; eg if limits cover from 20% to 90% l.c. (controlled release), linearity should cover 0-110% of l.c. Impurities: reporting level to 120% of shelf life limit Assay/Purity by a single method: reporting level of the impurities to 120% of assay limit
  23. 23. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 23 | Linearity / Range Correlation coefficient (r) API: ≥ 0.998 Impurities: ≥ 0.99 y-Intercept and slope should be indicated together with plot of the data
  24. 24. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 24 | Accuracy Assay API: against an RS of known purity, or via an alternate method of known accuracy; analysis in triplicate. FPP: samples/placeboes spiked with API, across the range of 80-120% of the target concentration, 3 concentrations, in triplicate each. Report per cent recovery (mean result and RSD): 100±2% ICH Q2 states: accuracy may be inferred once precision, linearity and specificity have been established. (Demonstration preferred).
  25. 25. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 25 | Accuracy Impurities: API/FPP spiked with known impurities Experienced in PQ: Across the range of LOQ-150% of the target concentration (shelf life limit), 3-5 concentrations, in triplicate each. (LOQ, 50%, 100%, 150%) Per cent recovery: in general, within 80-120%, depends on the level of limit
  26. 26. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 26 | Precision System precision: – by multiple injections (n ≥5) of a homogeneous sample (standard solution). – RSD ≤ 1% is recommended for assay; – RSD ≤ 5% is recommended for related substances (reference standards at the limit) – Indicates the performance of the HPLC system – As a system suitability test
  27. 27. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 27 | Precision Repeatability (method precision) – Multiple measurements of a sample by the same analyst – A minimum of 6 determinations at the test concentration (6 times of a single batch), or – 3 levels (80%, 100%, 120%) , 3 repetitions each (combined with accuracy) – For Assay: RSD ≤ 2.0% – For individual impurity above 0.05%, in general, RSD ≤ 10%
  28. 28. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 28 | Precision Intermediate precision (part of ruggedness) – Test a sample on multiple days, analysts, equipments – Repeat the method precision by different analyst in different equipment using different lot of column on different days – RSD should be the same requirement as method precision Reproducibility (inter-laboratory trial) – Not requested in the submission
  29. 29. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 29 | LOD/LOQ  signal to noise ratio: LOD 3:1 , LOQ 10:1 – May vary with lamp aging, model/manufacturer of detector, column  standard deviation of the response and the slope of the calibration curve at levels approximating the LOD /LOQ σ = the standard deviation of the response, base on – the standard deviation of the blank – The calibration curve should be validated by analysis of samples at the limits.
  30. 30. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 30 | LOD/LOQ LOD: below the reporting threshold LOQ: at or below the specified limit Not required for assay/dissolution methods. Applicant should provide – the method of determination – the limits, – chromotograms
  31. 31. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 31 | Robustness The method's capability to remain unaffected by small but deliberate variations in method parameters – Influence of variations of pH in a mobile phase – Influence of variations in mobile phase composition – Different columns (different lots and/or suppliers) – Temperature – Flow rate Evaluate the System suitability parameters
  32. 32. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 32 | Robustness
  33. 33. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 33 | Conclusion HPLC methods play a critical role in analysis of pharmaceutical product Validation of HPLC should demonstrate that the method is suitable for its intended use Review the information in dossier against QOS 2.3.R.2 Data for acceptance, release, stability will only be trustworthy if the methods used are reliable
  34. 34. The prequalification programme --Assessor's training | 19-20 January 2011 34 | Case Study Case Study 1--HPLC Method.doc QOS 2.3.R.doc Case Study 2 -- Validation of HPLC Method.doc

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