Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Design Principles for Competence-based Recommender Systems


Published on

ARISTOTELE presentationat the 6th IEEE International Conference on Digital Ecosystem Technologies - Complex Environment Engineering (IEEE DEST - CEE 2012). Learn more on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Design Principles for Competence-based Recommender Systems

  1. 1. Collaborative Project – FP7- ICT- 2009 - 257886Design Principles for Competence-based Recommender SystemsValerio Bellandi, Paolo Ceravolo, Fulvio Frati, Jonatan MaggesiUniversità degli Studi di Milano, ItalyGabriela Waldhart, Isabella SeeberLeopold-Franzens University of Innsbruck, Austria
  2. 2. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 20122Outline ARISTOTELE Project Introduction on Recommender Systems Recommendations in Competence Management Systems Analysis of ARISTOTELE Recommender System Scenario Competence-based Management System Conclusions
  3. 3. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 20123 Modern knowledge-intensive organizations are step by steprealizing that shifting the relevance from tangible to intangible assetsincrease competitiveness It is important to consider complex environments that integrate models,processes and technologies with organizational aspects in a systemicapproach The FP7 ARISTOTELE research project aims at relating learning toorganizational processes, as well as to the innovation processmanagement Three kinds of processes are identified: organizational processes (marketing & communication, HRM, business) learning processes (group training sessions) social collaboration processes (spontaneous formation of groups)ARISTOTELE Project
  4. 4. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 20124 Recommender Systems (RSs) are considered critical in ARISTOTELEapproach to exploit interactions in collaborative environments and fosterthe innovation process Basic RS concepts:1. Homophily: similarity between sources and recipients2. Tie strength: intensity of the relationship between the recipient and source3. Trust: trust relationship between recipient and source4. Social capital: source’s reputation Four main RS categories:1. Content-based: RS calculates similarity of related contents2. Collaborative: RS calculates similarity of user profiles basing on ratings3. Knowledge-based: RS considers user requirements and domain knowledge4. Hybrid ARISTOTELE RS falls in the 4th category, taking care of all RSconceptsRecommender Systems - 1
  5. 5. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 20125 ARISTOTELE RS try to mix two important aspects ofmodern RSs Diversity, Novelty and Serendipity Give to users suggestions that are not limited to the closest ones,but also those suggestions that apparently are far from the user’sinterest, but she should also like it“Serendipity is the art of making an unsought finding”F.P. Adams Knowledge-sharing and Solidity The accuracy of recommendations will be improved with aknowledge assessment service, exploiting users’ implicit and explicitfeedbacks on suggestionsRecommender Systems (RSs) - 2
  6. 6. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 20126 ARISTOTELE RS will assist the platform CompetenceManagement System (CompMS) Typical CompMS process: Identify the task to be completed Perform a gap analysis to identify available and missingcompetences Use the results to identify the actions to fill the learning gaps Integration between RS and CompMS is difficult Example: suggestions on how a user can improve his CV cannot bedirectly referred to users having similar CVs It requires the definition of specific design principles for thealgorithms guiding the recommendation processRecommendations in CompMS
  7. 7. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 20127 The analysis started from the introduced RS concepts andARISTOTELE platform user requirements Four different analysis dimensions, taken from project userscenarios: Competence Based Management Activity and Task Management Collaboration Knowledge Result of the analysis will be in terms of preconditions andlimitations, to define the boundaries of the ARISTOTELE RS Preconditions and limitations have been exploited for the design ofRSCompetence-based RS Principles
  8. 8. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 20128 ARISTOTELE will allow the representation and reasoning on related conceptsstored in the models Contextual information, e.g. a person with specific competences working on a specifictask, can be reused to express relationsPrecondition 1 - Competence Profiles Competence profiles, and the awareness on which competences are required fororganizational tasks, are required Competence profiles need to be accessible and updatable by the platform RS must know to what extent a person is capable of fulfilling the task (proficiency) The knowledge base must be designed around the basic concept of competenceLimitation: In case competence profiles levels are not available, the RS will not be able tosuggest people related informationCompetence Based Management - 1
  9. 9. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 20129Precondition 2 - Tagging/Annotating The platform needs to provide tagging or annotationfunctionalities for artifacts, people, and processes Users need to have the corresponding rights and willingness toannotate available contents Content-based recommendations are efficient only with theavailability of suitable tags or keywordsLimitation: If users cannot tag or annotate contents or resources, it is likelythat recommender results will not reach high accuracyCompetence Based Management - 2
  10. 10. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 201210 ARISTOTELE supplies a comprehensive workflowmanagement, where people can define, refine, monitor,and assign objects Workers’ daily tasks can be improved with the help of accurateresource recommendations The RS should support community work byrecommending appropriate groups that hold necessaryexpertise or resources The platform needs to be able to merge information coming fromvarious sources, e.g. social networks, ERPs, CRMsActivity and Task Management - 1
  11. 11. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 201211Precondition 3 - Activity/Task Monitoring RS needs to interface with the platform to extract necessaryinformation about users’ tasks/activities from enterprise systems These systems need to provide endpoints to extract necessaryinformation about users’ tasks/activities Users need to enrich tasks description with set of metadata thatwill help RS to provide reliable suggestionsLimitation If activity/task information are not available for recommendation,ARISTOTELE methodologies related to it might be restrictedActivity and Task Management - 2
  12. 12. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 201212 User scenarios included possible communication channels: instantmessaging, private message, discussion boards, sharedworkspaces, forums, meetings arrangement, workflow managementsystems, … Collaboration should result in annotations of users’ contents byresource rating, tagging, or giving feedback or comments ondocumentsPrecondition 4) Willingness to change communication practices It is necessary that the organizational culture, and therefore people, accept andare willing to use ARISTOTELE communication channels It is important that the RS will be able to access collaborative resources andcontents and give suggestions based on themCollaboration
  13. 13. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 201213 ARISTOTELE core is the handling of explicit/codifiedknowledge, giving the appropriate support of people toexchange implicit knowledge successfully The platform needs to support activities to update andshare organizational knowledge Knowledge might also be found or stored outside theorganizational boundaries It is important to find mechanisms to determine trustable andjustifiable knowledge sources The platform needs to reach a critical mass of users andcontents to give reliable suggestionsKnowledge - 1
  14. 14. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 201214Precondition 5) Migration of existing knowledge base There is a need that the existing knowledge base gets migratedinto ARISTOTELE Ontology matching techniques could achieve that same things fromdiverse systems will be described as one thing RS must rely on a common metamodel to be able to derivesuggestions from different sourcesLimitation If a knowledge base is not available, the platform could haveproblems in solving the start-up problem and create sufficientpositive network effectsKnowledge - 2
  15. 15. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 201215Precondition 6) Context Information To derive contextual information ARISTOTELE needs to haveinterfaces to other enterprise systems (CRM, HRM, ERP,…) Information needs to be mapped among the different sources ifthey deliver the same semantic information (e.g., worker, client,user, etc.) It is important to have a common metamodel to uniform all thedataLimitation If ARISTOTELE cannot draw on information stored elsewhere inthe organization, content-based recommendation will be highlylimitedKnowledge - 3
  16. 16. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 201216 Stated preconditions and limitations were inputs for thedevelopment of the ARISTOTELE RS It differs from other common RS by taking as central conceptthe competences and working experiences of all members ofan organizations Designed to be triggered by a specific stimulus Giving suggestions on activities and learning plans correlated to thesubject Suggesting a set of alternative objects that, at a first sight, couldseem completely unrelated (serendipity) RS can introduce novel and unexpected knowledge fields inthe ordinary business processARISTOTELE Competence-based RS - 1
  17. 17. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 201217ARISTOTELE Competence-based RS - 2
  18. 18. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 201218 We investigated important preconditions and limitations thatare considered to have impacts on the design and success ofa competence-based Recommender System Preconditions can be directly used as input factors for the RS Preconditions can inform the design of RS from a theoreticalpoint of view with the goal to improve the acceptance ofrecommender results Currently we are working on: The implementation of the RS within the ARISTOTELE platform Validation of the approach through independent experiments Results of the validation presented during the Innovation AdoptionForumConclusions
  19. 19. info@aristotele-ip.euThank youAny questions?
  21. 21. IEEE DEST-CEE 201218-20 June 201221RS Metamodel – CR2S