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Looking	at	Wi-Fi	and	VLAN	
Through	the	IPC	Model	
Leland Smith, Dan Cokely, Heather Bell, Lou
Chitkushev, John Day (Boston University)	
	
RINA	Workshop	
	Paris	2019
The	Problem?	
•  The	topologist’s	vision	defect:	
•  can’t	tell	a	coffee	cup	from	a	donut	
•  One	look	at	WiFi	and	VLAN	and	one	can	see	they	looked	remarkably	similar.	
•  Both	contain	mulKple	“layers”	of	the	same	rank	over	the	same	physical	medium.	
•  MulKple	VLANs	over	a	single	wired	network	
•  MulKple	WiFi	networks	in	the	same	physical	area	share	the	same	media	
•  WiFi	especially	has	a	PDU	format	that	hints	at	2	layers,	e.g.	the	4	addresses.	
•  Clearly	creaKng	a	“logical	Ethernet”	over	the	physical	
•  Would	a	RINA	characterizaKon	of	VLANs	and	WiFi:	
•  Be	a	significant	simplificaKon	or	improvement	over	the	current	approach	
•  Provide	capabiliKes	not	currently	available.	
•  Increased	Commonality	should	improve	manageability
The	Method	
•  Understand	the	WiFi	and	VLAN	standards	
•  Map	them	into	the	various	aspects	of	the	RINA	model	
•  Create	a	Unified	Model	
•  Conclusions	and	Future	Work
Wi-Fi	and	the	802.11	MAC	Header	
u
Why So Many Addresses?
BSS-id
Laptop Access
Point
Router/
Cable Modem
Sndr/Rcvr
“Ethernet” btwn SRC/DEST
IP
Laptop Access
Point
Access
Point
Router/
Cable Modem
Sndr/Rcvr Sndr/Rcvr
“Ethernet” btwn SRC/DEST
IP
•  In the general case, there may be forwarding across access points. So the first two addresses would be SNDR/RCVR
•  and would change at every hop.
•  Over the top is a logical Ethernet that is continuous with the Wired Ethernet connecting the last Access Point to the Router.
•  So it has SRC (laptop) and DEST (the next hop, the Router). Hence 4 addresses are necessary in general.
•  However, the most common configuration is a Laptop wirelessly associated with an Access Point connected to a Router/Cable
Modem. In this case, the SRC and SNDR addresses are the same, so only 3 addresses are necessary.
•  (Note that in the general case, on the first hop Src and Sndr are the same; and on the last hop Rcvr and Dest are the same. So
the 3-address form could be used. In between all of the addresses are all different, so 4 are necessary.)
VLAN	…and	the	802.1	standards	alphabet	soup	
VLAN	basics:	
•  A	layer-2	network	parKKoned	into	mulKple	disKnct	broadcast	
domains	
•  Where	domains	are	isolated	from	one	another	
•  The	domain	is	referred	to	as	a	Virtual	Local	Area	Network	(VLAN)	
•  ConfiguraKon	management	–	apply	disKnct	policies	to	different	
user	groups	on	the	network	
•  Traffic-flow	management	–	enforce	QOS	on	a	per	VLAN	basis	
•  Security	–	keep	informaKon	on	a	need	to	know	basis;	restrict	
access
VLAN	Tag	
TPID	
16-bits	
PCP	
3-bits	
DEI	
1-bits	
VID	
12-bits	
TPID	–	VLAN	packet	idenKfier	
PCP	(Priority	Code	Point)	–	frame	priority	effort	from	0	(best	effort)	to	7	(highest	priority)	
DEI	(Drop	Eligible	Indicator)	–	indicates	whether	frames	are	eligible	to	be	dropped	
VID	(VLAN	ID)	–	Unique	idenKfier	for	the	VLAN,	up	to	4k	idenKfiers	(0x000	and	0xFFF	are	reserved)	
PCP	and	DEI	can	be	used	in	conjuncNon	to	determine	QOS	
Here a tag is introduced rather than using addresses to distinguish layers of the same rank.
Multiple addresses are not required because in a wired media is point-to-point so addresses are not needed.
802.1Q uses a single customer tag (C-TAG) to identify VLAN frames
802.1ad adds a service tag (S-TAG) before the C-TAG to perform “double-
tagging” or “VLAN stacking”
802.1ah adds an additional tag, B-TAG, along with a service identifier (I-
TAG)
DST MAC

6-bytes
C-SRC MAC
6-bytes
ETH TYPE
2-bytes
PAYLOAD
n-bytes
CRC
4-bytes
2.1	-	Ethernet	
2.1q	-	VLAN	
DST MAC

6-bytes
C-SRC MAC
6-bytes
ETH TYPE
2-bytes
PAYLOAD
n-bytes
CRC
4-bytes
2.1ah	–	MAC	in	MAC	
C-SRC
MAC
6-bytes
ETH TYPE
2-bytes
PAYLOAD
n-bytes
CRC
4-bytes
C-VLAN
TAG
4-bytes
S-VLAN
TAG
4-bytes
C-DST
MAC

-bytes
C-VLAN
TAG
4-bytes
2.1ad	–	Q	in	Q	
DST MAC

6-bytes
C-SRC MAC
6-bytes
ETH TYPE
2-bytes
PAYLOAD
n-bytes
CRC
4-bytes
S-VLAN
TAG
4-bytes
C-VLAN
TAG
4-bytes
B-DST
MAC

-bytes
B-SRC
MAC

6-bytes
B-VLAN
TAG
4-bytes
TPID
2-bytes
I-TAG
4-bytes
802.1	Frame	
This starts to get a bit
out of hand
Enrollment Allocation Data Transfer Layer Management Resource Management Network Management Security
1X : Port Based
work Access Control
1AR: Secure Device ID
1AB: link layer
overy protocol
802.1X: Port Based
Network Access Control


802.1AE: MAC Security


802.1Q: VLAN


802.1Qad: QinQ


802.1Qah: MAC in MAC
802.1AQ: Shortest Path
Bridging


TRILL


802.1AD – Q in Q


802.1AH: MAC in MAC


802.1AJ: Two port MAC
Relay
802.1Qau: congestion
management


802.1OP:


802.1AS: Timing and
synchronization


802.1BA: Audio /video
bridging


802.1AT: Stream
reservation protocol (SRP)
802.1AB: link layer discovery
protocol


802.1AH: I-tags


802.1AD: SVLAN tags


802.1AK: Multiple VLAN
registration Protocol (MVRP)


802.1Qbe: Multiple Backbone
Service Instance Identifier
Registration Protocol (MIRP)


802.1Qbc: Provider Bridging


802.1Qbb: Priority based flow
control


802.1Qaz: Enhanced
transmission selection for
bandwidth sharing between
traffic classes


802.1Qbf: PBB-TE
Infrastructure segment
protection


802.1Qbg: Edge virtual
bridging


802.1BR: Bridge Port
Extension


802.1AX:Link Aggregation
802.1AE: MACsec


802.1OG: Secure Dat
Exchange


802.1Qaw: DDCFM (D
Driven Connection Fa
Management)
WiLAN	
…	a	unificaKon	of	WiFi	and	VLAN	through	the	RINA	model
The	Unified	Model:		WiLAN	
•  There	has	to	be	disKnct	“media	DIFs”	for	wired	and	wireless.	
•  One	or	more	“common”	DIFs	operaKng	over	the	media	DIFs.	
•  Reality:		Wired	Ethernet	as	a	mulK-access	media	no	longer	exists.	
•  Hubs	are	obsolete.	
•  Hence	Ethernet	is	point-to-point	
•  Without	port-ids,	tradiKonal	Ethernet	alone	is	an	ill-formed	layer.	
•  Compromises	layer	separaKon.		With	them,	Ether-type	can	be	eliminated.	
•  With	LLC,	it	is	a	beier-formed	layer,	however,	DL-SAPs	combine	port-id	and	CEP-id.	
•  MAC	addresses	are	bad	address	pracKce	and	have	become	a	major	security	problem.	
•  Experience	has	shown	that	as	long	as	they	are	globally	unique	the	temptaKon	to	use	them	for	
purposes	they	were	not	intended	is	too	great.	
•  Addresses	should	only	large	enough	for	the	scope	of	the	layer	they	are	used	in.		
•  16	bits	is	plenty,	12	would	do.	
•  Addresses	should	be	assigned	as	part	of	enrollment	when	joining	a	layer
WiLAN	Model	
•  The	Wired	Media	DIF	is	point-to-point	between	a	staKon	or	bridge	and	another	
bridge.			
–  Hence,	this	DIF	does	not	need	addresses,	but	does	need	CEP-ids	and	port-ids.	
•  OTOH,	the	wireless-media	DIF	needs	both	addresses	and	CEP-ids.	
–  Because	mulKple	wireless	networks	may	exist	in	the	same	media	space.	
•  This	is	the	major	difference.	
Station Station
Bridges
Access
Point
Wired Media DIFs
Wireless Media DIF
Wireless	DIF	Frame	
CRC	(Cyclical	Redundancy	Check)	-	Frame	protecKon	-	ensures	frame	was	delivered	without	error	
DST	ADDR	(DesKnaKon	address)	
SRC	ADDR	(DesKnaKon	address)	
QOS	(Quality	of	Service)	-	QOS	cube	defining	policy	
DST	CEP-ID	(DesKnaKon	ConnecKon	End-point	ID)		
SRC	CEP-ID	(Source	ConnecKon	End-point	ID)	
FLAGS	
PAYLD	(Payload)	-	User	data	
DST	CEP-ID	
2-bytes	
SRC	CEP-ID	
2-bytes	
QOS	
1-byte	
PDU	Type	
1-byte	
FLAGs	
1-byte	
CRC	
4-bytes	
PAYLOAD	
n-bytes	
DST	ADDR	
2-byte	
SRC	ADDR	
2-byte
Data	Transfer	 Data	Transfer	Control	 Management	
U	DelimiNng
2.11n	(8	bit	delimiter	in	A-
PDU)	OpKonal	or	other	
icy
ta	Transfer
op	&	Wait
aying	&	MulNplexing
2.11ac	or	other	policy
U	ProtecNon
2.11n	(8-bit	CRC	carried	
er	to	802.11ac)	or	other	
icy	
Transmission	Control
DCF	(RTS,CTS,	NAV)
	
Retransmission	Control
NAV	Timer
	
Flow	Control
DCF	
●  Enrollment
●  Beacon	Frames
●  Channel/power	set
●  Radio	Resource	AllocaKon
●  PMD	and	PLCP
●  Probe	request/response
Wireless	Policies	Under	IPC	
The Big Difference Here is Contention for the Media,
which doesn’t exist in the Wireline case.
No point re-inventing the wheel
Joining	a	wireless	network	
•  0 DIF exists to control access to the medium
•  In the case of wireless this is an open medium where any station
can listen as well as transmit
•  Joining this DIF is not about authenticating as much as it is about
coordination with stations and access points to access the medium
•  Using an adaptation of 802.11’s Open System Authentication we
can achieve a similar result
•  Process: finding a network to join, syncing configuration,
authentication
•  Potential contention with randomly created addresses
Wired	Media	DIF	
Point	to	Point	connecKon	
•  No	need	for	addresses	
•  ConnecKon	End	Point	IDs	(CEP-ID)	
•  EFCP	–	no	ACK	
•  Enrollment	–	not	necessary	(configured	by	management,	
but	could	be	added)
Wireline	Frame	Format	
CRC	(Cyclical	Redundancy	Check)	-	Frame	protecKon	-	ensures	frame	was	delivered	without	error	
QOS	(Quality	of	Service)	-	QOS	cube	defining	policy	
DST	CEP-ID	(DesKnaKon	ConnecKon	End-point	ID)		
SRC	CEP-ID	(Source	ConnecKon	End-point	ID)	
FLAGS	
PAYLD	(Payload)	-	User	data	
Addresses	-	No	address	necessary;	point-to-point	connecKon	
DST	CEP-ID	
2-bytes	
SRC	CEP-ID	
2-bytes	
QOS	
1-byte	
PDU	Type	
1-byte	
FLAGs	
1-byte	
CRC	
4-bytes	
PAYLOAD	
n-bytes
Common	DIF	
Lies	above	the	media	DIFs	
•  Requires	addresses	and	CEP-ID	
•  Addresses	are	assigned	when	joining	the	layer	
•  Address	length	for	DIF	is	based	upon	scope	of	the	layer		
•  The	two	Common	DIFs	are	examples	of	what	would	be	Q-in-Q	or	Mac-in-Mac	
Media
Level
BSS-id
Common DIF
The Rest of the
Network Bridged Subnet
Wireless Subnet
Common DIF
Common	DIF	Frame	Format	
•  Typical	frame	format,	but	this	could	be	any	RINA	DIF,	so	field	sizes	could	vary	
depending	on	the	environment.	
•  Address	field	varies	on	size	of	DIF	
o  e.g.	upper	layer	DIF	for	a	Comcast	network	may	need	32-bit	address	
o  while	local	storage	area	network	may	only	require	12-bit	address	(not	
connected	to	the	world!)	
DST	CEP-ID	
m-bytes	
SRC	CEP-ID	
m-bytes	
QOS	
1-byte	
PDU	Type	
1-byte	
FLAGs	
1-byte	
CRC	
4-bytes	
PAYLOAD	
k-bytes	
DST	ADDR	
n-byte	
SRC	ADDR	
n-byte
Advantages
Header	overhead	is	reduced	55%	for	wireless	and	25%	for	wired.	
•  Wireless	3*48	vs	4*16;			Wired	2*48+12	vs	2*8	+	4*16	
•  This	is	a	swag.	We	need	to	sharpen	the	pencil	on	it.	
Removing	the	MAC	addresses	from	the	frame	provides	more	protecKon	and	security.	
taKons	can	belong	to	more	than	one	VLAN.	That	is	coming	from	the	isolated	scope	
QoS	can	be	enforced	all	the	way	to	the	media.			
•  It	remains	to	work	out	complementary	policies	across	a	set	of	DIFs.	
he	media	specifics	are	minimized,	even	the	wired	media	DIF	is	more	a	degenerate	DIF	than	a	special	case.	
MAC-in-MAC	and	Q-in-Q	can	be	eliminated.	(They	are	inherent	in	the	RINA	model)	
ag	space	problems	are	eliminated.	Common	DIFs	can	have	any	address	length	they	need.	
Having	common	DIFs	simplifies	both	network	design	and	management.	That	means	fewer	and	simpler	protocols	
ewer	IPv4	and	IPv6	problems	because	the	addresses	are	seen	just	within	their	scope	
iminate	the	need	to	for	registraKon	authoriKes	for	MAC	addresses	and	Ethertypes,		
QuesKonable	whether	one	is	necessary	for	device	serial	numbers.
What Would Be Standardized?
•  Most of the arguments in a standards committee are over the “policies” to be included. In RINA, the policies are standardized but
configurable.
•  The Policies would be registered in a Policy Catalog or Store.
•  Policies could be free or charged for, public or proprietary.
•  The Protocols would be RINA standards: EFCP for data transfer and CDAP for Management
•  Implementations exist and are being tested
•  Standardize (or already are) the wireless media access contention resolution Protocols, generalizing 802.11 as the common
approach for wireless.
•  Use the existing Physical Layer Standards.
•  DIFs would be defined more as “profiles” or “proformas” rather than as standards
•  Header format is selected from a set of concrete syntaxes, i.e. it is policy.
•  The RIB (MIB) is mostly standardized, with break-outs for product specifics.
•  Common RIB is crucial to effective management, and with common DIFs this is easy.
•  Address length and assignment is associated with a specific layer configuration, so it is policy
•  Security are policies for enrollment and SDU protection.
•  Might standardize common CDAP sequences, such as for enrollment.
•  Bottom Line: Not Much
What We Learned
•  Simplicity	is	always	the	best	way	to	solve	even	complex	problems	
•  To	solve	any	problem,	consider	the	point	of	view	of	the	organism	view	not	the	observer	
•  Similar	to	real	life,	network	addresses	should	be	locaKon	dependent	(and	route	independent)	
•  Addressing	and	naming	is	easier	using	connecKon-end	point	Ids	(CEP-IDs)	
•  It	is	significant	to	connect	processes	rather	than	machine	interfaces	
•  CreaKng	a	secure	container	(the	DIF)	is	stronger	and	simpler	than	applying	security	individually	and	
gradually	
•  Why	do	we	have	different	soluKons	for	one	problem?	
•  Not	necessarily	that	all	current	soluKons	are	the	best	soluKons	
•  The	best	way	to	test	a	theory	is	at	the	edges:	the	“corner	cases”
Conclusions
• 		VLAN	and	Wifi	could	be	unified	and	recast	in	the	IPC	model	used	by	RINA	
•  Good	Correspondence	between	the	IPC	phases	(Enrollment,	AllocaKon,	and	Data	Transfer)	and	Ethernet	
• 		Instead	of	using	different	layers	with	different	funcKons,	a	single	layer	with	common	funcKons	and	repeat	it	
• 		The	RINA	model	greatly	simplifies	operaKons,	management,	scalability,	security,	hardware,	and	soxware	
• 		Need	to	Explore	the	Apparent	ContradicKon	in	VLANs	
o 		IPC	Model	says	layers	are	ranges	of	resource	allocaKon		
o 		VLANs	say	they	are	logical	separaKon	
o 		Implies	staKc	resource	allocaKon	at	the	media	
o 		IndicaKons	that	802.1	sees	this
• 		Harvest	policies	from	802	specs	
•  Very	interested	in	SPB	update	approach	
• 		Specify	the	two	media	DIFs	
• 		Explore	implementaKon	possibiliKes.	
• 		Simulate	QoS	policies	and	rouKng	behavior

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