HISTORY OF CALLIGRAPHY The word Calligraphy is derived from romanlanguage which means writing beautifully. The art of calligraphy is believed to have startedwith the ancient story-telling pictures that were drawnon the walls of caves. By approximately 3,500 Before Egyptian civilizationcreated a highly stylized writing known today as‘hieroglyphics’
Types of Calligraphies• Today, there are three main types or styles of calligraphy:• (1) Western or Roman,• (2) Chinese or Oriental.• (3) Arabic,
Western or RomanThe Romans learned their writing skills from the Greeks. By 850 BCE theRomans had adapted the letters and words into the Latin language. In thecenturies following the fall of the Roman Empire, Latin continued to be thelanguage of the church and was used throughout Europe.
Chinese or Oriental.Chinese calligraphy history dated back to 4000 years ago. No one can tell exactly whenChinese written language appeared. The oldest language discovered now is Jia GuWen, written on the shells of turtles..
Arabic Calligraphy•Islamic calligraphy is the beautiful writing of the Arabic script.•It is has been the main Islamic art since the Qurans revelation(610 AD).
Primary Styles Over 100 Styles 6 Primary StylesNamed based on: width ofthe pen -
Kufi or Kufic:. Kufic is one of the earliest styles to be used to record the word of God inthe Qur’an. One of the early kufic inscriptions can be seen inside the Dome of the Rock inJerusalem.
Variations of Kufic Style Fayeq Oweis, 2005 Arab American National Museum Source: www.sakkal.com
Thuluth means “one third,” It was first formulated in the 7th century A.D., and fullydeveloped in the 9th century.It is noted for its cursive letters and its use as an decorative script.
Nasakh means “copy” in Arabic, is one of the earliest scripts, redesigned by IbnMuqlah in the 10th century A.D.,It is noted for its clarity to read and write, and was used to copy the Qur’an.
Ta’liq means “hanging,” referring to the shape of the letters, is a cursive scriptdeveloped by the Persians in the early part of the 9th century A.D., and it is also calledFarsi (Persians).
Diwani was developed by the Ottomans from the Ta’liq style. This style became afavorite script for writing in the Ottoman chancellery, and its name was derived from theword “Diwan,” which means the “Royal Court.”
Riq’a It is noted for its simplicity and its short horizontal stems. The word Riq’a means“a small sheet,” which could be an indication of the media on which it was originallycreated.
Tughra’ was used by the Ottoman sultans as their signature. It was supposed tobe impossible to imitate. Signature of an Ottoman Sultan
The Wazir Khan Mosque•The Wazir Khan Mosque ) in Lahore, Pakistan, is famous for itsextensive faience tile and Calligraphy work.• It has been described as a mole on the cheek of Lahore.• It was built in seven years, starting around 1634-1635 AD, during the reign ofthe Mughal Emperor Shah Jehan.• It was built by Shaikh Ilm-ud-din Ansari,
Mughal Art work and calligraphy at Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore
THATTA GRAVEYARDThe World Heritage listed theremains of the city of Thatta in1981. Thatts’s old necropolisconfers you with a view of theSind civilization.
THATTA SHAH JAHAN MOSQUEShah Jahan Mosque was built by Shah Jahan in1647-49 and lined with glazed tiles andbeautiful calligraphy. This structure has 101domes and is designed in such a way thatimams voice can reach every corner of thisbuilding without the help of any loudspeaker orother device.
Bhong Mosque•Bhong Mosque is located in the village of Bhong, SadiqabadTehsil, Rahim Yar Khan District, Southern Punjab Pakistan.•It was designed and constructed over a period of nearly 50 years(1932–1982) and won the Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 1986.
Rasheed Butt •Started Calligraphy in 1961 •Since then he has devoted his everything to Islamic calligraphyThe calligraphic inscriptions ofMr. Rasheed Butt fall into fourcatgories:(1): Quranic:(2): Hadith:(3): Traditional invocations orprayers.(4): Poetry, both Arabic andPersian
Butt’s achievements Butt’s achievements were recognized by the President of Pakistan who presented him with the “Pride of Performance” award in 1989. He was chosen as an International jury member for the International Calligraphy Competition organized by the IRCICA (Turkey). He has exhibited his work all over the globe. I feel honored that the Almighty has bestowed upon me this opportunity to spread this Divine message to audiences worldwide.. He does not sleep a single night without concentrating on ways and means of enhancing his contribution to Islamic calligraphy"
Syed Sadequain Ahmed Naqvi Commonly known as Sadequain Naqqash
Born in 1930 in Amroha, UP, India, Sadequain got recognitionat the age of 31 at the 1961 Paris Biennale.. During his life, Sadequain became a cult figure with a largefollowing from all walks of life. Sadequain was responsible for the renaissance of Islamiccalligraphy in Pakistan. He was one of the greatest calligraphersof his time who transformed the art of calligraphy into eyecatching expressionist paintings He is the only artist who has been copied openly and widelyby many others; The brush strokes stopped on February 10, 1987 inKarachi, when the greatest of painters and calligraphists was just57. The collection of his poetry, titled Rubayat e SadequainKulliyat launched at the Arts Council in Karachi which wascompleted by nephew, Sultan Ahmad Naqvi.