1<br />Water and the Fitness of the Environment<br />
2<br />Importance of water<br />Overview: The Molecule That Supports All of Life<br />Water is the biological medium here ...
3<br />Water Facts<br />The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding<br />The water molecule is a polar mol...
4<br />–<br />Hydrogenbonds<br />+<br />H<br />–<br />+<br />H<br />+<br />–<br /> –<br />+<br />Figure 3.2<br />Water...
5<br />Properties of water<br />Water conducting cells<br />Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s fitnes...
6<br />Insulation of Bodies of Water by Floating Ice<br />Solid water, or ice<br />Is less dense than liquid water<br />Fl...
7<br />Negative oxygen regions of polar water molecules are attracted to sodium cations (Na+).<br />–<br />Na+<br />+<br /...
8<br />Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances<br />A hydrophobic substance<br />Does not have an affinity for water<br />A...
9<br />Acids and Bases<br />Dissociation of water molecules leads to acidic and basic conditions that affect living organi...
10<br />+<br />–<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />+<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />Hydroxide<br />ion (OH–)<br />Hydroni...
11<br />Acids and Bases<br />An acid<br />Is any substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution<br ...
12<br />The pH Scale<br />Scale goes from 0-14 with 7 neutral<br />The pH of a solution Is determined by the relative conc...
13<br />The pH scale and pH values of various aqueous solutions<br />pH Scale<br />  0<br />  1<br />Battery acid<br />  2...
14<br />Buffers<br />The internal pH of most living cells<br />Must remain close to pH 7<br />Buffers<br />Are substances ...
15<br />0<br />1<br />Moreacidic<br />2<br />3<br />Acidrain<br />4<br />5<br />Normalrain<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br ...
16<br />Moles and Molarity<br />A mole<br />Represents an exact number of molecules of a substance in a given mass<br />Mo...
17<br />God created water before life<br />1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.  2 Now the earth was ...
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Water, Polarity, etc.

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03 water text

  1. 1. 1<br />Water and the Fitness of the Environment<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Importance of water<br />Overview: The Molecule That Supports All of Life<br />Water is the biological medium here on Earth<br />All living organisms require water more than any other substance<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Water Facts<br />The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding<br />The water molecule is a polar molecule<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />–<br />Hydrogenbonds<br />+<br />H<br />–<br />+<br />H<br />+<br />–<br /> –<br />+<br />Figure 3.2<br />Water’s Polarity<br />The polarity of water molecules<br />Allows them to form hydrogen bonds with each other<br />Contributes to the various properties water exhibits<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />Properties of water<br />Water conducting cells<br />Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s fitness for life<br />3. Water moderates air temperature because it has a high specific heat, which allows it to minimize temperature fluctuations to within limits that permit life<br />1. Cohesion - Like molecules bonding to each other (water attracting other water molecules)<br />2. Surface tension<br />Is a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid<br />4. Water is a versatile solvent due to its polarity<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Insulation of Bodies of Water by Floating Ice<br />Solid water, or ice<br />Is less dense than liquid water<br />Floats in liquid water<br />Life can exist under the frozen surfaces of lakes and polar seas<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Negative oxygen regions of polar water molecules are attracted to sodium cations (Na+).<br />–<br />Na+<br />+<br />+<br />–<br />+<br />–<br />–<br />Positive hydrogen regions of water molecules cling to chloride anions (Cl–).<br />Na+<br />–<br />+<br />+<br />Cl –<br />Cl–<br />+<br />–<br />–<br />+<br />–<br />+<br />–<br />–<br />Figure 3.6<br />The different regions of the polar water molecule can interact with ionic compounds called solutes and dissolve them<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances<br />A hydrophobic substance<br />Does not have an affinity for water<br />A hydrophilic substance<br />Has an affinity for water<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Acids and Bases<br />Dissociation of water molecules leads to acidic and basic conditions that affect living organisms<br />Organisms must maintain homeostasis in the pH of their internal and external environments<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />+<br />–<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />+<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />H<br />Hydroxide<br />ion (OH–)<br />Hydronium<br />ion (H3O+)<br />Figure on p. 53 of water dissociating<br />Effects of Changes in pH<br />Water can dissociate Into hydronium ions (H+ or H3O+)and hydroxide (OH-) ions<br />Changes in the concentration of these ions Can have a great affect on pH in living organisms<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Acids and Bases<br />An acid<br />Is any substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution<br />A base<br />Is any substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />The pH Scale<br />Scale goes from 0-14 with 7 neutral<br />The pH of a solution Is determined by the relative concentration of hydrogen ions<br />Difference of 10X in hydrogen ion concentration between any two pH values<br />Acids have a higher number of H+ ions than a base<br />Acids produce H+ ion in solution<br />Bases produce OH- ions in solution<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />The pH scale and pH values of various aqueous solutions<br />pH Scale<br /> 0<br /> 1<br />Battery acid<br /> 2<br />Digestive (stomach) <br />juice, lemon juice<br />Vinegar, beer, wine,<br />cola<br /> 3<br />Increasingly Acidic<br />[H+] > [OH–]<br /> 4<br />Tomato juice<br /> 5<br />Black coffee Rainwater<br /> 6<br />Urine<br />Neutral<br />[H+] = [OH–]<br /> 7<br />Pure water<br />Human blood<br /> 8<br />Seawater<br /> 9<br />10<br />Increasingly Basic<br />[H+] < [OH–]<br />Milk of magnesia<br />11<br />Household ammonia<br />12<br />Household bleach<br />13<br />Oven cleaner<br />14<br />Figure 3.8<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />Buffers<br />The internal pH of most living cells<br />Must remain close to pH 7<br />Buffers<br />Are substances that minimize changes in the concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in a solution<br />Consist of an acid-base pair that reversibly combines with hydrogen ions<br />Made by organisms<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />0<br />1<br />Moreacidic<br />2<br />3<br />Acidrain<br />4<br />5<br />Normalrain<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />13<br />Morebasic<br />14<br />Figure 3.9<br />Acid precipitation<br />Can damage life in Earth’s ecosystems<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />Moles and Molarity<br />A mole<br />Represents an exact number of molecules of a substance in a given mass<br />Molarity<br />Is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />God created water before life<br />1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.  2 Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.<br />

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