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Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Chemistry, The Central Science , 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten
Solutions ,[object Object],[object Object]
Solutions ,[object Object]
How Does a Solution Form? ,[object Object]
How Does a Solution Form ,[object Object]
Energy Changes in Solution ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Energy Changes in Solution ,[object Object]
Why Do Endothermic Processes Occur? ,[object Object]
Why Do Endothermic Processes Occur? ,[object Object]
Enthalpy Is Only Part of the Picture ,[object Object]
Enthalpy Is Only Part of the Picture ,[object Object]
Student, Beware! ,[object Object]
Student, Beware! ,[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Solutions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Solutions ,[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Solutions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Factors Affecting Solubility ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Factors Affecting Solubility ,[object Object]
Factors Affecting Solubility ,[object Object]
Factors Affecting Solubility ,[object Object],[object Object]
Gases in Solution ,[object Object],[object Object]
Gases in Solution ,[object Object],[object Object]
Henry’s Law ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Temperature ,[object Object]
Temperature ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Ways of Expressing Concentrations of Solutions
Mass Percentage ,[object Object],   100 mass of A in solution total mass of solution
Parts per Million and Parts per Billion ,[object Object],   10 6 Parts per Million (ppm) Parts per Billion (ppb) ppb =    10 9 mass of A in solution total mass of solution mass of A in solution total mass of solution
Mole Fraction (X) ,[object Object],moles of A total moles in solution X A  =
Molarity (M) ,[object Object],[object Object],mol of solute L of solution M =
Molality (m) ,[object Object],mol of solute kg of solvent m =
Changing Molarity to Molality ,[object Object]
Colligative Properties ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Vapor Pressure ,[object Object]
Vapor Pressure ,[object Object]
Raoult’s Law ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression ,[object Object]
Boiling Point Elevation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object], T b  is  added to  the normal boiling point of the solvent.
Boiling Point Elevation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object], T f  is  subtracted from  the normal boiling point of the solvent.
Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Colligative Properties of Electrolytes ,[object Object]
Colligative Properties of Electrolytes ,[object Object]
van’t Hoff Factor ,[object Object]
van’t Hoff Factor ,[object Object]
van’t Hoff Factor ,[object Object],[object Object]
van’t Hoff Factor ,[object Object],[object Object]
Osmosis ,[object Object],[object Object]
Osmosis ,[object Object]
Osmotic Pressure ,[object Object],where  M  is the molarity of the solution. If the osmotic pressure is the same on both sides of a membrane (i.e., the concentrations are the same), the solutions are  isotonic . n V    =   (  ) RT =  M RT
Osmosis in Blood Cells ,[object Object],[object Object]
Osmosis in Cells ,[object Object],[object Object]
Colloids ,[object Object]
Tyndall Effect ,[object Object],[object Object]
Colloids in Biological Systems ,[object Object]
Colloids in Biological Systems ,[object Object]
Colloids in Biological Systems ,[object Object]

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Properties of Solutions Explained

  • 1. Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Chemistry, The Central Science , 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten
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