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Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Chemistry, The Central Science , 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten
Law of Conservation of Mass ,[object Object],[object Object]
Chemical Equations ,[object Object]
Anatomy of a Chemical Equation ,[object Object]
Anatomy of a Chemical Equation ,[object Object],[object Object]
Anatomy of a Chemical Equation ,[object Object],[object Object]
Anatomy of a Chemical Equation ,[object Object],[object Object]
Anatomy of a Chemical Equation ,[object Object],[object Object]
Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information ,[object Object]
Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information ,[object Object],[object Object]
Reaction Types
Combination Reactions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],Decomposition Reactions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Combustion Reactions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Formula Weights
Formula Weight (FW) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Molecular Weight (MW) ,[object Object],[object Object],C:  2(12.0 amu) 30.0 amu + H:  6(1.0 amu)
Percent Composition ,[object Object],% element = (number of atoms)(atomic weight) (FW of the compound) x 100
Percent Composition ,[object Object],= 80.0% %C = (2)(12.0 amu) (30.0 amu) 24.0 amu 30.0 amu = x 100
Moles
Avogadro’s Number ,[object Object],[object Object]
Molar Mass ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Using Moles ,[object Object]
Mole Relationships ,[object Object],[object Object]
Finding Empirical Formulas
Calculating Empirical Formulas ,[object Object]
Calculating Empirical Formulas The compound  para -aminobenzoic acid (you may have seen it listed as PABA on your bottle of sunscreen) is composed of carbon (61.31%), hydrogen (5.14%), nitrogen (10.21%), and oxygen (23.33%).  Find the empirical formula of PABA.
Calculating Empirical Formulas Assuming 100.00 g of  para -aminobenzoic acid, C: 61.31 g x  = 5.105 mol C H:   5.14 g x = 5.09 mol H N: 10.21 g x = 0.7288 mol N O: 23.33 g x  = 1.456 mol O 1 mol 12.01 g 1 mol 14.01 g 1 mol 1.01 g 1 mol 16.00 g
Calculating Empirical Formulas Calculate the mole ratio by dividing by the smallest number of moles: C: = 7.005    7 H: = 6.984    7 N: = 1.000 O: = 2.001    2 5.105 mol 0.7288 mol 5.09  mol 0.7288 mol 0.7288 mol 0.7288 mol 1.458 mol 0.7288 mol
Calculating Empirical Formulas These are the subscripts for the empirical formula: C 7 H 7 NO 2
Combustion Analysis ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Elemental Analyses ,[object Object]
Stoichiometric Calculations ,[object Object]
Stoichiometric Calculations ,[object Object]
Stoichiometric Calculations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],C 6 H 12 O 6  + 6 O 2      6 CO 2  + 6 H 2 O
Limiting Reactants
How Many Cookies Can I Make? ,[object Object],[object Object]
How Many Cookies Can I Make? ,[object Object]
Limiting Reactants ,[object Object],[object Object]
Limiting Reactants ,[object Object]
Theoretical Yield ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Percent Yield ,[object Object],Actual Yield Theoretical Yield Percent Yield = x 100

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Ch03 outline

  • 1. Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Chemistry, The Central Science , 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
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  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 12.
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  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. Moles
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 26.
  • 27. Calculating Empirical Formulas The compound para -aminobenzoic acid (you may have seen it listed as PABA on your bottle of sunscreen) is composed of carbon (61.31%), hydrogen (5.14%), nitrogen (10.21%), and oxygen (23.33%). Find the empirical formula of PABA.
  • 28. Calculating Empirical Formulas Assuming 100.00 g of para -aminobenzoic acid, C: 61.31 g x = 5.105 mol C H: 5.14 g x = 5.09 mol H N: 10.21 g x = 0.7288 mol N O: 23.33 g x = 1.456 mol O 1 mol 12.01 g 1 mol 14.01 g 1 mol 1.01 g 1 mol 16.00 g
  • 29. Calculating Empirical Formulas Calculate the mole ratio by dividing by the smallest number of moles: C: = 7.005  7 H: = 6.984  7 N: = 1.000 O: = 2.001  2 5.105 mol 0.7288 mol 5.09 mol 0.7288 mol 0.7288 mol 0.7288 mol 1.458 mol 0.7288 mol
  • 30. Calculating Empirical Formulas These are the subscripts for the empirical formula: C 7 H 7 NO 2
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42.