AP World History Chapter 03

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Lecture slides to accompany Bulliet "Earth and Its Peoples" 3rd Edition

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AP World History Chapter 03

  1. 1. Unit 1: Foundations Chapter 3: The Mediterranean and Middle East 2000 – 500 B.C.E.
  2. 2. Unit 1: Foundations Chapter 3: The Mediterranean and Middle East •Section 1: Cosmopolitan Middle East •Section 2: Aegean World •Section 3: The Assyrian Empire •Section 4: Israel •Section 5: Phoenicia & the Mediterranean •Section 6: Failure & Transformation
  3. 3. Unit 1: Foundations Chapter 3: The Mediterranean and Middle East  Western Asia  Egypt: New Kingdom  Commerce & Communication
  4. 4. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 1: Middle East A. Western Asia 1. Cosmopolitan - culture diffusion across Mesopotamia 2. South - Kassites ruled Babylonia- no empire 3. North - Assyria (Tigris R. )- tin & silver trade Hittites (Anatolia/Turkey) a. Used horse-drawn chariots b. Metallurgy - copper, silver, and iron c. First to use iron tools & weapons
  5. 5. B. Egypt - New Kingdom Ramesses II Queen Hatsheput Amarna
  6. 6. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 1: Middle East B. Egypt - New Kingdom 1. Middle Kingdom - decline & conquered by Hyksos 2. New Kingdom – empire building!!! a. North - Palestine b. South - Nubia 3. Rulers a. Hatsheput - trade with Punt b. Akenaten - Monotheistic – only god: Aten i. New capital built at Amarna c. Ramessides - new Dynasty – largest ever! i. Ramesses II – strong ruler of largest empire -
  7. 7. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 1: Middle East C. Commerce & Communication 1. Commerce- Syria/Palestine important center of metal trade routes (Mesop > Med) a. Caused Egypt & Hitittes to fight for control of this area b. Metals had to be traded for i. Copper – Arabia & Cyprus ii. Tin – Afghanistan iii. Silver – Anatolia iv. Gold – Nubia 2. Communication a. Animals –  camels, horses & chariots a. Language – writing became the norm of all govts
  8. 8. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 2: Aegean World Section 2: The Aegean World 2000 – 1100 B.C.E.  Minoans  Mycenaeans  Fall of Bronze Age Civilizations
  9. 9. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 2: Aegean World A. Minoans ( - 1450 BCE) 1. Little is Known a. Legends of King Minos, labyrinth beneath his palace & the Minotaur b. Archeological evidence @ Cnossus, Phaistos, Mallia c. Influenced by Egypt, Syria & Mesopotamia 2. Fall – most likely conquered by Mycenaeans The Minotaur was a savage creature with the body of a bull, the upper torso of a man, and the head of a bull.
  10. 10. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 2: Aegean World B. Mycenae (1600 - 1450 BCE) 1. Legend of Homer’s: Iliad and Odyssey 2. Archeological evidence (Schliemann – 1876) a. Shaft graves, gold & silver jewelry, palaces 3. Culture 1. Hilltop citadels & fortified walls 2. Luxury living for rich: houses and tombs 3. Writing - Linear B 4. State control 1. Mutual dependent city/states 2. Organized agriculture and wool production
  11. 11. Mycenaean Grave Sites
  12. 12. Linear B Writing
  13. 13. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 2: Aegean World B. Mycenae (1600 - 1100 BCE) 5. Long Distance Trade a. Evidence in Egypt, Aegean and Middle East b. Exports: wine, olive oil, weapons, crafts, slaves and mercenaries c. Imports: ivory, gold, copper, tin
  14. 14. Trade
  15. 15. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 2: Aegean World C. Fall of Bronze Age (1100 BCE) 1. Hittites destroyed by unknown invaders 2. Egypt loses control of Nubia 3. Mycenae declines: internal and external forces  Invasion, trade routes seized, economic collapse 4. “Dark Age”  Poverty, isolation, decline of knowledge
  16. 16. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 3: Assyria Section 3: The Assyrians 911-612 B.C.E.  Background  God & King  Conquest & Control  Society & Culture
  17. 17. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 3: Assyria A. Background & Location 1. Northern Mesopotamia 2. Empire - began in 9th Century BCE  Expanded trade routes • Westward to Mediterranean • North to modern Armenia • East to modern Iran • South to Babylonia
  18. 18. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 3: Assyria B. God & King 1. Kings were chosen by the gods & highly revered 2. Celebrated as heroes - produce awe & fear Secular Duties Religious Duties  Receiving information  Supervision of state  Hearing and deciding religion complaints  Public and private rituals  Diplomacy  Consulting and getting  Military leadership approval of gods 3. Assyrian Kings: Assur-nasirpal II, Tiglath-pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esar-haddon
  19. 19. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 3: Assyria C. Conquest & Control 1. Strong Army - ½ million soldiers a. Technology – iron weapons, cavalry, couriers, signal fires, spy networks b. Highly feared  Terrorism  Deportation
  20. 20. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 3: Assyria C. Conquest & Control 2. Officials a. Collected tribute & taxes b. Maintain law & order c. Troops – train & supply d. Construct & maintain public works (roads, bridges)
  21. 21. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 3: Assyria D. Society & Culture 1. 3 Social Classes: a. Free Landowning b. Farmers & artisans c. Slaves 2. Economy based on agriculture 3. Culture influenced from earlier Mesopotamia 4. Knowledgeable in math and astronomy 5. Extensive libraries – Epic of Gilgamesh found here
  22. 22. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 4: Israel Section 4: Israel 2000 - 500 BCE  Background  Origins  Exodus  Monarchy  Culture  Decline
  23. 23. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 4: Israel A. Background 1. Nomadic herders 2. Caravan traders (no resources) B. Origins 1. Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac & Jacob 2. Tension with neighbors (a lasting theme) C. Exodus 1. Egyptian slavery is disputed – maybe Hyksos 2. Settled into Canaanite territory (battles)
  24. 24. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 4: Israel D. Monarchy 1. Need for strong central govt. 2. Saul, David, Solomon – then divided in two  Solomon: Strongest, wealthiest of all Israelite kings  Alliances, built Jerusalem Temple  300 wives, 600 concubines 3. Temples: sacrifices: ag & animal  Priests became rich off of “taxes” – led to corruption
  25. 25. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 4: Israel E. Culture 1. Families: a. Patriarchal b. Arranged monogamous marriages  Men could have affairs & rich could have multiple wives c. Lived with extended families 2. Women a. Could not own property or initiate divorce b. Domestic: raising children, maintain house, ag/herd c. Urban areas: women worked outside of the home 3. Temples: sacrifices: ag & animal  Priests became rich off of “taxes” – led to corruption
  26. 26. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 4: Israel F. Decline 1. Solomon’s sons divided the kingdom in two a. North: Israel - Capital: Samaria b. South: Judah - Capital: Jerusalem 2. Foreign Invasion  Assyrian invasion of Israel (north) 721 BCE  Babylonian invasion of Judah  Large portion of population deported back to Babylon 3. Diaspora  Scattering of Jewish population  Unity: Religious rituals, dietary restrictions, Sabbath
  27. 27. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 5: Phoenicia Section 5: Phoenicia & Carthage 1200 - 500 BCE  Background  Expansion  Carthage
  28. 28. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 5: Phoenicia A. Background 1. Modern day Lebanon 2. Descendents of Syria, Lebanon & Israel: 3. Major cities: Byblos, Berytus, Sidon & Tyre 4. First alphabetical writing system
  29. 29. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 5: Phoenicia B. Expansion 1. Tyre expanded throughout the Med. Sea: Cyprus, N. Africa, Spanish coast, Sardinia, Sicily & Malta 1. Need for resources • Since Assyria conquered Syria & Palestine, they need ag. Land and other resources
  30. 30. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 5: Phoenicia C. Carthage 1. Modern day Tunisia 2. Governed by 2 judges 3. Strong Navy, controlled W. Med. sea trade 4. Religion: polytheistic, child sacrifices
  31. 31. Carthage
  32. 32. Unit 1: Chapter 3: Section 6: Transformation Section 6: Assyrian Consequences 750 – 550 BCE 1. Destruction of Israel: deportation of Jews 2. Phoenicians expanded into the Med Sea 3. Invasion of Egypt 4. Control of Babylon & W. Iran 5. Empire too large, army overextended, resources drained, revolts and rebellions  Neo-Babylonians rise up & defeat the Assyrians

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