AP WH Chapter 09 PPT


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AP WH Chapter 09 PPT

  1. 1. Christian Europe Emerges 300 – 1200 C.E.
  2. 2. Byzantine Empire 300 – 1200 C.E.
  3. 3. Map of Byzantine Empire
  4. 4. Byzantine Empire Video
  5. 5. Church and State <ul><li>Roman rule and traditions remained in the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople. </li></ul><ul><li>The Byzantine emperor appointed the patriarch of Constantinople and intervened in church matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious differences and doctrinal disputes abounded, but polytheism was eliminated. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Constantinople
  7. 7. Church of Hagia Sophia
  8. 8. External Threats <ul><li>Byzantine Empire did not break up because of unity of political and religious power. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign threats included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goths and Huns in North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sasanids in East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked for over 300 years </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Losing Power <ul><li>Muslim Arabs took wealthy provinces of Syria, Tunisia, and Egypt from Byzantines. </li></ul><ul><li>Permanently reduced power of Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Empire also experienced declining relations with the popes and princes of Western Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal break between Latin and Orthodox Churches in 1054. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Society and Decline of Urbanism <ul><li>Byzantine Empire experienced a decline of urbanism similar to Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class people moved out of cities and into rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine society was then characterized by a HUGE gap between wealth of aristocrats and poverty of peasants. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Family Life <ul><li>Family very rigid </li></ul><ul><li>Women confined to homes and wore veils if they went out. </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine women ruled alongside husbands between 1028 and 1056. </li></ul><ul><li>Women did not take refuge in nunneries. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Economic Intervention <ul><li>At this time, emperors would: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled provision of grain to capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monopolized trade on certain goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantinople was well supplied. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities and rural areas lagged behind in wealth and technology. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Views of Byzantine Empire <ul><li>Western Europeans began to view the Byzantine Empire as a crumbling power. </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantines thought that westerners were uncouth barbarians. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cultural Achievements <ul><li>Put together collection of Roman laws and edicts under the title Body of Civil Law . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became basis of Western European civil law. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed technique of making domed buildings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian renaissance architects adopted dome in 15 th and 16 th centuries. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Early Medieval Europe 300 – 1000 C.E.
  16. 16. From the Roman Empire to Germanic Kingdoms…
  17. 17. Fifth Century C.E. <ul><li>Roman Empire breaks down </li></ul><ul><li>Europe is politically fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic kings ruling a number of different kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Western Europe continues to suffer invasions as Muslim Arabs and Berbers took Iberian Peninsula and go into France. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Charlemagne & the Carolingians <ul><li>The Carolingians united various Frankish kingdoms into a larger empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Charlemagne, this empire includes Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>Empire was subdivided by Charlemagne’s grandsons and never united again. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Charlemagne
  20. 20. Charlemagne’s Empire
  21. 21. Charlemagne’s Church
  22. 23. Vikings <ul><li>Attacked England, France, and Spain in the late eighth and ninth centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Settled Iceland and Normandy, from which the Norman William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066. </li></ul>
  23. 24. A Self-Sufficient Economy <ul><li>Fall of Roman Empire brings about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>De-Urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Without domination of Rome’s “Great Tradition,” regional elites become self-sufficient and local “small traditions” flourished. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Vassals <ul><li>Vassals held most of a king’s realm </li></ul><ul><li>Most vassals granted substantial parts of land to their vassals. </li></ul><ul><li>Kings were weak because they depended on vassals. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Fief <ul><li>Kings and nobles granted land (fief) to a man in return for a promise to supply military service. </li></ul><ul><li>By 10 th century, fiefs became hereditary. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Administration <ul><li>Kings and nobles had limited ability to administer and tax their realms. </li></ul><ul><li>Power was further limited by their inability to tax the vast landholdings of the Church. </li></ul><ul><li>Most medieval people saw the lord’s manor as government. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Manors <ul><li>Self-Sufficient farming estates </li></ul><ul><li>Primary centers of agricultural production </li></ul><ul><li>Manors grew from need for self-sufficiency and self-defense. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Typical Manor Layout
  29. 31. Medieval Diet <ul><li>Northern Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Beer </li></ul><ul><li>Lard or Butter </li></ul><ul><li>Bread </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Wine </li></ul><ul><li>Olive Oil </li></ul>
  30. 32. Lord of the Manor <ul><li>Had almost unlimited power over his agricultural workers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural Workers = Serfs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditions of agricultural workers varied </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition of a free peasantry survived in some areas </li></ul>
  31. 33. Early Medieval Society in West <ul><li>Class of nobles emerged and developed into mounted knights. </li></ul><ul><li>Landholding and military service became inseparable. </li></ul><ul><li>Military service to a lord = feudalism </li></ul>
  32. 34. Military Security <ul><li>Need for security leads to the development of new technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stirrup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bigger Horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armor and Weapons of the knight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equipment was expensive, so knights needed land to support themselves. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Knight’s Equipment Horse Bit Spur
  34. 36. Women <ul><li>Noble women were pawns in marriage politics. </li></ul><ul><li>Women could own land. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-noble women worked alongside the men. </li></ul>
  35. 37. The Western Church
  36. 38. The Structure of Christian Faith <ul><li>Christian faith and Catholic church, headed by the Pope, were sources of unity and order in the fragmented world of medieval Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Church hierarchy tried to deal with challenges to unity by calling councils of bishops to discuss and settle questions of doctrine. </li></ul>
  37. 39. Politics and the Church <ul><li>Popes sought to combine their religious power with political power by forging alliances with kings . </li></ul><ul><li>Finally did so by choosing a German king to be “Holy Roman Emperor ” in 962. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In reality, the Holy Roman Empire was not more than a loose coalition of German princes. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Holy Roman Empire Map
  39. 41. Power Struggle <ul><li>Secular rulers in the Holy Roman Empire argued that they should be able to appoint bishops who held land in fief. </li></ul><ul><li>Popes disagreed </li></ul><ul><li>Concordat of Worms . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a compromise in 1122 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popes could appoint bishops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings could assign where they worked </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Origins of Monasticism <ul><li>Developed in Egypt in the 4 th century on the basis of previous religious practices such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Celibacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devotion to Prayer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation from Society </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Benedict of Nursia <ul><li>Lived from 480 – 547 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Organized monasteries and supplied them with a set of written rules which governed all aspects of ritual and daily life. </li></ul>
  42. 44. Functions of Monasteries <ul><li>Centers of literacy and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees for widows and other vulnerable women. </li></ul><ul><li>Inns and orphanages. </li></ul><ul><li>Managed their own estates of agricultural land. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Monasteries
  44. 46. Control <ul><li>Difficult for Catholic church to exercise oversight over monasteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Reform development started by monastic establishment in 11 th century. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abbey of Cluny sought to improve the administration and discipline of monasteries. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 47. Three Legal Traditions <ul><li>Western Europe developed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germanic feudal law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canon (church law) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presence of conflicting legal theories and legal jurisdictions was a significant characteristic of Western Europe. </li></ul>
  46. 48. Kievan Russia 900 – 1200
  47. 49. Geography <ul><li>Includes territory from the Black and Caspian Seas in the south to the Baltic and White Seas in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>Territory includes series of ecological zones running from east to west. </li></ul><ul><li>Several navigable rivers. </li></ul>
  48. 50. Kievan Russia Map
  49. 51. Agriculture <ul><li>Poor agricultural land </li></ul><ul><li>Short growing season </li></ul><ul><li>Primitive farming technology </li></ul><ul><li>Food production was low and trade was necessary to feed the people </li></ul>
  50. 52. Early History <ul><li>Inhabited by a number of peoples of different language and ethnic groups whose territory shifted from century to century. </li></ul><ul><li>Emerged to a pattern of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavs in the east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finns in the north </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkic tribes in the south </li></ul></ul>
  51. 53. Trade <ul><li>Forest dwellers, steppe nomads, and farmers traded with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-distance caravan trade linked Russia to the Silk Road. </li></ul><ul><li>Varangians were active traders on the rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Khazar Turks built a trading kingdom at the mouth of the Volga River. </li></ul>
  52. 54. Rus <ul><li>Societies of western Slav farmers ruled by Varangian nobles. </li></ul><ul><li>Most important cities = Kiev and Novogorod </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both cities were centers of trade </li></ul></ul>
  53. 55. Kiev and Novogorod <ul><li>Had populations of 30,000 to 50,000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much smaller than Constantinople or large Muslim cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kiev, Novogorod, and other urban areas were centers for craftsmen and artists. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their social status was higher than peasants. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 56. Vladimir I <ul><li>In 980, he became Grand Prince of Kiev. </li></ul><ul><li>Chose Orthodox Christianity as the religion of his state. </li></ul><ul><li>Imitated the culture of the Byzantine Empire: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built churches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted the Cyrillic alphabet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oriented his trade toward the Byzantines. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 57. Spread of Christianity <ul><li>Spread very slowly in Kievan Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Pagan customs and polygamy persisted until the 12 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity eventually took over and became very powerful in the 12 th century. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clergy even functioned as tax collectors for the state. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 58. Decline <ul><li>Caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal political struggles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with external foes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decline happened after 1100. </li></ul>
  57. 59. Western Europe Revives 1000 – 1200
  58. 60. Reviving Western Europe <ul><li>Population and agricultural production increased in the period from 1000-1200. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused resurgence of trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabled kings to strengthen control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revival because of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance of self-governing cities </li></ul></ul>
  59. 61. New Technology <ul><li>Heavy moldboard plow </li></ul><ul><li>Horse collar </li></ul><ul><li>Breast-strap harness </li></ul>
  60. 62. Italy and Flanders <ul><li>These two cities were the beginning of the emergence of independent, self-governing cities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relied on manufacturing and trade for income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had legal independence so laws could favor manufacturing and trade </li></ul></ul>
  61. 63. More cities emerge… <ul><li>Venice became a dominant sea power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traded in Muslim ports for spices and other goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ghent imported wool from England and wove it into cloth for export </li></ul>
  62. 64. With trade came… <ul><li>Increase in use of high-value gold and silver coins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely been used in early medieval Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During the mid-twelfth century Europeans began minting silver and gold coins. </li></ul>
  63. 65. The Crusades 1095-1204
  64. 66. Roots of the Crusades <ul><li>Series of Christian military campaigns against Muslims in eastern Mediterranean from 1100 to 1200. </li></ul>
  65. 67. Reasons for Crusades <ul><li>Religious zeal </li></ul><ul><li>Knights’ willingness to engage in church-sanctioned warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for land on part of younger sons of European nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in trade </li></ul>
  66. 68. The Holy Land <ul><li>Holy Land made focus of Crusades because of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tradition of pilgrimages, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim control of Christian religious sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantine Empire requests for help against Muslims </li></ul></ul>
  67. 69. The First Crusade <ul><li>1095 – Pope Urban II initiated First Crusade by telling Europeans to stop fighting each other and fight the Muslims instead. </li></ul>
  68. 70. Impact of Crusades <ul><li>Limited impact on Muslim world. </li></ul><ul><li>Crusaders ended Europe’s intellectual isolation when Arabic and Greek manuscripts gave Europeans access to work of ancient Greek philosophers. </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades had significant impact on lifestyle of European elites. </li></ul>