AP WH Chapter 05 PPT


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AP WH Chapter 05 PPT

  1. 1. An Age of Empires: Rome and Han China 753 B.C.E. – 330 C.E.
  2. 2. Rome’s Creation of a Mediterranean Empire 753 B.C.E. – 300 C.E.
  3. 3. Geography <ul><li>Italy and Sicily are at a crossroads in the Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as a link between Africa and Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rome located at a crossroads of the Italian Peninsula </li></ul>
  4. 4. Resources <ul><li>Navigable rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Mild climate </li></ul><ul><li>Arable land to support a large population of farmers </li></ul>
  5. 5. Founding of Rome – Legend
  6. 6. Founding of Rome – Fact <ul><li>Rome was inhabited at early as 1000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by 7 kings between 753 and 507 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representatives of senatorial class of large landowners overthrew kings and established a government. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. A Republic of Farmers <ul><li>Centers of political power: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Consuls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate made laws and governed </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Family Structure in Rome <ul><li>Several generations living together </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest living male, paterfamilias , had absolute authority </li></ul><ul><li>Roman women had more freedom of Greek women, but they were subordinate to the paterfamilias. </li></ul><ul><li>Women eventually became independent after the death of their fathers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gods in Rome <ul><li>Worshipped a large number of supernatural spirits. </li></ul><ul><li>Major gods – Jupiter and Mars. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper performance of ritual ensured gods would favor Roman state. </li></ul>Jupiter Mars
  10. 10. Roman Expansion <ul><li>Slowly expanded, then expanded very rapidly in the third and second centuries B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations for Expansion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for consuls to prove themselves as military commanders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant fear of being attacked </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. First Stage of Expansion <ul><li>Rome conquered rest of Italy by 290 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Won support of Italian people by giving them Roman citizenship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once citizens, they had to provide soldiers for the military. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Taking Over <ul><li>Rome defeated Carthage to gain control over western Mediterranean and Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>200 – 30 B.C.E. – Rome defeated Hellenistic kingdoms to take over Eastern Mediterranean. </li></ul><ul><li>59 – 51 B.C.E., Gaius Julius Caesar conquered Celts of Gaul. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Map of Roman Empire
  14. 14. Administration <ul><li>Used elite groups to administer and tax various province of the empire. </li></ul><ul><li>A governor supervised local administrators. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Served a single one-year term in office </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System was inadequate and prone to corruption. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Failure of the Republic <ul><li>As Rome expanded, the social and economic bases of republic were undermined. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent farming families had to serve in military. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They sold their land while they were serving in the military. Land was bought by large landowners. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Latifundia <ul><li>Great estates built by large landowners. </li></ul><ul><li>This caused problems for Rome because latifundia owners preferred cash crops like grapes instead of staple crops like wheat. </li></ul><ul><li>Since slave labor was cheap, there was not a great need for peasant farmers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This created an unemployed underclass in urban areas. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. A Lack of Soldiers <ul><li>Because there were less farmers to enlist as soldiers, the unemployed became soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>These soldiers tended to pledge loyalty to commanding officer, not Rome. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generals took control of politics leading to civil war and the end of the republican system of government. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. An Urban Empire <ul><li>Roman Empire had population of 50-60 million. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rome had population of 1 million. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexandria, Antioch, and Carthage had populations of almost 1 million each. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of the Roman Empire were rural farmers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Considered an urban empire because of the administration through a network of cities and towns. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Life in Ancient Rome <ul><li>Upper classes lived in elegant, well-built, well-appointed houses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many aristocrats also owned country villas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poor lived in dark, dank, fire-prone wooden tenements in squalid slums built in low-lying parts of the city. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ancient Roman Town Ruins
  21. 21. Just Like Rome <ul><li>Provincial towns imitated Rome both in urban planning and in administration. </li></ul><ul><li>Local elite, who served interests of Rome, dominated town councils. </li></ul><ul><li>Local elite served communities by using wealth to construct aqueducts, baths, theatres, gardens, temples, and other public works projects. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Aqueducts
  23. 23. Roman Baths
  24. 24. Roman Temples
  25. 25. Roman Forum
  26. 26. Rural Life in Rome <ul><li>Lots of hard work and very little entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Little contact with representatives of government </li></ul><ul><li>By the beginning of C.E., landlords lived in city and tenant farmers ran the farms supervised by foremen. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Pax Romana <ul><li>Manufacture and trade flourished under “Pax Romana.” </li></ul><ul><li>Grain had to be imported into the city of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome also imported Chinese silk and Indian and Arabian spices. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome and other cities exported glass, metalwork, pottery, and other items. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Romanization <ul><li>In the western part of the Empire many parts of Roman culture were adopted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eventually Roman emperors extended Roman citizenship to all free adult male inhabitants of the empire. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Ancient Roman Clothing
  30. 30. Rise of Christianity <ul><li>Jesus lived in a society marked by resentment against Roman rule. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This inspired the belief that a Messiah would arise to liberate the Jews. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When Jesus sought to reform Jewish religious practices, the Jewish authorities turned him over to the Roman governor for execution. </li></ul>
  31. 31. After the Execution <ul><li>Jesus’ disciples continued to spread his teachings. </li></ul><ul><li>Also spread belief that Jesus had been resurrected. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The target of their proselytizing was fellow Jews. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Target of proselytizing changed from Jews to non-Jews in the 40s – 70s C.E. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Shift in Target <ul><li>Paul of Tarsus, an Anatolian Jew, discovered that non-Jews were much more receptive to the teachings of Jesus than Jews were. </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish revolt in Judaea (66 C.E.) and the subsequent Roman re-conquest destroyed the original Jewish Christian community in Jerusalem. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Growth of Christianity <ul><li>Grew slowly for two centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a hierarchy of priests and bishops </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a commonly accepted theological doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Resisted the persecution of Roman officials </li></ul><ul><li>By late third century, Christians were a sizeable minority in the Roman Empire. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Dissatisfaction <ul><li>The expansion of Christianity in the Roman Empire came when Romans were not happy with their traditional religion. </li></ul><ul><li>This inspired Romans to become interested in a variety of “mystery cults” and universal creeds that had their origins in the eastern Mediterranean. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Roman Technology <ul><li>Expert military and civil engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge-building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ballistic weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated and underground aqueducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of arches and domes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invention of concrete </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Roman Bridge
  37. 37. Roman Aqueducts
  38. 38. Roman Domes
  39. 39. Roman Coliseum
  40. 40. Roman Forum
  41. 41. Change in the Army <ul><li>After the death of Augustus, the army was organized primarily for defense. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhine-Danube frontier was protected by a string of forts. </li></ul><ul><li>Long walls protected the frontiers of North Africa and Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans fought for centuries against the Parthians on the eastern front; neither made any significant gains. </li></ul>
  42. 42. The State System <ul><li>Created by Augustus to help with Roman administration </li></ul><ul><li>Worked well until Rome’s “third-century crisis” </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent change of rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raids by German tribesmen from across the Rhine-Danube frontier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of regional power when Rome seemed unable to guarantee security </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. The Economy Falls <ul><li>Economy undermined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High cost of defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debasement of currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disruption of trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversion to a barter economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disappearance of the municipal aristocracy of the provincial cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of population out of cities into rural areas </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Diocletian <ul><li>Emperor from 284 – 305 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Saved Roman state by instituting a series of reforms that included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>price controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulations to have people stay in profession and train son to do same job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some side effects of these reforms included a flourishing black market and growing resentment of the government. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Constantine <ul><li>Emperor from 306 – 337 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Formally ended persecution of Christians. </li></ul><ul><li>Patronized Christian church and made it official religion of Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Transferred capital to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Rome under Constantine
  47. 47. Arch of Constantine
  48. 48. The Origins of Imperial China 221 B.C.E. – 200 C.E.
  49. 49. Resources <ul><li>Two most important resources: agricultural production and labor </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural production in China was intensive and taxed by the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Most productive region was the Yangzi Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to centers of political power (Chang’an and Luoyang) by canals. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Exploitation <ul><li>Qin and Han governments exploited labor power of rural China by demanding that peasant families supply men for labor and the military. </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic census and updated records of land and households enabled officials to collect the proper amount of taxes, labor services, and military service. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Expansion <ul><li>Throughout their rule, the Han Chinese people expanded their empire at the expense of other ethnic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded into areas that were suitable for settled agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not expand into areas that were suitable only for nomadic economies. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Family <ul><li>Basic unity of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Conceived of as an unbroken chain of generations including the ancestors as well as the current generations. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestors thought to take an active interest in the affairs of current generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestors routinely consulted, appeased, and venerated. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Confucius <ul><li>Teachings were a fundamental source of values for family, social, and political organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Said absolute authority in hands of father. </li></ul><ul><li>People would properly fulfill roles if they were correctly instructed and imitated good role models. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Gender Roles <ul><li>Upper Class Women – cook, take care of household chores, respect parents-in-law, obey their husbands. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower-Class Women – not as constrained. </li></ul><ul><li>Marriages were arranged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New wife had to prove herself to her husband and mother-in-law through hard work, obedience, devotion, and by bearing sons. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Spirits <ul><li>Believed in a number of nature spirits to whom they sacrificed. </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual natural phenomena were regarded as ill omens. </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape thought to channel the flow of good and evil power. </li></ul><ul><li>Experts in feng shui were employed to identify the most fortunate location and orientation for buildings and graves. </li></ul>
  56. 56. The First Chinese Empire <ul><li>After Warring States Period, the state of Qin united China. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors contributing to reunification: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability and ruthlessness of Qin ruler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location in Wei valley with many independent farming households </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qin’s experience in mobilizing manpower for irrigation and flood-control projects </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Qin Ruler Shi Huangdi “ First Emperor” Ruler from 221 – 210 B.C.E.
  58. 58. Qin Rule <ul><li>Strong centralized state based on Legalist model. </li></ul><ul><li>Suppressed Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminated rival centers of authority </li></ul><ul><li>Abolished slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed a rural economy of free land-owning/tax-paying farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized weights and measures </li></ul><ul><li>Built roads and a long wall for defense </li></ul>
  59. 59. Great Wall of China
  60. 60. Behind the Great Wall
  61. 61. Defeat of the Qin Dynasty <ul><li>Oppressive nature and exorbitant demands for taxes and labor caused popular rebellions. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynasty overthrown after death of Shi Huangdi in 210 B.C.E. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Shi Huangdi’s Tomb
  63. 63. Long Reign of the Han 206 B.C.E. – 220 C.E. <ul><li>Liu Bang, a peasant who defeated all other contestants for control of China established the Han dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Established a political system that drew on both Confucian philosophy and Legalist techniques. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Expansion <ul><li>Han went through period of expansion under: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor Wu (r. 140 – 87 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Han Period (202 B.C.E. – 8 C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capital at Chang’an </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Han Period (23-22 C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capital at Luoyang </li></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Chang’an <ul><li>Walled city </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to defend </li></ul><ul><li>Access to good arable land </li></ul><ul><li>Population 2 C.E. – 246,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Other cities and towns imitated the urban planning of Chang’an. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Chang’an
  67. 67. Chang’an Elite <ul><li>Lived in elegant multistoried houses on broad streets </li></ul><ul><li>Dressed in fine silks </li></ul><ul><li>Connoisseurs of art and literature </li></ul><ul><li>Many entertainment venues for these people </li></ul>
  68. 68. Elite House
  69. 69. Emperor <ul><li>Supreme in state and in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Regarded as the Son of Heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>Link between heaven and human world. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperors were the source of law. </li></ul><ul><li>Anything that went seriously wrong meant Emperor was losing Mandate of Heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperors lived secluded from general population. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Were surrounded by wives, family, servants, courtiers, and officials. </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Central Government <ul><li>Run by two chief officials </li></ul><ul><li>Included number of functionally specialized ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Local officials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collected taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drafted men for labor and military service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settled local disputes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most people had no contact with central government </li></ul>
  71. 71. Gentry <ul><li>Local officials supplied with class of moderately wealthy, educated local landowners called the “gentry.” </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted Confucianism as their ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Pursued careers in civil cervice. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Technology <ul><li>Advanced from bronze to iron around 500 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ironworkers melted the iron and used molds to make cast-iron and steel tools and weapons. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created crossbow, cavalry, watermill, and horse collar, road system, courier system, and canals. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Technology
  74. 74. Growth and Trade <ul><li>10 to 30 percent of population lived in towns – much bigger than before. </li></ul><ul><li>Most important export – silk. </li></ul><ul><li>Most important export route – Silk Road. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government sought to control this route by sending armies and colonists to Central Asia. </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Map of the Silk Road
  76. 76. Security Problems <ul><li>Nomadic tribes on northern border </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confederacy of nomads called Xiongnu were a big problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fought them by strengthening cavalry and making compliant nomads into “tributaries” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Decline of Han Empire <ul><li>Expense of defending northern borders </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles and merchants built up landholdings at expense of small farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Military conscription broke down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>central government had to rely on mercenaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factionalism at court </li></ul><ul><li>Official corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant uprisings </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Dynasty falls in 220 C.E. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Imperial Parallels
  79. 79. Similarities <ul><li>Family structure and values </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of land tenure, taxation, and administration </li></ul><ul><li>Empire building </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences for the identity of the conquered areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Common problems with defense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy undermined by military expenses </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Differences <ul><li>China – imperial model revived and territory of Han Empire reunified. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Former Roman Empire never reconstituted. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This was because of differences in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater degree of mobility in Rome than in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political ideology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religions of two empires </li></ul></ul>