AP WH Chapter 02 PPT


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AP WH Chapter 02 PPT

  1. 1. New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres 2200-250 B.C.E.
  2. 2. New Civilizations Early China
  3. 3. Geography and Resources <ul><li>China is divided into 2 major geographical regions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steppe, desert, and high plateau west and northwest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern zone – which is better for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eastern zone is separated into 2 areas: North and South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North includes Yellow River Valley, dry and cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South includes Yangzi Valley, warm with lots of rain </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Natural Resources <ul><li>Timber </li></ul><ul><li>Stone </li></ul><ul><li>Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Can grow millet in the north </li></ul><ul><li>Can grow rice in the south </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture in these areas required lots of people to be successful </li></ul>
  5. 5. Shang Period <ul><li>From 1750 – 1027 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Origins in the Yellow River Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Later expanded to include territory from Mongolia to Gansu and South to the Yangzi Valley. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Shang Kings <ul><li>Shang kings ruled directly over core area and exercised indirect rule over peripheral areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out military campaigns against nomadic enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged in far-flung commerce that may have included indirect trade with Mesopotamia. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Shang Religion <ul><li>Kings worship spirits of male ancestors. </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced divination and sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Presented themselves as intermediaries between gods and human world. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Shang Technology <ul><li>Bronze for weapons and ceremonial vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Horse-drawn chariot </li></ul><ul><li>Water buffalo as draft animal </li></ul><ul><li>Civil engineering projects </li></ul>
  9. 9. Chinese Writing System <ul><li>Chinese characters developed during Shang period. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese writing system today is directly related to the Shang system. </li></ul><ul><li>Chief written remains of Shang Dynasty are oracle bones used in divination. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Shang Writing Systems
  11. 11. Zhou Period <ul><li>From 1027 – 221 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent state of the Shang. </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated Shang in the eleventh century B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invented concept of “Mandate of Heaven” in order to justify actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zhou dynasty split into two periods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Religion and Government <ul><li>During this period, priestly power of the elite faded </li></ul><ul><li>This resulted in the separation of religion and government </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou period saw development of many different and important secular philosophies. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Western Zhou Period Government <ul><li>From eleventh to ninth centuries B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed model of government that defined kingship in moral terms </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou exercised direct control over core territory and indirect control over peripheral areas. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Eastern Zhou Period <ul><li>Decline in strength of the central government </li></ul><ul><li>Regional elites ruled territories as independent states, often fighting with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Zhou period divided further </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring and Autumn Period (771-481 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warring States Period (480-221 B.C.E.) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Eastern Zhou Technology <ul><li>Constructed long walls for defense </li></ul><ul><li>Iron and steel metallurgy </li></ul><ul><li>Horse riding </li></ul><ul><li>Development of influential political philosophies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daoism </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Legalism <ul><li>Assumes that human nature is essentially wicked and selfish. </li></ul><ul><li>People will only behave if they are ruled by strict laws and harsh punishments. </li></ul><ul><li>Functioned as the ideological basis of various independent states as they expanded. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Confucianism <ul><li>Founded by Confucius </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes that human nature is essentially good </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical view of universe, society, and family </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with establishing moral foundations of government </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius was not influential in his time, but later became dominant political philosophy of imperial China. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Daoism <ul><li>Founded by Laozi. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes that universe is in constant flux </li></ul><ul><li>There are no absolute moral standards </li></ul><ul><li>People should take the world as they find it </li></ul><ul><li>Developed into a complex system of popular and magical beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Offered the Chinese alternative between Legalism and Confucianism. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Eastern Zhou Society <ul><li>Developed three-generation family </li></ul><ul><li>Developed concept of private property, including privately owned land </li></ul><ul><li>Women were more firmly subordinated to the patriarchal hierarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position justified by concepts of yin and yang. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. New Civilizations Nubia 3100 B.C.E. – 350 C.E.
  21. 21. Nubia <ul><li>Located in Nile valley from Aswan south to Khartoum </li></ul><ul><li>Forms a link between tropical Africa and the Mediterranean world. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold, semi-precious stones, copper. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Development of Civilization <ul><li>Spurred by need for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigated Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade with Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nubian and Egyptian culture developed through mutual influence and borrowing. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Trade and Occupation <ul><li>Early Nubia carried out trade with Old Kingdom Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Northern part of Nubia was occupied by Egypt during Middle Kingdom period </li></ul>
  24. 24. Kingdom of Kush <ul><li>Kingdom of Kush developed in southern part of Nubia by 1750 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Kush noted from metalworking and construction </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt invaded Kush during New Kingdom period. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted in Egyptian occupation that exploited Nubian laborers </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Kushite Pyramids
  26. 26. Kingdom of Meroë <ul><li>800 B.C.E.-350 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>This kingdom ruled Egypt as the 25 th Dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Nubian Kingdom had a capital at Napata. </li></ul><ul><li>Napata period characterized by Egyptian cultural influence. </li></ul><ul><li>In 4 th century, moved capital to Meroë. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better for agriculture and trade </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Meroë <ul><li>Ruling dynasty of Meroë practiced a matrilineal family system </li></ul><ul><li>Queens were very influential </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>Used reservoirs to catch rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Became important center for iron smelting </li></ul>
  28. 28. Decline of Meroë <ul><li>Shift in trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of kingdom of Aksum </li></ul><ul><li>Depredations of camel-riding nomads </li></ul>
  29. 29. First Civilizations of the Americas The Olmec and Chavin 1200-250 B.C.E.
  30. 30. Mesoamerican Olmecs <ul><li>1200-400 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Most important Mesoamerican preclassic civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Major centers of civilization were located along the coast of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Political structure built around kingship </li></ul><ul><li>Power rested on control of commodities and religion </li></ul>
  31. 31. Map of Olmec Territory
  32. 32. A Moving Capital <ul><li>Center of early civilization was San Lorenzo. </li></ul><ul><li>Surpassed by La Venta around 900 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Gave way to Tres Zapotes around 600 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Large earthen mounds dominated urban centers </li></ul>
  33. 33. Olmec Technology <ul><li>Used raised fields to create agricultural surpluses </li></ul><ul><li>Olmec architecture was very advanced with so little technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple machines only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Olmec played a role in early development of writing and astronomy </li></ul>
  34. 34. Olmec Sculpture
  35. 35. Chavín <ul><li>First major urban civilization in South America </li></ul><ul><li>Politically and economically dominant between 900 and 250 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Had military strength and religious appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Used clan-based system of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Warfare led to fall of Chavín around 200 B.C.E. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Chavín Art