Due Friday! Chap 1 Short Answer Reading #2: Hammurabi Middle East Map Quiz Chap 2 Vocab. Quiz
Unit 1: Chapter 2 Chapter 2 New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres 2200-250 B.C.E.
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 1 Section 1: Early China A. Geography & Resources B. Shang Dynasty C. Zhou Dynasty D. Philosophies
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 1 A. Geography and Resources1. China is divided into 2 geographical regions: a. North, Yellow River Valley, dry and cold b. South, Yangzi Valley, warm with lots of rain2. Natural Resources a. Timber, stone, Metals3. Agriculture a. Millet (north) & Rice (south) b. Agriculture required lots of people to be successful
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 1 B. Shang Period From 1750 – 1027 B.C.E. Origins in the Yellow River Valley
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 11. Dynasty a. Direct rule & indirect rule over peripheral areas. b. Extended control by military conquest c. Engaged in trade possibly with Mesopotamia.2. Religion a.Kings worship spirits of male ancestors. b.Presented themselves as intermediaries between gods and human world.3. Techonology 1. Bronze: weapons & ceremonials vessels 2. Horse-drawn chariot & water buffalo 3. Civil engineering projects
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 1 4. Chinese Writing System a. Chinese characters developed during Shang period. b. Chinese writing system today is directly related to the Shang system. (oldest language still alive) c. Chief written remains of Shang Dynasty are oracle bones used in divination.
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 1 C. Zhou Period Background From 1027 – 221 B.C.E. A dependent state of the Shang that rebelled Defeated Shang in the eleventh century B.C.E. Invented concept of “Mandate of Heaven” Longest lasting Chinese Dynasty
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 1 1. Religion and Government a. Priest’s power faded b. This resulted in the separation of religion and government c. Zhou period saw development of many different and important secular philosophies. 2. Western Zhou (11t h – 9th Century B.C.E.) a. Direct control over core territory b. Indirect control over peripheral areas
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 13. Eastern Zhou Period a. Decline of the central government b. Regional governors ruled semi-independent states c. Eastern Zhou period divided further 1. Spring and Autumn Period (771-481 B.C.E.) 2. Warring States Period (480-221 B.C.E.) d. Technology 1. Walls for defense, Iron & Steel, Horse riding e. Culture 1.Developed 3 generation family (grandparent, parent, child) 2.Men - Private property, ancestral offerings, controlled family, 1 wife but many concubines 3.Women -subordinate to men
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 1 D. Philosophies 1. Legalism A. Assumes that human nature is essentially wicked and selfish. B. People will only behave if they are ruled by strict laws and harsh punishments. C. Functioned as the ideological basis of various independent states as they expanded.
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 1 2. Confucianism a. Founded by Confucius b. Assumes that human nature is essentially good c. Respect of family extends to respect of the state d. Concerned with establishing moral foundations of government 3. Daoism a. Founded by Laozi. b. Follow the Dao - the path c. There are no absolute moral standards d. People should take the world as they find it
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 1 4. Yin & Yang a. A natural balance b. Male – sun, active, bright, shining c. Female – moon, passive, shaded, reflective d. Confucius - male superior to the female
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 2 Section 2: Nubia 3100 BCE– 350 CE A. Geography & Resources B. Nubian Civilization C. Kingdom of Kush D. Kingdom of Meroe
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 2 A. Geography and Resources1. Located along the Upper or Southern Nile2. Natural Resources a. Gold, semi-precious stones, copper3. Trade Link a. Between Sub-Saharan Africa & North Africa
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 2 B. Nubian Civilization1. Egyptian influence in Old Kingdom a. Mutual need for resources by peaceful trading b. Language, religion, writing, culture2. Overthrown by Egyptians in Middle Kingdom a. Egypt no longer wanted to trade, invaded Kush b. Children taken to Egypt to become cultured3. Overthrown by Assyrians 1. Nubia allied with Palestinians to defeat Assyrians 2. Assyrians attack Egypt and push into Nubia 3. Govt forced to move south to Meroe
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 2 C. Kingdom of Kush1. Southern Nubia 1750 BCE2. Strength was in metal working3. Egypt invaded and took POW and children
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 2 D. Kingdom of Meroë1. Ruled Egypt 800 BCE – 350 CE2. First capital at Napata then moved to Meroe3. Matrilineal family system4. Queens were very influential (Cleopatra)5. Dominated trade routes and iron6. Decline due to shifting trade routes
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 3 Section 3: The Americas 1200 - 250 BCE A. Olmecs B. Nubian Civilization C. Kingdom of Kush D. Kingdom of Meroe
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 3 A. Olmecs: 1200 - 400 BCE1. Located along coast of present day Mexico2. Most influential Mesoamerican preclassical civilization3. Government a. Independent City/States ruled by a king b. Similarities: political and social/cultural c. ^ in Agriculture led to an ^ in population d. Gave rise to a strong king/priest e. Result – large scale labor to build rel/pol buildings
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 34. Capital a. San Lorenzo > La Venta > Tres Zapotes5. Technology a. Raised fields, only simple tools, writing, astronomy, calendar, ball games, Stone Heads
Unit 1: Chapter 2: Section 3 B. Chavin: 900-250 BCE1. Located along west coast South America2. Sat on crossroads of trade b/t coast and Andes Mountains3. Strong military and religion4. Rotating labor system to build roads & bridges5. 1 domesticated animal – llama6. Regional wars disrupted trade, economic collapse, results in govt. dissolving