Nola Talaepa and Moeumu Uili National University of Samoa
1.0 INTRODUCTION: <ul><li>SAMOA </li></ul><ul><li>- an independent developing state </li></ul><ul><li>- total land area ap...
Plants - 500 species of nature flowering plants - 220 species of ferns - 25% of the plants are endemic to    Samoa - 500 o...
Mammals Terrestial: 13 species  - 3 are native: 2 flying foxes- Samoan Flying fox, Tongan or White necked Flying fox, smal...
- 14 were recorded as “ rare or        endangered” Reptiles - 2 species of turtle: green turtle and    the hawksbill Marin...
Marine: - several whale species - 1 dolphin: spinner dolphin -  Humpback whale and Sperm whale   believed to bred here Bir...
WHY SO SERIOUS? The effects of  alien invasive species on biodiversity have been described as ‘immense, insidious and usua...
MYNA Birds <ul><li>Native to Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Known as ‘Farmer’s friend’ in India, even kept as pets  (www.nzbirds.c...
 
Pet or Pest? <ul><li>Top 100 most invasive species (IUCN, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Large dispersion pattern globally </li><...
Myna- not so minor in Samoa <ul><li>Jungle Myna ( Acridotheres fuscus)  & Common Myna ( Acridotheres tristis) </li></ul><u...
Get a move on... <ul><li>Early 1980’s-  possible introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2004-  Invasiveness only just realised c 2...
Finally... <ul><li>MNRE assigned as leading arm of MCP </li></ul><ul><li>Government grants MNRE $SAT250,000 </li></ul><ul>...
 
On the other hand... <ul><li>Aleipata Offshore Islands: </li></ul><ul><li>> 2 of 4 islands identified as Key Biodiversity ...
Benefit species: Friendly ground dove Tooth-billed pigeon Seabirds Land snails Lizards Forest flora
AIREP 2009 <ul><li>Aleipata Islands Rat Eradication Project </li></ul><ul><li>Birds caught and transferred to aviary in Up...
Post-AIREP <ul><li>Monthly monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victor trap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bait stati...
Pre- AIREP operation... <ul><li>Thoroughly researched-  similar operations beforehand studied </li></ul><ul><li>Consultati...
Lessons learnt <ul><li>Need to prevent- tighten BIOSECURITY </li></ul><ul><li>IMMEDIATE action </li></ul><ul><li>Thorough ...
<ul><li>THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION </li></ul><ul><li>TOFA SOIFUA </li></ul>
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Eradicating introduced and invasive species

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  • 2000-Once observations of declined populations made, more surveys and research conducted. 2006- Upon confirmation of declining population, many consultations made with locals, village chiefs and district community. The operation itself was followed by a community-led programme to prevent rats reinvading the islands. Notification- all crabs on and near the islands will be toxic for a period and were ban for taking. Period of ban made longer than strictly neccessary to ensure no harmful effects and to significantly benefit local coconut crab populations. Inclusion- community member were able to assist in the operation 2000 Decline noticed. Research conducted  2006 Consultations conducted i.e whether it was feasible etc.  2008 aerial operation being planned  2009 execution of operation  2010 and ongoing moitoring.
  • Eradicating introduced and invasive species

    1. 1. Nola Talaepa and Moeumu Uili National University of Samoa
    2. 2. 1.0 INTRODUCTION: <ul><li>SAMOA </li></ul><ul><li>- an independent developing state </li></ul><ul><li>- total land area approx. 2935 sq.km </li></ul><ul><li>- population of approx. 165,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>- high species endemism over 30% of it’s </li></ul><ul><li> total biodiversity </li></ul>
    3. 3. Plants - 500 species of nature flowering plants - 220 species of ferns - 25% of the plants are endemic to Samoa - 500 or so species of plants been introduced - Today, half of the plants are exotic
    4. 4. Mammals Terrestial: 13 species - 3 are native: 2 flying foxes- Samoan Flying fox, Tongan or White necked Flying fox, small insectivorous bat – Sheath-tailed bat. - introduced species: * Polynesian rat ( Rattus exulans ) * Pigs and dogs * cattle, horses, goats, cats * 2 more species of rats ( R. norvegicus and R. rattus ) * house mouse
    5. 5. - 14 were recorded as “ rare or endangered” Reptiles - 2 species of turtle: green turtle and the hawksbill Marine: 991 species - 890 inhabit shallow water or reefs - 56 in deeper water - 45 are pelagic
    6. 6. Marine: - several whale species - 1 dolphin: spinner dolphin - Humpback whale and Sperm whale believed to bred here Birds - 35 species land birds - 21 sea and shore birds (8 of the land birds are endemic) (4 introduced species)
    7. 7. WHY SO SERIOUS? The effects of alien invasive species on biodiversity have been described as ‘immense, insidious and usually irreversible’ (IUCN, 2000)
    8. 8. MYNA Birds <ul><li>Native to Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Known as ‘Farmer’s friend’ in India, even kept as pets (www.nzbirds.com) </li></ul>
    9. 10. Pet or Pest? <ul><li>Top 100 most invasive species (IUCN, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Large dispersion pattern globally </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hawaii </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Australia and... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Samoa </li></ul></ul></ul>www.indianmynaaction.org.au
    10. 11. Myna- not so minor in Samoa <ul><li>Jungle Myna ( Acridotheres fuscus) & Common Myna ( Acridotheres tristis) </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion pathway in Samoa disputed. </li></ul><ul><li>First noticed in early 1980’s </li></ul><ul><li>MAF primary suspect to have deliberately introduced as a biological control for Cattle ticks </li></ul>
    11. 12. Get a move on... <ul><li>Early 1980’s- possible introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2004- Invasiveness only just realised c 2004. First discussions began on how to address the issue. </li></ul><ul><li>2005- Proposal prepared, sent to SPREP for financial aid. </li></ul><ul><li>2006- Government of Samoa forwards strong arguments to act on myna bird problem. </li></ul><ul><li>2008- Cabinet proclaimed approval of the proposal to fund implementation of the Myna Control Project </li></ul>
    12. 13. Finally... <ul><li>MNRE assigned as leading arm of MCP </li></ul><ul><li>Government grants MNRE $SAT250,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Just completed 5 th phase in Nov, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>5,903 mynas recorded to have been killed during all 5 phases (July 2009, Nov 2009, Apr 2010, June 2010 & Nov 2010) </li></ul>
    13. 15. On the other hand... <ul><li>Aleipata Offshore Islands: </li></ul><ul><li>> 2 of 4 islands identified as Key Biodiversity Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nu’utele Island & Nu’ulua Island </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Host large population of Friendly Ground Dove (Tua’imeo), which are threatened </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Restoration urgently called for </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only mammalian pest known to be present was the Pacific/Polynesian Rat ( Rattus exulans ). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also, Yellow Crazy Ant ( Anoplolepis gracillipes) present, also known to feed on turtle and bird hatchlings. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 16. Benefit species: Friendly ground dove Tooth-billed pigeon Seabirds Land snails Lizards Forest flora
    15. 17. AIREP 2009 <ul><li>Aleipata Islands Rat Eradication Project </li></ul><ul><li>Birds caught and transferred to aviary in Upolu (main Island) </li></ul><ul><li>Pestoff Rodent Bait 20R distributed containing the toxin brodifacoum </li></ul>
    16. 18. Post-AIREP <ul><li>Monthly monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victor trap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bait stations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wax tags </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tomahawk traps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhanced FGD population, as well as other fauna </li></ul><ul><li>Forest regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity created to tranlocate threatened species from the main island </li></ul><ul><li>Zero mice found! </li></ul><ul><li>No mice = chance for seedling growth </li></ul>
    17. 19. Pre- AIREP operation... <ul><li>Thoroughly researched- similar operations beforehand studied </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation workshops- beginning from 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Extra precautions- e.g. bait dyed green to further prevent bird ingestion; helicopter used even though expensive; birds captured and taken to aviary </li></ul><ul><li>Notification- e.g. coconut crabs: publicised visitors not to eat the crabs. Warnings were placed for conservative length of time </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion- community members recruited </li></ul>
    18. 20. Lessons learnt <ul><li>Need to prevent- tighten BIOSECURITY </li></ul><ul><li>IMMEDIATE action </li></ul><ul><li>Thorough research and planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to past operations, consultations with necessary stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publicity & Awareness programmes </li></ul>
    19. 21. <ul><li>THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION </li></ul><ul><li>TOFA SOIFUA </li></ul>

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