Quantification ofWater Energy and Carbon Nexus Kathmandu, Nepal 25—29 September, 2012 Dr. Sangam Shrestha Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand
Session objectives• To understand how water energy and carbon emission are linked• To estimate the energy use for water services, water use for energy production and carbon emissions• To present and discuss about the water energy and carbon nexus by considering hypothetical example
Outline• Water Energy and Carbon nexus: Overview• Cyclic effect of water energy and carbon nexus• Energy uses for water services• Water use for energy productions• Water energy and carbon emission• Example• Exercises
Water Energy and Carbon Nexus• Water and Energy has symbiotic relationship.• Production and consumption of water involve energy use and energy production require water for consumptive as well as non- consumptive use.• Energy associated with water use is also responsible for emission of GHG.• Clean energy adopted for reduction of GHG may have substantial water requirements hence water-energy- carbon nexus should be quantified more precisely for resource use optimization.• Saving water is saving energy – saving energy reduces emission of GHG.
Water Energy and Carbon NexusSource: US Department of Energy, December 2006.
Impact on climate (climate change)Water for Energy Water Scarcity in city Energy For Water More Water / More Energy/ More CarbonFigure: WEC Nexus in City and its Implications
Why do we need to know Water Energy and Carbon Nexus?• The rapid increase in population and extensive economic development in cities has increased the demand for adequate amount of water and energy. An increase in water use requires more energy and demand for more energy in turn requires more water. Both of this has impact on GHG emissions.• The challenge of climate change and reduction of GHG emissions and stabilize their levels in the atmosphere is globally recognized.• Integration of water and energy policies into a single framework is necessary for resource use optimization and this in turn demand proper estimation of water energy and carbon linkage.
Cyclic Effect of WEC Nexus Increase in urban population Increase in water Demand More Energy Required for Water production in City Increase in Energy consumption as well as demandNew Wateralternatives• Groundwater• Desalinization More use of fossil fuel• Inter Basin transfer Global Warming / Climate change Increase in GHG • Draught Emission • Need more water due to temperature rise
Water footprint of energy• A water footprint is the amount of water consumed by any sector for their purpose. Water is required for consumptive as well as non consumptive use in power generation process, as source of kinetic energy in hydropower and coolant in case of nuclear and thermal plant.• Water is used at various stages of the power generation cycle, including fuel extraction (mining and refining, oil, gas, uranium and coal processing, coal and gas liquefaction and gasification, carbon sequestration) and generation (coal, gas, oil, nuclear and biomass power plants).
Water Use for Energy TABLE: WATER USE FACTOR FOR DIFFERENT SOURCE OF ELECTRICITY Electric Fuel Total Water Use (Litres/MWh) Withdrawal ConsumptionCoal 60,763 2,620Natural Gas 24,545 651Nuclear 56,066 2,165Solar Thermal 3,028 3,028Geothermal 2,650 2,650Photovoltaic Solar 874 8Wind <240 <4Biomass N/A N/A Modified From: (Klein g. , 2009; Wilson, Leipzig, & Griffiths, 2012)
Water consumption by fuel source (including Hydropower) 40 35 30Litre/Kwh 25 Consumption 20 15 10 5 0 Coal Hydroelectric Natural Gas Nuclear Solar Thermal Geothermal Photovoltaic Solar Modified from: (Wilson, Leipzig, & Griffiths, 2012) Source of Energy
Energy Use for Water Services• Energy is required to: • lift water from depth in an aquifer • pump water in pipes • treat waste water • desalinate brackish or sea water• Globally, commercial energy consumed for delivering water is more than 26 quads, 7 percent of total world consumption.• A considerable amount of water is also delivered by utilization of human energy – e.g., use of treadle pumps and water transport by women and children.
TABLE : ENERGY USE FACTOR FOR DIFFERENT STEPS OF WATER SUPPLY Range of Energy Intensity Water Use Cycle Segments (kWh/ML) Low HighWater Supply and Conveyance 0 3,698Water Treatment 26 4,227Water Distribution 66 317Wastewater Collection andTreatment 185 1,215Wastewater Discharge 0 106Recycled Water Treatment andDistribution 106 317 Modified from: (Wilson, Leipzig, & Griffiths, 2012)
Energy Use : Major contributor of GHG Figure : GHG Emissions from Different Sector (WRI, 2009)
WATER ENERGY AND CARBON IN A CITY Example: Let us consider four different cities (A,B,C and D) using same amount of electric energy from different power production system as shown in table below: Energy Used (MWh) Water GHG Emission City Electric Fuel consumed (Litres/MWh) Kg CO2 eq/MWh A B C DCoal 2,600 484 8,900 50,000 4,000 6,000Diesel 2,200 380 8,000 16,000 16,000 2,800Natural Gas 651 270 - 4,000 3,000 14,000Nuclear 2,165 140 680,00 8,400 30,000 17,000Wind 3 14 - 500 2,000 4,600Hydropower 35,000 80 4,000 10,000 33,900 44,500(Reservoir)Total 88,900 88,900 88,900 88,900
SAME AMOUNT OF WATER IS SUPPLIED TO THE CITY FROMDIFFERENT SOURCES WHICH CONSUME ENERGY AS SHOWN IN COLUMN (I). Energy Water Supplied to city (ML) Source Types Intensity (Kwh/ML) A B C D (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)Surface Water 320 40,000 20,000 10,000 8,000Groundwater 520 10,000 8,000 30,000 25,000Brackish Groundwater 840 2,000 0 6,000 9,500Desalinated Seawater 3,500 0 9,000 0 5,000Recycled Water 390 0 150,00 6,000 4,500Total 52,000 52,000 52,000 52,000
QUERIES• How much water is consumed by energy sector?• How much carbon is emitted by energy sector?• How much energy is consumed by water sector?• Compare the results from four cities.
Solution: Water consumption and GHG emissions to supplysame amount of energy (88,900MWh) from different sources A B C D Water GHG Water GHG Water GHG Water GHGElectric Fuel consumed Emission consumed Emission consumed Emission consumed Emission ton CO2 ton CO2 ton CO2 ton CO2 ML ML ML ML eq eq eq eqCoal 23 4308 130 24200 10 1936 16 2904Diesel 18 3040 35 6080 35 6080 6 1064Natural Gas 0 0 3 1080 2 810 9 3780Nuclear 147 9520 18 1176 65 4200 37 2380Wind 0 0 0 7 0 28 0 63Hydropower 140 320 350 800 1187 2712 1561 3568(Reservoir)Total 328 17,188 536 33,343 1,299 15,766 1,629 13,759
Solution: Total energy use to supply same amount of water(52,000ML) from different sources Water Supplied to city Total Energy used (MWh) Energy (ML) Source Types Intensity (Kwh/ML) A B C D A B C D (i) x (i) x (i) x (i) x (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)Surface Water 320 40,000 20000 10,000 8000 12800 6400 3200 2560Groundwater 520 10,000 8000 30,000 25000 5200 4160 15600 13000Brackish 840 2,000 0 6,000 9500 1680 0 5040 7980GroundwaterDesalinated 3500 0 9000 0 5000 0 31500 0 17500SeawaterRecycled Water 390 15000 6000 4500 0 5850 2340 1755Total 52,000 52,000 52,000 52,000 19,680 47,910 26,180 42,795
COMPARISON OF RESULT Water consumed GHG emission by Total energy to produce diff. source of used by water City electricity electricity supply ML ton CO2 eq (MWh) A 328 17188 19,680 B 536 33343 47,910 C 1299 15766 26,180 D 1629 13759 42,795
Water consumed to produce electricity (ML) 2000Million Litres 1500 1000 500 0 A B C D Cities • Water consumption is highest in City D as major source of energy is from Hydropower. • Water consumption is lowest in city A as major source of energy is from nuclear.
Total energy used by water supply (MWh) 60,000 50,000 40,000MWh 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 A B C D Cities• Total energy used is highest in City B as major source of water is desalinated seawater.• Total energy used is lowest in city A as major source of water is surface water.
GHG emission by diff. source of electricity (ton CO2 eq) 40000ton CO2 eq 30000 20000 10000 0 A B C D Cities • GHG emission is highest in City B as coal a major energy. • GHG emission is lowest in city D as hydropower is a major source of energy.
Exercise• Groups: 4 (A,B,C,D)• Calculation: 10:30-11:00• Presentations: 15mins/group• Group A:11:00- 11:15• Group B: 11:16- 11:31• Group C: 11:32-11:47• Group D: 11:48-12:03• Wrap up:12:05-12:15
Problem• Assume a hypothetical city that uses a total of 8,000MWh of energy and water supply of 4,500ML. Please estimate the total water consumed to produce the energy, total energy consumed to supply the water and GHG emissions related to energy generation. Consider six sources for electricity generations i.e. coal, diesel, natural gas, wind and hydropower. For the water supply please consider the sources as surface water, groundwater, brackish groundwater, desalinated sea water and recycled water. Discuss atleast 3 scenarios with different combination of energy sources and water sources.• Please discuss the implications of different sources of energy use and water consumption and GHG emissions.• Conversion factors are given in xls sheet.
Group divisionGroup A Name CountryMs. Gul Pari Mohammadi AfghanistanMr. Md Ahmedul Azam BangladeshMr. Aaditya Kumar Bhaskar IndiaMr. Wahyu Septiono IndonesiaMs. Muna Thapa NepalMs. Reshna Udas NepalMs. Jyotsna Shrestha NepalMr. Sagar Aryal NepalMs. Bureera Sabir PakistanMr. Tawin Kim ThailandGroup B Name CountryMs. Laura Jayne McManusa AustraliaMs. Dechen Yangzom Nedup BhutanMs. Rozita Singh IndiaMs. Ika Zahara Qurani IndonesiaMs. Sangita Biswakarma NepalMr. Dinesh Panday NepalMr. Mohan Bahadur Chand NepalMr. Radha Krishna Dhital NepalMr. Qasim Abbas Bhatti PakistanMs. Saengabha Srisopaporn Thailand
Group C Name CountryMs. Marufa Ishaque BangladeshMr. Sonam Phuntsho BhutanMs. Malika Munjal IndiaMr. Kei Fujihira JapanMs. Nirmala Singh Bhandari NepalMs. Samridhi Rijal NepalMr. Chandra Bhandari NepalMs. Shanti Kandel NepalMs. Rizza Mendiola PhilippinesMs. Tuong Huyen Tram VietnamGroup D Name CountryMs. Chap Sopornetra CambodiaMr. Souran Chatterjee IndiaMr. Sushant Sharma IndiaMs. Palwasha Habib PakistanMs. Sujata Singh NepalMr. Shankar Adhikari NepalMr. Manoj Yadav NepalMs. Sumaiya Tabassum Ahmed BangladeshMr. Ramachandran Niroshan Sri LankaMs. Hoang Thi Bich Hop Vietnam