encourages the unsustainable exploitation of resources (as it is driven by profits) • fails to account for environmental limits • promotes unsustainable consumption patterns and resource wasteWhy Green Economy? What is the problem of conventional economic model? Environmental degradation is causing economic & social problemsFinancial-economic crisis, Extreme events, social conflicts, mass migrations,… We need a different economic model which can–sustain economic growth, protect environment, ensure social justice The impetus for a green economy came from the failure of the conventional economic to sustaineconomic growth, reduce poverty and inequality, and protect the environment.Current economic model – affecting the environment & natural resource- Pressing challenges to our future
Global ecological footprint already exceeds the Earth’s capacity by 30%.We will need 2.3 earth to support 9 billion people in 2050Pressing challenges to our future
We need a different economic model which can–sustain economic growth, protect environment, ensure social justice
The concept of green economy is particularly important for mountain regions, particularly those of the developing economies - where millions of people live in fragile environment and depend mainly on natural resources for their livelihoods and well-being. A Green Economy is one that results in increased human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks & ecological scarcitiesGE is a economic vehicle for sustainable development.
Mountain ecosystem services are essential for sustainable development downstream & contribute to a lower carbon economy in general. Mountains provide a large share of the world’s resources for forestry, mining, water for drinking, irrigation, hydropower, and wind powerWhy mountains matter in Green Economy ? What is the role of mountains in green economy?
The Role of mountains in green economy, why green economy should pay attention to mountains.Mountain ecosystems play a significant role in regulating water quantity and quality. Mountain hydrological services are also essential for groundwater recharge and related functions that maintain hydrological balance in downstream arethe mean annual mountain contribution to total discharge in river basins varies between 32% and 63% (Figure 2).
Because of the great depth, area and altitude of large glacier masses, mountains are some of the windiest places on earth. They modify air circulation and create their own winds by setting up regional and local pressure systems. Mountain and valley breezes interlock in diurnal circulation that can become strong enough to influence climate and temperature.
By 2050, the global population is expected to increase to 9 billion. Agriculture depends on healthy mountain ecosystems for water regulation and supply, pollination, erosion control, climate and wind regulation, groundwater recharge, and sustenance of wetland ecosystemsThe genetic diversity preserved in mountain ecosystems helps to ensure the world’s future food security. Thus a sustained flow of mountain ecosystem services is critical for feeding the growing population.Mountain vegetation plays a significant role in reducing or mitigating risks from natural hazards – for example, in protecting against erosion, landslides and local flooding.climate-modulating function of mountains is considerable
Although Chapter 13 of Agenda 21 recognised the value of mountain systems, with a few exceptions mountain issues are not yet sufficiently reflected in national, regional, and international policies and priorities. Sustainable mountain development has remained marginal in the international development agenda and in national and sectoral policies such as those for land, water, forest, and the environment (MA 2005; Jodha 2008). How to provide sufficient incentives to mountain communities, how to made green economy pro-poor?How to create markets for mountain ecosystem servicesGlobal market-based instruments such as CDM, REDD(+), and PES are still emerging and not functioning well in mountain regions
Mrs. IndiraGhandi rightly mentioned that poverty is a Worst form of pollution. Ladies & gentlemen, if we can not reduce poverty, if we can not reduce inequality, we can not achieve sustainable development. Throughout history, mountains have provided refuge to people fleeing aggression. Switzerland is well known for its role as a mountain sanctuary, particularly during World War II. Many of the Himalayan hill peoples originally fled from either India or Tibet. Today,
What opportunity green economy brings to mountains.
Mountain systems support about half the world’s human population by providing numerous goods and services including fresh water, food, life saving medicinal products, energy, a rich array of biodiversity, and associated traditional knowledge, as well as cultural diversityMountain ecosystems are therefore global natural capital and have a special role in the green economy and in the sustainable development of the worldMountains can contribute to address the current global chllanges: climate change, environmental degradation, new business & economic opportunities,If properly managed, Green Economy can contribute in fighting poverty, achieving MDGs, conserving resources and promoting SMDIt calls for a concerted action-conducive policy & institutional frameworks for creating enabling conditions, efficient functioning of market, institutional framework for compensation of MES, international norms recognizing some MES as global public goods.
Green Economy, Sustainable Mountain Development and Youth
Green Economy,Sustainable MountainDevelopment & Youth Golam Rasul, ICIMOD email@example.comInternational Centre for Integrated Mountain DevelopmentKathmandu, Nepal
Outline1. Why Green Economy?2. What is a Green Economy?3. Why mountain matters in Green Economy?4. What are the opportunities mountain regions of developing countries in promoting GE ?5. What are the Challenges?6. What role youth can play in promoting GE?
Why do we need GreenEconomy?• Conventional growth oriented economic model failed to sustain economic growth, reduce poverty, protect environment• High carbon emissions, climate change, resource depletion, loss of biodiversity, energy crisis, water shortage, food insecurity, persistent poverty
Why do we need Green Economy?• We need 2.3 earth to support 9 billion people in 2050 Source: Global Footprint Network and WBCSD Vision 2050, 2010
Why do we need GreenEconomy? • Persistent Poverty, Growing Inequality
Why do we need GreenEconomy?• Green economy - aims to enhance human well being, social equity and reduce environmental risks and ecological scarcities -• Concept of green economy is important for mountain & youth -large number of mountain people & rural youth depend on natural environment for livelihoods & prosperity• From mountain and youth perspective it is vital to create job, reduce poverty & conserve natural resources
What is a Green Economy• A Green Economy is one that results in increased human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks & ecological scarcities• GE is a economic vehicle for sustainable development.
Core principles of green economy• Recognizes the role of nature & its limits in sustaining economic growth• Preserve natural capital & its sustainable use• Manages & safeguards environmental assets• Increase resource use efficiency & reduce waste• Internalizes externalities• Promotes sustainable production & consumption• Promotes economic, social & environmental justice
Why mountains matter in GreenEconomy ?• Economic security & human wellbeing are fundamentally dependent on ecosystem goods & services• About half of the world’s population depends on mountains for fresh water, clean energy, irrigation water, minerals, forest , NTFPs, recreation, & genetic resources
Why mountains matter in GreenEconomy ? Water: Mountains are the water towers of the world Almost all of the world’s major rivers, and many smaller ones, originate in mountainsMean contribution of mountain Permanent snow and ice in the Himalayan regiondischarge in water flow Sub-region Volume Surface area (km2) (km2) Hindu Kush 930 6,200 Karakorum 2,180 15,670 Himalayas 5,000 43,000 Tibet 4,820 32,150 Total 12,930 97,020
Why mountains matter in GreenEconomy ?• Hydropower & clean energy – Mountains are important sources of hydropower – which provides more than 15% of the world’s hydropower & other forms of clean energy• Mountains are sources of water storage, ground water discharge, …
Why mountains matter in GreenEconomy ?• Biodiversity – Mountains support 25% of the planet’s biodiversity, have 50% of the world’s biodiversity hotspots – 32% of global PAs are in mountains – Himalayan has 488 PAs covering 39% of the region’s terrestrial area• Mountain communities are custodians of agrobiodiversity – Six of 20 plant crop species that supply 80% of the world’s food originated in the mountains• Mountains: a source of cultural, spiritual & recreational resources
Why mountains matter in GreenEconomy ?Regional & global climate regulation• Mountain ecosystems contribute in regulating global climate by mediating carbon, energy, and water balance at the land surface• The Himalayas, for example, influence the monsoon & rainfall patterns of the Indian subcontinent
Economic Contribution ofMountain Ecosystem Services• Feeding the world’s growing population• Protecting against hazards• Protecting against climate change impacts
What are the Challenge?• Mountain issues are not reflected in national, regional, and international policies & priorities.• Inadequate recognition of mountain ecosystems services. Insufficient compensation for mountain ecosystem services• Challenges to provide economic value of MESs, regulating, supporting services• Lack of disaggregated mountain-specific data• Unclear property rights
What are the Challenges• Nascent market for mountain ecosystem services. Complicated procedures in global market-based instruments such as CDM, REDD(+)• Persistent poverty & marginalisation of mountain areas Trend of people living under the poverty line in different• Mountain ecosystems are regions of Nepal (%) fragile• Mountains are prone of conflict & violence
What are the Opportunities?• Green economy recognises the value of ecosystems & their services.• Green economy offer opportunity for enhancing recognition of the value of MESs.• Growing realisation of the role of ecosystem services. Policy innovations in government for conservation & development of ecosystems – Fiscal transfers: India, … – Ecological compensation: China• Growing market for mountain niche products
Opportunities• Emergence of market & non-market mechanisms for mountain ecosystem services: PES, REDD(+), green certification, green marketing, eco-labelling, access & benefit sharing initiatives, ecotourism, policy support• New investment & employment opportunities-green jobs
Key Messages• Mountains are global natural capital & support about half of the humanity. Economic growth & sustainability in the lowlands depend highly on MESs• Mountains can contribute to address the current global chllanges: climate change, environmental degradation, providing new business & economic opportunities,• Green Economy can contribute in fighting poverty, achieving MDGs, conserving resources & promoting SMD
Role of Youth in Promoting Green Economy• Youth are the prime stakeholders & strategic actors in green economy• To promote GE concerted efforts needed to engage youth in GE & turn their energy & ideas to promote green economy-• Systemic & integrated approach to prepare & develop youth in green economy• Need national strategy for youth development & engagement in green economy
Role of Youth in Promoting GreenEconomy• Develop options for promoting green entrepreneurship – mobilize, organize & provide necessary training to the youths for involvement in productive ventures, green entrepreneurships.• Creating green jobs – that align poverty reduction & employment creation• Build youth’s skills, competencies and knowledge• Create enabling environment & business opportunities to increasing their incomes and creating decent work for themselves & others