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Pollinators in the Garden: Forging Partnerships for Native Insect Conservation Black

  1. 1. Photo: Steve Hendrix Pollinator Conservation: Opportunities for Public Gardens Scott Hoffman Black Executive Director The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
  2. 2. The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation The Xerces Society is an international nonprofit that protects wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat. 4828 SE Hawthorne Boulevard Portland, OR 97215 503-232 6639 Photo: Larry Orzak
  3. 3. The Xerces Society Conservation, policy, advocacy, education, and research for invertebrates and their habitat. Photos: Paul Jepson; Matthew Shepherd; Heidi Ballard
  4. 4. <ul><li>Pollinators provide a fundamental ecosystem service that enables plants to produce fruits and seeds. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 70% of flowering plants require a pollinator to move pollen </li></ul><ul><li>35% of crops plants </li></ul><ul><li>$20 billion/year of U.S. crops </li></ul><ul><li>One in three mouthfuls of food </li></ul>Importance of Pollinators Photo: USDA-ARS/Peggy Greb
  5. 5. Importance of Pollinators Fruits and seeds are a major part of the diet of about 25% of birds, and of many mammals Photo: NRCS
  6. 6. Photo: Dawn Nichols/iStockphoto Importance of Pollinators Pollinators and the diverse insects associated with good pollinator habitat are food for wildlife
  7. 7. <ul><li>European honey bee is the principal crop pollinator. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease, pests, and low honey prices have lead to: </li></ul><ul><li>50% decline in managed hives since 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>70-100% decline in feral colonies </li></ul>Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer Honey Bees
  8. 8. <ul><li>In recent years, a third or more of honey bee hives have been lost. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease/pathogen? </li></ul><ul><li>Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus? </li></ul><ul><li>New strain of Nosema ? </li></ul><ul><li>Pests? </li></ul><ul><li>Poor diet? </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides? </li></ul><ul><li>Stress? </li></ul>Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer Honey Bees: Colony Collapse Disorder
  9. 9. Photos: Mace Vaughan; Jeff Adams; Dana Ross; Bruce Newhouse Main Groups of Pollinators
  10. 10. Bees: The Most Important Pollinators Photo: Rollin Coville <ul><li>Collect and transport pollen </li></ul><ul><li>Forage in area around nest </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit flower constancy </li></ul>
  11. 11. North America: 4,000 species Native Bee Diversity Photo: Mace Vaughan
  12. 12. Photo: Stephen L. Buchmann Native Bee Diversity
  13. 13. Photos: James Cane; Steve Javorek (Ag Canada); Edward S. Ross Honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) Bumble bee ( Bombus edwardsii ) Leafcutter bee ( Megachile sp.) Polyester bee (Colletes sp) Native Bee Diversity
  14. 14. Photos: Bruce Newhouse; Edward S. Ross; Mace Vaughan; USDA-ARS/Jack Dykinga Metallic sweat bee ( Agapostemon sp.) Yellow-faced bee ( Hylaeus sp.) Mason bee ( Osmia sp.) Sweat bee ( Halictus sp.) Native Bee Diversity
  15. 15. Photos: Dennis Briggs Recognize Habitat: Solitary Bees Mining bee ( Andrena sp.); a year in its underground nest as egg, larva, and pupa before emerging to spend a few weeks as an adult.
  16. 16. Photo: Matthew Shepherd. Drawings: Stephen, Bohart, and Torchio, 1967 Pollinator Habitat: Ground Nesting <ul><li>Roughly 70% of native bee species nest underground. </li></ul><ul><li>Resemble ant-nests from above ground </li></ul><ul><li>Nest chambers are lined with waxy glandular secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve sandy soil, bare ground </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Approximately 30% of native species nest in hollow plant stems, or old beetle borer holes. </li></ul><ul><li>Nest tunnel partitions constructed of mud, leaf pieces, or sawdust </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve snags, brush piles </li></ul>Photos: Edward S. Ross; Mike Carter; Matthew Shepherd Pollinator Habitat: Tunnel Nesting
  18. 18. Photos: Elaine Evans <ul><li>North America has ~45 species of bumble bees . </li></ul><ul><li>Social colonies founded by a single queen </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies last only one season </li></ul><ul><li>Nest may contain 100-300 workers </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial production implicated in decline of wild bumble bees </li></ul>Pollinator Habitat: Bumble bees
  19. 19. Some native bees in decline: Four sister species of bumble bees Native Bees in Decline Yellowbanded Franklin’s Rusty patched Western Photos: Jodi DeLong; Peter L. Schroeder; Johanna James-Heinz; Derrick Ditchburn
  20. 20. Native Bees in Decline
  21. 21. Pollinator Conservation Provide floral resources. Provide for nesting sites. Avoid pesticides. Photo: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University;
  22. 22. Pollinator Habitat: Foraging Needs Photos: Elaine Haug/NRCS, Matthew Shepherd; Mace Vaughan, Eric Mader, Jeff McMillan/NRCS, Berry Botanic Garden
  23. 23. Pollinator Habitat: Nesting needs Photos: Matthew Shepherd; Eric Mader; Sydney A. Cameron Bumble bees (social) Tunnel-nesting bees (solitary) Ground-nesting bees (solitary)
  24. 24. Pollinator Habitat: Butterflies <ul><li>Butterflies need </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar hostplants </li></ul><ul><li>Safe place to pupate </li></ul><ul><li>Overwintering site </li></ul><ul><li>Nectar to drink as adults </li></ul>Photo: Dana Ross
  25. 25. <ul><li>Pesticide use causes significant damage to pollinator insect populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid using pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>If you do use pesticides: </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize their use </li></ul><ul><li>Read guidance carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Read How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>But be warned: even when bee caution labels are followed there is limited protection for many native bees </li></ul>Pollinator Habitat: Pesticides
  26. 26. Photo: Rollin Coville Opportunities for Public Gardens Education and outreach Demonstration sites Propagation of native plants Research
  27. 27. Building connections between pollinators and local food systems Master gardeners, native plant societies, urban planners, land managers, and agency staff Photo: Matthew Shepherd Opportunities: Education and Outreach
  28. 28. Opportunities: Demonstration Sites 4-6 blooming species for each season Clump plantings Warm-season bunch grasses At least 45% forbs Photo: Jessa Guisse
  29. 29. Photo: Eric Eldrige/NRCS Opportunities: Plant Propagation Focus on high-value species not currently commercially available Research and documentation of species with unknown propagation requirements Butterfly host plants Xerces/Monarch Joint Venture Milkweed Seed Increase Project
  30. 30. Photo: Logan Lauvray Opportunities: Research Plant-pollinator relationships Propagation requirements of rare species Restoration of habitats
  31. 31. <ul><li>Pollinator Conservation Resource Center </li></ul><ul><li>Region-specific information from Extension services, USDA, and other sources </li></ul><ul><li>Resources include </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Lists </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation Guides </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticide Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Xerces Society Resources
  32. 32. <ul><li>Native Plant Producer Directory: </li></ul><ul><li>For partnership info with Xerces, contact </li></ul>Xerces Society Resources
  33. 33. Xerces Society Resources
  34. 34. Speakers Pollinator scientists Photo: Paul Jepson Xerces Society Resources
  35. 35. <ul><li>Thanks to our funders: </li></ul><ul><li>Xerces Society members </li></ul><ul><li>BLM/Forest Service </li></ul><ul><li>Bullitt Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Columbia Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>CS Fund </li></ul><ul><li>Disney Wildlife Fund </li></ul><ul><li>EPA </li></ul><ul><li>Goldman Fund </li></ul><ul><li>CERES/Greater Milwaukie Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>New Land Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>NRCS </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Farming Research Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board </li></ul><ul><li>Oregon Zoo </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Panta Rhea Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Turner Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>USFWS </li></ul><ul><li>Whole Systems Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Wildwood Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>WSARE </li></ul>Thanks to our Funders Photo: Piotr Naskrecki

Editor's Notes

  • Pollinators are a “keystone” group of animals—they are an essential link in the food web upon which other animals depend. Fruits and seeds are important for a wide range of mammals, from voles to grizzly bears. Photos: bobwhite quail, grizzly bear, and “cactus bee”.
  • Pollinators are a “keystone” group of animals—they are an essential link in the food web upon which other animals depend. Fruits and seeds are important for a wide range of mammals, from voles to grizzly bears. Photos: bobwhite quail, grizzly bear, and “cactus bee”.
  • May not have noticed a shortage this year because of bees being shipped in from Australia.
  • We are familiar with Nosema apis (Fall/Winter), but new Nosema = N. ceranea (seems to hit in the summer and acts faster)
  • Beginning in the upper left hand corner is our non-native European honey bees, but our native bees come in a wide range of colors and sizes, here are some contrasting examples…
  • Note that bees are not always yellow with black stripes, but they are sometimes also metallic blue or green, and they come in sizes as small as a mosquito, such as these species on the left to…
  • About 30% of our native bees nest as solitary individuals in wood tunnels, usually hollow stems, or the abandoned beetle borer holes found in dead trees, or stumps.
  • Bumble bees are the only native social bees in the United States. They typically nest in existing cavities such as old rodent burrows and build abstract wax combs to hold small amounts of pollen, nectar, and developing brood.
  • Many of our native bees are also in decline. Of particular importance are members of the subgenus Bombus. This is a closely related group of “sister species” that range across the country. Once they accounted for some of the most common bees in their range, now they are nearly impossible to find, especially in agricultural areas.
  • For this reason, it is important that pollinator habitat contains a diversity of native plants that provide a succession of bloom throughout the growing season.
  • Our native bees can be divided into three broad categories: solitary ground-nesting, and wood or tunnel-nesting bees, and our one group of native social bees, the bumble bees.
  • Some organic-approved pesticides should be completely avoided wherever pollinators are a concern. Others are relatively safe, as long as they do not directly contact pollinators.
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