9/10 SAT 8:30 | Parking as a Smart Growth Strategy


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Ruth Steiner
Andres Blanco
Dawn Jourdan

Parking management strategies are used to address a variety of community planning goals including socio-economic vitality, community livability, transit system sustainability, and economic vitality. Yet transportation planners are increasingly concerned about the connection between parking supply/demand management
and pricing strategies and congestion management outcomes (e.g., delay reduction, capacity utilization, travel time reliability, transit performance, and green-house gas emissions).
With Miami and Ft. Lauderdale as case studies, this session explored the best practices in parking supply, demand, pricing, and land development regulation to understand options available to
planners to manage congestion, increase parking revenues and facilitate multimodal transportation planning.

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9/10 SAT 8:30 | Parking as a Smart Growth Strategy

  1. 1. Parking as a Smart Growth Strategy Ruth Steiner, Ph.D. Andres Blanco, Ph.D. Dawn Jourdan, esq., Ph.D.
  2. 2. Conventional Policy• Widen Roads • Widen Spaces• Add Lanes • Add Spaces• Free • Free• Cannot Build our way • Cannot continue to out of congestion on roads oversupply parking• Transport Demand • Parking Management Management
  3. 3. Why are we doing this? Congestion levels↑ in the Miami and Fort Lauderdale metropolitan statistical (MSA) area The average peak-period traveler in Miami MSA Aggregation of 146 million hrs of travel delay and 102 experienced an additional 47 hours extra in travel time million gallons of wasted fuel, a monetary cost of $2.95 and consumed an additional 33 gallons of fuel due to billion, up from a cost of $2.05 million in 1982 congestion. (TTI, 2007) FDOT District 4 and 6: To better understand the extent to which congestion management investments in Central Business Districts (CBDs) Delay of EconomicReduction Fort Lauderdale Miami Development Capacity Quality of Life & Utilization Sustainability Travel time GHG Reliability Transit Emissions Performance Parking should be a larger congestion management solution and other community objectives.
  4. 4. Task 1Task 2Task 3Task 4Task 5Task 6Task 7 A Study of the Impact of Parking Supply and Demand Management: Miami and Ft. Lauderdale CBDs
  5. 5. Methodology Field Survey: Parking Supply Pricing/ Rates Data Collection : Interview South Florida Agencies: Parking inventory Planning Departments Transit Agencies Parking Authorities Field Observation Private Parking Providers Public Officials Working with Practitioner Review: Literature Technical advisory Public Documents committee Peer Cities: Interview Review best practices
  6. 6. Study AreaImage Source: UF – URP Image Source: UF – URP
  7. 7. Parking Supply/DemandManagement Broward 2035 LRTP Project Traffic Congestion Parking pricing and management can impact  Cruising for parking  Under-pricing of travel costs Image Source: http://www.broward.org/mpo/2035lrtp/broward20 35lrtp_finalplan_web.pdf
  8. 8. Parking Supply/Demand Management TDM/TSM Strategy Miami Fort Lauderdale Park and Ride X X Shared Parking X X Bicycle Parking X X Reduce Parking Supply X X Pre-trip parking information X X Price Parking X X Lot-specific Information X XNavigation via Internet-connected Device Address Variable Demand Marketing, Education, Cooperation X X Commercial Parking Tax X Per-Space Tax Levies Commuter Benefits X X Residential Benefit Districts Reservation System X Multi-space Meters X X Pay-by-Phone System X X
  9. 9. Parking Information & Technology• Navigation through internet-connected devices• LED-Based Variable Message Signs• Lot Specific Information• How else can we improve user information?
  10. 10. Parking and TransitPerformance San Francisco – single agency for transit and parking management Provide options for various groups  Employees, Tourists/Visitors, Residents  Commuters are responsive to parking policies
  11. 11. Parking and TransitPerformance MDT MetroMover Transit Markets and other TDM Options Perception of Transit in South Image Source: http://www.miamidade.gov/transit/mover.asp Florida Tri- Rail Image Source: http://www.tri- rail.com/
  12. 12. Parking and Revenue Streams The objective of a parking authority:  Should not be revenue maximization  It is the provision of adequate and convenient parking  In addition, it must support transit and transportation policies
  13. 13. Parking and Revenue Streams In off-street parking, the objective is to recover costs and provide a reserve for future capital improvements through proper pricing.
  14. 14. Parking and Revenue Streams In on-street parking, the objective is to achieve 85% occupancy through variable pricing according to the demand.
  15. 15. Parking and Revenue Streams In terms of fines:  59% of revenue is not collected  Fines between twice to 5 times the average parking daily rate decrease violations but are politically acceptable  Allocating revenues from fines to parking authorities (instead to the general fund) can improve enforcement.
  16. 16. Parking and Revenue Streams More on revenue allocation:  Sharing revenue with neighborhood associations through „Parking Benefit Districts’ increase political acceptance, maximize revenue, and improve enforcement.  Municipal revenues could be maintained through „Parking Increment Finance Districts‟
  17. 17. Parking and Revenue Streams Taxes on Commercial Parking Providers:  Taxes can help to regulate the provision of parking preventing mismatches of supply and demand.  In addition, they can provide important revenues ($100 million in downtown Miami in the last 10 years)  Commercial operators tend to be more accepting if governments are already maximizing income from public parking facilities
  18. 18. Parking and Revenue Streams Decreasing un-priced parking supply, increases demand for priced parking:  Parking in lieu: developers pay a fee instead of providing the required spaces  Unbundling parking: developers sell parking spaces separated from residential units  Max caps: developers face a maximum of parking spaces
  19. 19. Parking and Revenue Streams New technologies for revenue collection could decrease the incidence of purposeful non- payment and reduce administration cost:  Pay-and-display meters  Pay-by-space meters  Personal in-vehicle meters  Pay-by-phone
  20. 20. Sustainable Land Use andTransportation Planning Land Use regulations have created “seas of empty parking spaces.”  So, we correct our regulations…. Regulations reformation may not be enough.  Lenders must be helped to understand that over-supply is not an asset.  Individual behavior must be modified so that consumers no longer demand storefront parking.
  21. 21. Stakeholder Verification Empirical reality v. perception  Driving question:  This is what our research has revealed about existing conditions, what do you think?  Thisis what we have identified as best practices. Would these tools work here? What are the barriers to implementation?
  22. 22. Information for parking policy Parking Inventory  Facility locations  Type of facility  Number of spaces (estimated and actual)  Operators  Hours of enforcement  Pricing Schemes
  23. 23. Information for parking policy Parking Inventory
  24. 24. Information for parking policy In terms of parking agencies  Parking agency financial budgets  Municipality budgets  Amount of parking taxes collected
  25. 25. Information for parking policy In terms of parking agencies
  26. 26. Information for parking policy Transit  Park and Ride lot characteristics  Locations and number of spaces  Usage percentages  Transit agency budget  Sources of funding  Routes  Pricing schemes  Description of services  Ridership counts  LOS  Bicycle facilities  List of relevant agencies
  27. 27. Information for parking policy Transit
  28. 28. Information for parking policy Land Use  Development regulations in different zones  Detailed analysis of land use regulatory documents
  29. 29. Information for parking policy Land Use
  30. 30. Questions?