APA Florida 2011 Conference<br />September 7-10 <br />Palm Beach<br />Water Policy Development in Florida<br />
Presentation Overview<br /><ul><li>Historical Water Policy Philosophy
How Ecosystem Impacts Led to </li></ul>  Policy Changes<br /><ul><li>Water Policy in Action
Everglades Restoration
Kissimmee River Restoration</li></li></ul><li>Historical Water Policy Philosophy<br />
The Everglades Ecosystem<br />
The “Original” Everglades Ecosystem<br /><ul><li>Water connected the system, from top to bottom
9 million acres of wetlands providing a variety of habitat
Diverse mosaic of landscapes and seascapes</li></ul>5<br />
Areas Flooded<br />in 1926 & 1928<br />Areas Flooded<br />in 1947<br />Historical ProblemsLeading to Construction of C&SF ...
  Hurricane in 1947     resulted in wide-spread     flooding throughout     South Florida
  State of Florida     requested Federal     assistance in 1947
  Congress authorized the     C&SF Project in 1948</li></ul>6<br />
Central & Southern Florida Project<br /><ul><li> 1,800 miles of   canals and levees
160 major drainage basins
Over 2,000 water control structures
200 major structures
36 pump stations</li></li></ul><li>C&SF Project Infrastructure<br />One of the world’s largest and most complex water reso...
Major Features of the C&SF Project<br /><ul><li>River Channelization
Herbert Hoover Dike
Water Conservation Areas
Protective Levees
Everglades Agricultural Area
Lower East Coast
Drainage Network
Salinity Structures</li></ul>9<br />
System Modifications<br />Historic<br />Flow<br />Current<br />Flow<br />10<br />
Loss of Everglades to Urban and Agricultural Development <br />11<br />
How Ecosystem Impacts Led to Policy Change<br />
An Ecosystem in Trouble<br /><ul><li>Too much or too little water for the South Florida ecosystem
1.7 billion gallons of water per day is lost to the ocean
Declining estuary health
Massive reductions in wading bird populations
Degradation of water quality
Loss of native habitat to invasive exotic vegetation
70 Federally-listed threatened and endangered species</li></ul>13<br />
Major Principles of Florida Water Law<br />Chapter 373, Florida Statute<br /><ul><li>Based new program on blend of eastern...
Certainty & Flexibility
Users must obtain a permit to have a right to use water in Florida</li></ul>Exclusive water management <br />   district a...
District Mission<br />Florida Water Resources Act of 1972 broadened the agency’s mission to include:<br /><ul><li>Water su...
  Water quality protection
  Environmental management
  Flood protection</li></li></ul><li>Regional Water Supply Planning  <br />Legislative Intent (ss. 373.016 and 0831, F.S.)...
Avoid competition for water supply</li></ul>Statutory Direction on Plan Formulation:<br /><ul><li>Required when sources no...
20-year planning horizon
Planning conducted in public process
Required contents
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09 fri 0930 emerging megatrends in water law and policy 2

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  • Designed for (1948) projected population of 2 million by 2000Current population in Project area is around 6 millionNo longer effectively meets environmental and water supply needs of regionCurrent (1995) projected population is 12-15 million by 2050
  • MFL’s, 1 in 10 LOC for environment and users, Plan formulation and look at all of these factors, the projects and operations, water shortage triggers were all adjusted to meet a 1 in 10 LOC for
  • It is no small trick to achieve sustainability of water resource in Florida because rainfall is so variable &amp;, especially with surface water sources like Lake Okeechobee. Must first appreciate the nature of resource to understand LOC &amp; then how statutory tools used to implement management strategies in differing resource conditions
  • In addition to consumptive use protectionsRestricted Allocation Area RulesEverglades/Loxahatchee Water BodiesLake Okeechobee Service AreaWater ReservationsCaloosahatchee River in progress Most water resources covered by one of these toolsIn some cases, more than one tool can apply to a water bodyWater Conservation Areas &amp; ENP: MFL and RWARSt Lucie River/Estuary: MFL and ReservationLake Okeechobee: MFL and LOWARNorth Fork of Loxahatchee River: MFL and RWAR
  • Minimum Flows and Levels identify point at which further withdrawals will cause “significant harm” to the water resources of the area.
  • Minimum Flows and Levels identifies the point at which further withdrawals will cause &quot;significant harm&quot; to the water resources or ecology of an areaLake Okeechobee, Everglades, Caloosahatchee Estuary are subject to recovery plans. Each water body for which an MFL is set has specific water resource functions and a recovery period that are defined in a technical support document for that water body. MFLs are set for surface waters and for aquifers. Prevention or recovery strategies are determined on whether the water body is above or below the mfl as required by 373.0361 FS, and these water supply development strategies can be found in the designated water supply plan.Significant Harm means the temporary loss of water resource functions, which result from a change in surface or ground water hydrology, that takes more than two years to recover, but which is considered less severe than serious harm….” (Chapter 40E-8.021(24), F.A.C.)Mention LOK recently transitioned from Prevention to Recovery due to USACE new LOK regulation schedule
  • 373.223(4) provides: “The governing board or the department, by regulation, may reserve from use by permit applicants, water in such locations and quantities, and for such seasons of the year, as in its judgment may be required for the protection of fish and wildlife or the public health and safety. Such reservations shall be subject to periodic review and revision in the light of changed conditions. However, all presently existing legal uses of water shall be protected so long as such use is not contrary to the public interest”Focus- Protection of Fish and WildlifeUnder what circumstance can a reservation be used?Aid in a recovery of prevention strategy for a water resource with an established minimum flow and levelAid in restoration of natural systems which provide fish and wildlife habitatProtect flow or levels that support fish and wildlife before harm occursProtect fish and wildlife within an Outstanding Florida Water, an Aquatic Preserve, a state park, or other publicly owned conservation lands with significant ecological valuePrevent withdrawals in any other circumstance required to protect fish and wildlife
  • As mentioned earlier, the legislature has found protection and restoration of specific natural areas to be in the public interest. The Governing Board can also make the determination of what constitutes the public interest (e.g., CFCA protection of groundwater resources from harm). In addition, the District has utilized the statutory authority to establish MFL recovery strategies as the basis for these types of rulemakings (e.g., MFL recovery strategy for the Everglades and Loxahatchee River). or can be interpreted by the Governing Board based on facts for a given situation where other types of rules may not be adequate
  • After six years of planning, engineering and conceptual level design, with an enormous amount of agency, stakeholder and public involvement, the Comprehensive Plan was completed and delivered to Congress on July 1, 1999.Congress approved the plan as a framework for Everglades restoration and conditionally authorized ten projects
  • MFL’s, 1 in 10 LOC for environment and users, Plan formulation and look at all of these factors, the projects and operations, water shortage triggers were all adjusted to meet a 1 in 10 LOC for
  • 09 fri 0930 emerging megatrends in water law and policy 2

    1. 1. APA Florida 2011 Conference<br />September 7-10 <br />Palm Beach<br />Water Policy Development in Florida<br />
    2. 2. Presentation Overview<br /><ul><li>Historical Water Policy Philosophy
    3. 3. How Ecosystem Impacts Led to </li></ul> Policy Changes<br /><ul><li>Water Policy in Action
    4. 4. Everglades Restoration
    5. 5. Kissimmee River Restoration</li></li></ul><li>Historical Water Policy Philosophy<br />
    6. 6. The Everglades Ecosystem<br />
    7. 7. The “Original” Everglades Ecosystem<br /><ul><li>Water connected the system, from top to bottom
    8. 8. 9 million acres of wetlands providing a variety of habitat
    9. 9. Diverse mosaic of landscapes and seascapes</li></ul>5<br />
    10. 10. Areas Flooded<br />in 1926 & 1928<br />Areas Flooded<br />in 1947<br />Historical ProblemsLeading to Construction of C&SF Project<br /><ul><li>Hurricanes in 1926 and 1928 resulted in failure of the levee around Lake Okeechobee
    11. 11. Hurricane in 1947 resulted in wide-spread flooding throughout South Florida
    12. 12. State of Florida requested Federal assistance in 1947
    13. 13. Congress authorized the C&SF Project in 1948</li></ul>6<br />
    14. 14. Central & Southern Florida Project<br /><ul><li> 1,800 miles of canals and levees
    15. 15. 160 major drainage basins
    16. 16. Over 2,000 water control structures
    17. 17. 200 major structures
    18. 18. 36 pump stations</li></li></ul><li>C&SF Project Infrastructure<br />One of the world’s largest and most complex water resource management systems<br />8<br />
    19. 19. Major Features of the C&SF Project<br /><ul><li>River Channelization
    20. 20. Herbert Hoover Dike
    21. 21. Water Conservation Areas
    22. 22. Protective Levees
    23. 23. Everglades Agricultural Area
    24. 24. Lower East Coast
    25. 25. Drainage Network
    26. 26. Salinity Structures</li></ul>9<br />
    27. 27. System Modifications<br />Historic<br />Flow<br />Current<br />Flow<br />10<br />
    28. 28. Loss of Everglades to Urban and Agricultural Development <br />11<br />
    29. 29. How Ecosystem Impacts Led to Policy Change<br />
    30. 30. An Ecosystem in Trouble<br /><ul><li>Too much or too little water for the South Florida ecosystem
    31. 31. 1.7 billion gallons of water per day is lost to the ocean
    32. 32. Declining estuary health
    33. 33. Massive reductions in wading bird populations
    34. 34. Degradation of water quality
    35. 35. Loss of native habitat to invasive exotic vegetation
    36. 36. 70 Federally-listed threatened and endangered species</li></ul>13<br />
    37. 37. Major Principles of Florida Water Law<br />Chapter 373, Florida Statute<br /><ul><li>Based new program on blend of eastern and western common law doctrines
    38. 38. Certainty & Flexibility
    39. 39. Users must obtain a permit to have a right to use water in Florida</li></ul>Exclusive water management <br /> district authority<br />No property right to water<br />Permits expire<br />
    40. 40. District Mission<br />Florida Water Resources Act of 1972 broadened the agency’s mission to include:<br /><ul><li>Water supply
    41. 41. Water quality protection
    42. 42. Environmental management
    43. 43. Flood protection</li></li></ul><li>Regional Water Supply Planning <br />Legislative Intent (ss. 373.016 and 0831, F.S.)<br /><ul><li>Sufficient water be available for all existing and future reasonable-beneficial uses and the natural system
    44. 44. Avoid competition for water supply</li></ul>Statutory Direction on Plan Formulation:<br /><ul><li>Required when sources not adequate to supply water for existing and future uses and sustain natural systems
    45. 45. 20-year planning horizon
    46. 46. Planning conducted in public process
    47. 47. Required contents
    48. 48. Section 373.0361, F.S.</li></li></ul><li>Physical Certainty – The Amount of the Allocation – “Just the Right Size Slice”<br />1 in 10 Level of Physical Certainty<br /><ul><li>Legislative Direction (Section 373.705, F.S.)
    49. 49. Balancing: reasonable allocation, no harm to environment, infrequent competition in drought </li></ul>District Implementation<br /><ul><li>Implemented in regional</li></ul> water supply plans<br /><ul><li>Consumptive Use Permit </li></ul> (CUP) rules (1 in 10)<br /><ul><li>Linked to: </li></ul>Water Shortage<br />Minimum Flows and Levels (MFLs)<br />Projects to develop water supply and water resources<br />
    50. 50. Implementation of the 2000 Regional Water Supply Plans <br /><ul><li>Adopted rules to implement plan based on performance measures
    51. 51. Consumptive use permit rules </li></ul>1 in 10 allocations<br />Wetlands, salt water intrusion, reservation, and regional water availability rule<br /><ul><li>Water shortage trigger rules
    52. 52. MFLs and recovery plans</li></li></ul><li>Overall Legislative Policy<br />Manage water resources to ensure sustainability<br />Various statutes establish the need to: <br /><ul><li>Protect and/or enhance the natural resource
    53. 53. Allow for development of water supply</li></ul>Numerous statutory authorizations or “tools” to manage water in varying conditions to achieve sustainability<br />
    54. 54. Comprehensive Solution Required<br />State and Federal government recognized the need for additional C&SF features<br />Additional water storage needed<br />Additional stormwater treatment needed to improve water quality<br />Improved timing of deliveries needed <br />Improve distribution by removal of point sources, levees, and canals<br />
    55. 55. C&SF Project Comprehensive Review Study <br />Study authorized by Congress in the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1992<br />Study was initiated in June 1993<br />Purpose of Study was to reexamine the C&SF Project to:<br /><ul><li> Restore South Florida ecosystem
    56. 56. Enhance water supplies
    57. 57. Maintain flood control</li></ul>21<br />
    58. 58. Water Policy in Action<br />
    59. 59. Area Specific Rules Protecting Water for the Natural System<br />Minimum Flows and Levels<br />Restricted Allocation Areas<br />Water Reservations<br />In addition, general consumptive use rules apply<br />
    60. 60. Minimum Flows and Levels – 373.042, 373.0421, F.S.<br />Protect water resource from further withdrawals that cause significant harm<br />Requirement to consider changes and structural alterations to the watershed when setting MFLs<br />Governing Board does not have to set MFL based on historic conditions where:<br /><ul><li>Water bodies do not serve historic hydrologic functions
    61. 61. Recovery to historic hydrologic functions is not economically or technically feasible</li></ul>Recovery and prevention strategies must provide for water supply to offset any reductions in permitted withdrawals<br />
    62. 62. Minimum Flows and Levels Water Bodies<br /><ul><li>MFL Prevention Water Bodies
    63. 63. Biscayne aquifer
    64. 64. Lower West Coast aquifers
    65. 65. North Fork of the St Lucie River
    66. 66. Lake Istokpoga
    67. 67. Northeastern Florida Bay</li></ul>MFL Recovery Water Bodies<br /><ul><li>Lake Okeechobee
    68. 68. Everglades
    69. 69. Caloosahatchee River
    70. 70. Northwest Fork of Loxahatchee River</li></li></ul><li>Water Reservation Rules<br />Authority: 373.223(4), F.S.<br />Set aside water for protection of fish and wildlife or for public health and safety<br />No harm standard<br />Existing legal uses protected, unless contrary to the public interest<br />
    71. 71. Water Reservation Waterbodies<br />Rules in place<br />Picayune Strand and Fakahatchee Estuary<br />North Fork of the St. Lucie River<br />Rules in development<br />Kissimmee Basin Chain of Lakes and River<br />Caloosahatchee Estuary<br />
    72. 72. What Does a Reservation Do?<br />Prevents new uses from accessing reserved water<br />Existing legal uses that are not contrary to the public interest are protected<br />
    73. 73. What a Reservation Doesn’t Do<br />Establish an operating regime by rule<br />Drought proof the natural system<br />Ensure the fish and wildlife goals are achieved<br />
    74. 74. Restricted Allocation Area Rules<br />Identifies specific geographic areas and/or canal conveyance systems from which allocations are restricted<br />Criteria for Permit Issuance - 373.223(1), F.S.<br /><ul><li>Reasonable-beneficial - "economic and efficient utilization"
    75. 75. Consistent with the public interest</li></li></ul><li>Restricted Allocation Areas<br />Everglades & Loxahatchee River watershed<br />Lower East Coast Service Area<br />Lake Okeechobee Service Area<br />Central Florida Coordination Area<br />C-23,C-24 & C25 Canal system<br />Lake Istokpoga /Indian Prairie Canal<br />
    76. 76. Summary of Tool Selection<br />Selection of tool (MFL, Reservation, RAA) dependent on:<br /><ul><li>Whether resource has existing protection
    77. 77. Level of protection sought for the resource
    78. 78. Level of scientific information available to support tool
    79. 79. Legal mandates for use of specific tool (e.g., CERP)
    80. 80. Spatial extent of area to be addressed</li></li></ul><li>Everglades Restoration<br />
    81. 81. Rescuing an Endangered Ecosystem:The Plan to Restore America’s Everglades<br />The Central and Southern Florida Project Comprehensive Review Study (The Restudy)<br />July 1999<br />Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan<br />On July 1, 1999, the Secretary of the Army and the State of Florida presented the Plan to Congress<br />Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan<br />34<br />
    82. 82. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan<br />Includes 68 components to be implemented over 35 years<br />Features include:<br />Aquifer Storage & Recovery<br />Surface Water Storage Reservoirs<br />Stormwater Treatment Areas<br />Seepage Management<br />Removing Barriers to Sheetflow<br />Operational Changes<br />Reuse Wastewater<br />
    83. 83. Plan to “Make Pie Bigger”<br />New Projects – “Make Pie Bigger” for both environment and users<br /><ul><li>Alternative water supply projects
    84. 84. CERP Projects </li></li></ul><li>WRDA-2000Assurance of Project Benefits<br />Requirements for reservation or allocationof water for the natural system include:<br /><ul><li>Execution of an agreement betweenPresident and Governor
    85. 85. Quantification of water for the natural systemin each project implementation report
    86. 86. Completion of rulemaking and verification beforesigning a Project Cooperation Agreement</li></ul>Savings Clause<br /><ul><li> No transfer or elimination of existing legal sources
    87. 87. No reduction in the level of service for flood protection</li></li></ul><li>Intervening Events<br />CERP schedules delayed from those in Plan<br /><ul><li>Federal funding</li></ul>LORS 2008 – Federal Action reduces Lake storage<br /><ul><li>Lake Okeechobee MFL projected to experience significant harm</li></ul>Consumptive use permit rules “cap” Lake uses<br /><ul><li>Permits renewed for 20 year duration</li></li></ul><li>Intervening event: LORS 2008 and Physical Level of Certainty<br />2000 Plan identified need for “bigger pie”<br />LORS 2008 shrinks the size of water supply pie<br />Less physical certainty for environment and users<br /><ul><li>1 in10 to 1 in 6 level of certainty</li></li></ul><li>Kissimmee River Restoration<br />
    88. 88. Kissimmee River ChannelizationUnintended Consequences<br />More than 30,000 acres of wetland habitat lost<br />More than 90% reduction in migratory waterfowl<br />Dramatic reduction in wading birds <br />Significant impact on sport fisheries – replaced by species that can tolerate low oxygen<br />
    89. 89. Kissimmee River Channelization(1962 to 1971)<br />Transformed the 103- mile natural, meandering river and floodplain<br />To a 56-mile straight, narrow and deep canal<br />
    90. 90. Kissimmee River Restoration Project<br />1994 - 2014<br />Acquire 102,000 acres of historical river floodplain <br />Nearly complete; $300 million invested<br />Remove 2 large water control structures<br />1 structure removed<br />Backfill 22 miles of canal<br />65% complete<br />Recarve 9 miles of remnant river channel <br /> 60% complete<br />Rehydrate 25,000 acres of river floodplain<br />60% complete<br />
    91. 91. Kissimmee River RestorationCanal Backfilling Progress <br />Backfilled <br />C-38<br />Canal<br />Degraded <br />Spoil <br />Area<br />Remnant<br />River <br />Channel<br />14 miles of C-38 Canal backfilled<br />24 miles of continuous river channel restored<br />Approximately 15,000 acres of floodplain habitat restored<br />Remnant<br />River <br />Channel<br />New River <br />Connection<br />
    92. 92. Kissimmee River RestorationResponse: Floodplain Vegetation<br />Pre-restoration<br />Post-restoration<br />
    93. 93. Kissimmee River RestorationResponse: River Channel Vegetation<br />Pre-restoration<br />Post-restoration<br />
    94. 94. Questions?<br />

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