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9/8 THUR 16:00 | Educating the Sustainability Planner 1


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Christopher Silver

This session draws upon the teaching, research and consulting experiences in sustainability drawn the perspectives of an architect, planning lawyer and an international planner. Through a series of case studies, it explores how the global community
is undertaking legal, regulatory and other measures to realize sustainable urbanism, promote sustainability in various parts
of the world, and how these efforts can influence the work of Florida planners. This comparative perspective not only provides a source for innovation in practice, but can also serve as
a measure of success locally in the face of the global challenges faced by the sustainable urbanism movement.

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9/8 THUR 16:00 | Educating the Sustainability Planner 1

  1. 1. Greening Planning Education: Lessons from International Experience<br />Christopher Silver, FAICP<br />Dean and Professor<br />College of Design, Construction and Planning <br />University of Florida<br />September 8, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Key Points<br />Pervasiveness of “greening” and “sustainability” in contemporary discourse<br />Disconnect between the rhetoric of “greening” and “sustainability” and current planning education and planning practices in US<br />Efforts in other parts of the world to more closely link “sustainability” education and “sustainability in practice”<br />Discovery of this through a new and still trial program at UF, Masters of Sustainable Design<br />Also, forthcoming online Masters of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning with a concentration in Sustainability<br />How should we approach sustainability education for planners so that it represents a fundamentally different practice<br />
  3. 3. The Buzz and the Reality <br />Buzz<br />Sustainability is one of the hot topics in business, in development, in public discourse, in higher education – it is everywhere<br />Significant array of public programs to implement green agenda, especially in US, Europe and parts of Asia and Latin America<br />Private sector and governments at all levels are embracing and advancing it<br />
  4. 4. The Buzz and the Reality<br />Reality<br />Renewable energy sources accounted for only18% of global electric production in 2009<br />Yet, less than 10% of all energy produced in US is from renewable sources, such as hydro (7%), wind (1%), solar (less than 1%), Geothermal (less than 1%), Biomass (2%)<br />Carbon production not slowing<br />Current patterns of urbanization and development run counter to sustainability<br />Global ecological crises connected to poor planning and climate change<br />According to economist Paul Krugman, developed world needs market-based approach to deal with climate change, one that limits carbon emission by putting a price on them<br />Urbanization is the great challenge<br />
  5. 5. Preparing Planners for Sustainability<br />Development of new educational programs to prepare professionals for sustainability<br />Widely varied approaches reflects the widely varied interpretations of sustainability<br />The term “sustainable development” means everything and nothing” – Feiden and Hamin (2011)<br />
  6. 6. Inventory of Sustainability Programs<br />Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education<br />11 MA programs (Urban Sustainability, Cultural Sustainability, Sustainable Communities, Design for Sustainability, Global Sustainability, etc.)<br />17 MS Programs (several in business field, several just in Sustainability, several in environmental studies, and one MS in Regenerative Studies at California State Polytechnic, Pomoma:<br />Regenerative studies is a unique descriptor for the interdisciplinary field of inquiry concerned with a sustainable future. While closely aligned with environmental, economic and social sustainability projects, regenerative studies places emphasis on the development of community support systems which are capable of being restored, renewed, revitalized or regenerated through the integration of natural processes, community action and human behavior. It is argued that the development of regenerative systems is the most promising method for ensuring a sustainable future - not merely conserving critical natural resources, but even enhancing them over time.<br />
  7. 7. Inventory of Sustainability Programs<br />12 specialized MS degrees (many in business but run the gamut from Architecture to Sustainable Development)<br />MS programs range from management, business, education, engineering, environmental management, industrial ecology, and sustainable systems<br />Includes three from Europe at Leiden, Delft and Erasmus, all in the Netherlands<br />Others in Germany and Italy<br />
  8. 8. Where is Sustainability Education for Planners?<br />
  9. 9. International Greening Education Event<br />“Educating for Sustainability,” sponsored by Etechand Hamburg U. of Applied Sciences, and University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy (with financial support from the European Union<br />To be held this October in the green city of Karlsruhe, Germany<br />Theme of gathering: “Are educational institutions preparing themselves effectively and sufficiently to respond to the fast changing global scenario? What needs to be done to make sustainability an integral part of teaching and learning, and not just consciousness awakening”<br />IS THE APPROPRIATE TO SUSTAINABILITY EDUCATION LIMITED LARGE TO CONSCIOUSNESS AWAKENING??<br />
  10. 10. Conditions for a Sustainability Curriculum for Planners<br />Greening existing courses<br />Addressing green agenda and sustainability at multiple scales, namely the building, the neighborhood/community, the district, city metropolitan and regional levels<br />Case studies of best practice drawn from international examples<br />Basic reconstituting of legal and foundational practices to ensure that they yield sustainability outcomes<br />As with the building of modern planning practice, new approaches need to be sanctioned through legal scrutiny and based upon foundation principles of health, safety and welfare<br />Ecologizing the curriculum – Paul Hawkens “The first rule of sustainability is to align with natural forces, or at least not try to defy them.”<br />
  11. 11. Ecological Design<br />Van derRyn & Cowan 1996:<br /><ul><li>“design …the intentional shaping of matter, energy, and process to meet a perceived need or desire…a hinge that inevitably connects culture and nature through exchanges of materials, flows of energy and choices of land use.”
  12. 12. “any form of design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts by integrating itself with living processes”</li></li></ul><li>David Orr 1992:<br /><ul><li>“two versions of sustainability
  13. 13. technological sustainability and
  14. 14. ecological sustainability
  15. 15. necessary parts of a sustainable world”</li></ul>Club of Rome’s Limits to Growth<br />Herman Kahn<br />
  16. 16. The Sustainable Blueprint contains the strategies and initiatives we believe are needed for Singapore to achieve both economic growth and a good living environment over the next two decades. <br />The government will, actively and imaginatively, draw up policies, regulations and incentives to promote this. However, for us to succeed, our business leaders, our community leaders and our people, have to share a common vision, and work together to bring about changes needed in our households, our communities, our businesses and our country. <br />Ultimately, Singapore will be our best home if each one of us has contributed to its development, and together shaped a sustainable city that reflects our shared aspirations and our values as a society. <br />
  17. 17. Models of Sustainability Education<br />University of Nottingham, UK, Department of Architecture and Built Environment (within the Faculty of Engineering)<br />MSc in Sustainable Building Design<br />Oriented to individual building scale but with some attention to other site factors – incorporates technology/ecology<br />Curriculum addresses:<br />bioclimatic design<br />urban design<br />renewable energy technologies and solutions<br />energy efficient services and systems<br />computer modeling and simulation<br />total building performance solutions<br />
  18. 18. Model of Sustainability Education<br />MSc Sustainable Building Design offered in collaboration with the Building Construction Authority, Singapore <br />Not currently offered in UK; has a campus in Malaysia<br />Other offerings in UK by University of Nottingham<br />March in Sustainable Tall Buildings<br />MSc in Sustainable Building Technology<br />MSc in Sustainable Energy and Entrepeneurship<br />MSc in Renewable Energy and Architecture<br />MSc in Energy Conservation and Management<br />
  19. 19. National University of Singapore<br />
  20. 20. UF Master of Sustainable Design<br />Done in collaboration with the Center for American Education, Singapore<br />Much more multi-disciplinary than the Nottingham program<br />Deals with sustainability issues at the building, neighborhood, metropolitan and regional scales<br />Covers both regreening existing urban fabric as well as creating new sustainable urban fabric<br />Grounded in ecological concepts and values<br />
  21. 21. UF Master of Sustainable Design Curriculum<br />Program and Course Structure<br />Semester 1 12 CR<br />International Sustainable Development 4 CR<br />Sustainable Design Problem Solving 4 CR<br />Ecological Issues in Sustainability 4 CR<br />Semester 2 12 CR<br />Design Studio in Sustainability 6 CR<br />Comparative Law and Policy for Sustainability 3 CR<br />Greening Existing Buildings 2 CR<br />Capstone Project Proposal Development 1 CR<br />Semester 3 12 CR<br />Sustainability Capstone Project 6 CR<br />Electives in Sustainable Design 4 CR<br />Cases of Sustainability in Practice (study tour in US) 2 CR<br />TOTAL 36 CR<br />
  22. 22. How Do We Recast Planning Education to Promote Sustainability?<br />Ecological economics<br />Ecological systems<br />Ecological design<br />
  23. 23. Purview of Environmental Macroeconomics or <br />Ecological Economics<br />Closed System<br />
  24. 24. Ecosystem Services from Costanza et al, Science 1997<br />Ecosystem serviceExamples<br />Gas regulation CO2/O2balance<br />Climate regulation greenhouse gas regulation<br />Disturbance regulation storm protection/flood control<br />Water regulation provisioning of water for ag/industry<br />Water supply Provisioning of water by watersheds and aquifers, “drinking water”<br />Erosion control/sediment retention prevention of soil loss<br />Soil formation weathering of rock<br />
  25. 25. Ecosystem serviceExamples<br />Nutrient cycling N, P and other cycles<br />Waste treatment pollution control/detoxification<br />Pollination pollinators for plant reproduction<br />Biological control predator/prey equilibria<br />Refugiahabitat for plant & animal species<br />Food Production fish, game, crops<br />Raw materials lumber, fuel, fodder<br />Genetic resources sources of medicines, food crops, biodiversity<br />Recreation ecotourism, outdoor recreation<br />Cultural aesthetic, artistic, spiritual<br />
  26. 26. Sustainable Design is more than Green Design<br />Dan Williams, 2007:<br /><ul><li>“Green design is an element of sustainable design. Green buildings that efficiently use …non-renewable energy slow the …. crisis, but if the energy sources ….are unsustainable, the design is not sustainable”
  27. 27. “Sustainable design differs from green design in that it includes continuing, surviving, thriving and adapting.”</li></li></ul><li>3 Strategies from Van derRyn and Cowan<br /><ul><li>Conservation
  28. 28. Regeneration
  29. 29. Stewardship</li></ul>Degree of<br />Difficulty<br />
  30. 30. Conservation<br />slows the rate of resource depletion:<br /><ul><li>recycling materials
  31. 31. building denser communities to preserve agricultural land
  32. 32. adopting energy efficient mechanical systems including transportation </li></li></ul><li>Regeneration<br />Regeneration of living tissue:<br /><ul><li>restoring an eroded stream
  33. 33. re-creating habitat</li></li></ul><li>Stewardship<br /> maintains natural capital by spending frugally and investing wisely<br />
  34. 34. Ecological Principles for Sustainable Planning<br />Solutions grow from place<br />Ecological accounting informs design<br />Design with nature<br />Everyone is a designer<br />Make nature visible <br />
  35. 35. Your comments<br />How do we ensure that planning education will yield professionals capable of advancing sustainable development?<br />
  36. 36. Dawn Jourdan, esq., Ph.D.<br />Assistant Professor, Urban Planning and Law<br />University of Florida<br />Sustainability and the Law<br />
  37. 37. What is the role of law in sustainable development?<br />
  38. 38. Emerging Area of the Law<br />Environmental and natural resources law are foundational.<br />
  39. 39. Existing environmental laws…<br />Fail to address the “gamut of sustainability challenges” (Dernbach, 2011).<br />
  40. 40. Existing environmental laws…<br />Are typically focused on preserving the quality/quantity of resources.<br />
  41. 41. Existing environmental laws…<br />Do not deal with cumulative impacts of unsustainable development practices.<br />
  42. 42. Sustainable Development Laws are emerging!!!<br />
  43. 43. Sustainable Development Laws…<br />Are evidence and performance based.<br />
  44. 44. Sustainable Development Laws..<br />Focus on reducing the ecological footprint of a city, region, or nation by<br />Reducing consumption and<br />Waste.<br />
  45. 45. Sustainable Development Laws…<br />Reduce greenhouse gas emissions.<br />
  46. 46. Sustainable Development Laws…<br />Encourage green building.<br />
  47. 47. Sustainable Development Laws…<br />Cautiously embrace technological substitutes for energy production.<br />
  48. 48. Sustainable Development Laws…<br />Seek to minimize risk.<br />
  49. 49. Sustainable Development Laws…<br />Relocates development from hazard-prone areas.<br />
  50. 50. Sustainable Development Laws…<br />Promote the efficient use of land and other natural resources.<br />
  51. 51. Sustainable Development Laws…<br />Extend beyond jurisdictional boundaries.<br />
  52. 52. Sustainable Development Laws…<br />Create employment opportunities in environmental protection and restoration.<br />
  53. 53. Sustainable Development Laws…<br />Do not discount issues relating population growth.<br />
  54. 54. Sustainable Development Laws…<br />Are built on the principles of environmental justice and intergenerational equity.<br />